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Water is an important natural resource which needs constant quality monitoring for ensuring its safe use. Traditionally, the water quality detection has been carried out manually wherein the water samples are collected and taken to the laboratories for analysis. Since these methods fail to deliver real time data, we propose a river water quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor network which helps in continuous and remote monitoring of the water quality data in India. The system architecture is based on hierarchical topology in which the monitoring scenario is divided into four general areas; each forming a cluster comprising of several wireless sensor nodes responsible for sensing, data collection & processing and communication. The wireless sensor node in the system is designed for monitoring three of the main parameters that affect the quality of water, i.e. pH, conductivity and temperature of water. The proposed sensor node design mainly comprises of a signal conditioning module,processing module which is implemented using PIC microcontroller and wireless communication module consisting of Zigbee radio. So the sensed parameter values will be wirelessly transmitted in real time to the base station using Zigbee communication after the required signal conditioning and processing techniques. This system provides an energy efficient and low cost sensor unit for monitoring water quality through the use of inexpensive, low power devices for the hardware design.
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