Publications

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2019

Patent

Mohammad Reza Haddadi and Kamal Bijlani, “Optical Polling Platform Detection System”, U.S. Patent US16/244,9382019.[Abstract]


A method and system for an optical polling platform is provided. An optical polling server system receives an image of one or more augmented reality (AR) tag markers associated with a poll. Each AR tag marker is encoded with data, which includes at least a user identifier and a polling option. The system processes the image to identify the one or more AR tag markers in the captured image and detects edges in the image by traversing vertically along image columns. The system identifies potential AR tag markers from final edges based on contrast in pixels of the detected first set of edges and associated neighboring pixels. The AR tag markers are identified from the identified potential AR tag markers by sampling bit areas. Further, the system decodes the one or more AR tag markers to determine user identifier and polling option selected by the user identifier.

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2017

Patent

A. Sankaranarayanan and Kamal Bijlani, “Systems and Methods for Yaw Estimation”, U.S. Patent US 14/728,7952017.[Abstract]


Systems and methods of automatic detection of a facial feature are disclosed. Moreover, methods and systems of yaw estimation of a human head based on a geometrical model are also disclosed.

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2017

Patent

Dr. Athinarayanan S. and Kamal Bijlani, “Systems and Methods for Yaw Estimation”, 2017.[Abstract]


Systems and methods of automatic detection of a facial feature are disclosed. Moreover, methods and systems of yaw estimation of a human head based on a geometrical model are also disclosed.

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2014

Patent

Dr. Athinarayanan S. and Kamal Bijlani, “Systems and Methods for Yaw Estimation”, U.S. Patent 2698/CHE/20142014.

2012

Patent

Kamal Bijlani and P. Venkat Rangan, “Interactive Learning Network”, U.S. Patent 13/168, 357, 13/408,0602012.[Abstract]


A system for providing network-based interactive learning including at least one network-connected passive server and at least one network-connected active server, each executing software from a non-transitory physical medium. The passive server provides a log-in function providing log-in for a student for a specific learning session, a provisioning function downloading reference materials for the particular learning session to the student's appliance after log-in, and a switch function connecting the student's appliance to the at least one active server after the reference material is downloaded. The active server provides control of the specific learning session by managing communication between a presenter and individual logged-in students, and by transmitting control messages to the student's appliances, the control messages initiated by activity of the presenter, and by causing display of individual portions of the reference materials downloaded to the student's appliances by the at least one passive server after log-in.

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2011

Patent

Kamal Bijlani and P. Venkat Rangan, “Method to Provide Real Time Collaborative Virtual Interactive E-Learning Environment”, U.S. Patent 1810/CHE/20112011.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Conference Paper

S. Narayanan, Saj, F. M., Kamal Bijlani, and Rajan, S. P., “Automatic Assessment Item Bank Calibration for Learning Gap Identification”, in 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2018, 2018.[Abstract]


The benefit of assessments (formative or summative) is fully realized when they result in accurate identification of learning gaps. AMrita Personalized Learning and Evaluation (AMPLE) platform adopts a unified approach to pinpoint learning gaps by integrating student performance data from paper-and-pen assessments and computerized adaptive tests. In order to aid the estimation of learning gaps, we have also developed a calibration technique for automatic assignment of difficulty levels to assessment items. This calibration technique uses statistical features derived from student performance data and a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to effectively identify difficulty levels of assessment items. We also show our verification of this model using a diverse data set of student assessments spread over six subjects and 6000 students. Our model achieved about 91% accuracy by comparing the model-generated output with teacher-supplied difficulty levels. By auto-calibrating the assessment items, we pave the way for accurate learning gap analysis, obviating significant efforts from the teacher.

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2018

Conference Paper

S. Narayanan, Saj, F. M., Soumya, M. D., and Kamal Bijlani, “Predicting Assessment Item Difficulty Levels Using a Gaussian Mixture Model”, in 2018 International Conference on Data Science and Engineering, ICDSE 2018, 2018.[Abstract]


The difficulty level of an assessment item plays an important role in ensuring well qualified evaluation process as well as helping in the generation of appropriate assessments for personalized learning. AMrita Personalized Learning and Evaluation (AMPLE) platform adopts an automatic calibration methodology using Gaussian Mixture Models for difficulty level assignment. This methodology uses performance features derived from the test-takers responses recorded in the assessment engine. Verification of this model, carried out on a diverse data set of assessment items spread over six subjects and 6000 students achieved about 91% accuracy by comparing the model-generated output with teacher-supplied difficulty levels.

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2018

Conference Paper

R. A. Kumar, Soman, T. S., Narayanan, S., and Kamal Bijlani, “Hybrid Architectures for Large-Scale Blended Classrooms: A Case Study”, in 2018 9th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2018, 2018.[Abstract]


Blended Classrooms (BC) have become popular in the milieu of higher education in India with several Indian Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) initiatives adopting this format as well. The size of BC participants is growing at a much rapid pace, of the order of several hundred, to even a few thousand students. Numerous challenges need to be reckoned with in the design of interactive virtual classrooms (VCs) for such large-scale BCs: network bandwidth, server scalability, reliable access to Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) platforms. This paper presents a hybrid terrestrial-satellite multicast internet architecture to address some of these challenges developed under the aegis of Amrita Virtual Interactive e-Learning World's (A-VIEW) BC research. A-VIEW service integrates terrestrial Internet Protocol (IP) networks and satellite networks using overlay multicast network architecture, to ensure reliable experience. The bandwidth-sensitive multicast framework fosters server scalability. The wider reachability and consistent in-class experience of the proposed architecture were validated in several real-world VC trials.

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2018

Conference Paper

G. Jacob, Jayakrishnan, R., Kamal Bijlani, J.R., M., S.C., S., and V., B., “Smart Fire Safety: Serious Game for Fire Safety Awareness”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2018, vol. 701, pp. 39-47.[Abstract]


Serious game is used as an educational tool to teach about some complex actions in the real world. Serious game helps to visualize different situations which the learner has not experienced in real life. Fire accidents are occurring generally due to careless handling of flammable substances. From the analysis of experiments, we understood that most of the people did not get any training on fire and safety. The objective of this study is to give proper guidance and training to handle fire. This can be implemented through a serious game with some alert messages. This paper proposes to create awareness about fire risks that can happen in different scenarios through a serious game. This game focuses on common people. This game will provide an experience to the player.

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2018

Conference Paper

N. S. Subramanian, Narayanan, S., Soumya, M. D., Jayakumar, N., Kamal Bijlani, V., B., S.C., S., and J.R., M., “Using Aadhaar for Continuous Test-taker Presence Verification in Online Exams”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2018, vol. 701, pp. 11-19.[Abstract]


In the context of Indian higher education, deployment of online exams for summative assessments is hampered by the lack of a reliable e-assessment system that can guarantee high degree of examination integrity. Current methods for maintaining integrity of online exams largely depend on proctor-based invigilation. This cumbersome method does not fully prevent test-taker impersonation. We propose leveraging the Aadhaar biometric data to verify the presence of the test-taker throughout the entire duration of the examination. Such a continuous presence verification technique is likely to be far more successful in preventing impersonation than the conventional methods. Our method can help eventually eliminate the need for a remote proctor. We identify a set of strategies to systematically validate the effectiveness of the proposed system

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2018

Conference Paper

J. Jesna, Narayanan, A. S., and Kamal Bijlani, “Automatic Hand Raise Detection by Analyzing the Edge Structures”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, Singapore, 2018.[Abstract]


Modern education is now concentrated on E-learning, possible of learners being in virtual classroom and geographically distributed. Interactivity is the important part of design of such learning management systems. Better designs will reduce the isolation feeling among the tutors and students because they are at different areas in E-learningE-Learning. Hand raise is a typical interaction that can happen in a real classroom. So this paper aims to design an automatic system that can detect the hand raise in E-learning classroom and these will keep the synchronization of classroom much better. The proposed method detects the hand raise by analyzing the edge structures of hand. The system will first find out the region of interest of each student in the classroom and find the edges from the skin-colored region of ROIROIof each student. Finally by doing some morphological operations find out the hand-raised regions. Without using any classification or object detection complex methods the proposed method detects the hand raise in lesser time with 91% accuracy.

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2017

Conference Paper

S. Anand, Kamal Bijlani, Suresh, S., and Praphul, P., “Attendance Monitoring in Classroom Using Smartphone & Wi-Fi Fingerprinting”, in Proceedings - IEEE 8th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2016, 2017, pp. 62-67.[Abstract]


Academic performance is directly affected by student attendance during the lecture hours. There are existing manual and automated attendance tracking systems that work to ensure that students attend the lectures without fail. However, the practical implementation of most automated systems have drawbacks such as high monetary cost, the need to install specialized hardware, and proneness to fake or proxy attendance. To address this, we propose a novel attendance marking system with which students may mark attendance using their smartphones. While applying facial recognition via the smartphone's front camera to determine the student's identity, the system also makes use of the campus Wi-Fi network to determine the student's location. The proposed system does not require high monetary cost or specialized hardware and yet incorporates adequate foolproof measures to counter fake or proxy attendance. Experimental studies with our system show that fingerprinting, which is the technique used here to determine indoor location, can achieve very good positioning accuracy even in classroom environments, where signal interference is usually very high.

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2017

Conference Paper

M. Srilekshmi, Sindhumol, S., Chatterjee, S., Kamal Bijlani, Kinshuk,, and S., M., “Learning Analytics to Identify Students At-risk in MOOCs”, in Proceedings - IEEE 8th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2016, 2017, pp. 194-199.[Abstract]


MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have revolutionized the way we learn. But a major challenge faced by MOOCs is the high dropout rates among students at various stages of the course. It is important to identify the students at risk in terms of those who are likely to drop out at some stage of the course and those who might not meet the required passing criteria. In this paper, a model is proposed to identify learners who are at risk in an online course using association analysis which is done with dataset of students who have taken the course previously. Identifying such learners who are at risk and providing them real time feedback would help the students to be more aware of their current performance and to improve upon it. Several experiments were conducted to test the performance of the proposed work and the results show that the proposed model identifies 90% of the learners who are at risk. Out of 4,74,977 students, 4,32,502 were identified as at risk students based on the experimental analysis.

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2017

Conference Paper

A. K. George, McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “A Novel Approach for Training Crane Operators: Serious Game on Crane Simulator”, in Proceedings - IEEE 8th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2016, 2017, pp. 116-119.[Abstract]


Any large scale construction related activity generally requires the use of cranes. A crane operator must be appropriately skilled to avoid any mishap at the construction site. This can be accomplished by training crane operators on all the safety procedures and methods of crane operation to be practiced. In this paper we explore a method whereby anyone who is being trained as a crane operator, must first learn all the operational procedures and safety norms by playing a simulation of operating a crane in a serious game. Once the user successfully completes the different levels of this serious game, he can then 'graduate' to operate an actual crane. Serious games are proven method of cost effective and risk free simulated environments where a player can learn all the nuances of any simulated activity, herein operating a crane. We implemented a learning methodology, Gagne's 9 Events of Learning, in order to ensure the player develops a high level of understanding. We used an actual crane as a reference model (Ace14XW) for this game. We surveyed several crane operators and found that this crane model game enhanced their knowledge of handling and precautionary measures. The users also reported an increased confidence level while operating a real crane.

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PDF iconnovel-approach-training-crane-operators-serious-game-crane-simulator.pdf

2017

Conference Paper

V. Rengaraj and Kamal Bijlani, “A study and Implementation of Smart ID Card with M-Learning and Child Security”, in Proceedings of the 2016 2nd International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Computing and Communication Technology, iCATccT 2016, 2017, pp. 305-311.[Abstract]


Among the Organized crime, Human trafficking hold third place where as the first and second or drug and weapon trade across the globe. Human trafficking is a shame on Humanity. As per the report of Human Rights commission of India over 40,000 children are reported missing every year of which 11000 are untraced [1][2]. Another statics report saying 80% of human trafficking is done for sexual exploitation and rest is for bonded labors [2]. Sex traffickers often find pray as children because not only children are vulnerable than adults, but there is a high market demand for young victims. Traffickers target victims most often after school programs. It is a painful truth that India is considered as a hub for Human trafficking in Asia [2]. Even though it is difficult to eradicate the shame on human society, Here is a small initiative to reduce child trafficking by providing a child safety system.

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2017

Conference Paper

S. Narayanan, Kommuri, V. S., Subramanian, N. S., Kamal Bijlani, Nair, N. C., and , “Unsupervised Learning of Question Difficulty Levels using Assessment Responses”, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2017, vol. 10404 LNCS, pp. 543-552.[Abstract]


Question Difficulty Level is an important factor in determining assessment outcome. Accurate mapping of the difficulty levels in question banks offers a wide range of benefits apart from higher assessment quality: improved personalized learning, adaptive testing, automated question generation, and cheating detection. Adopting unsupervised machine learning techniques, we propose an efficient method derived from assessment responses to enhance consistency and accuracy in the assignment of question difficulty levels. We show effective feature extraction is achieved by partitioning test takers based on their test-scores. We validate our model using a large dataset collected from a two thousand student university-level proctored assessment. Preliminary results show our model is effective, achieving mean accuracy of 84% using instructor validation. We also show the model’s effectiveness in flagging mis-calibrated questions. Our approach can easily be adapted for a wide range of applications in e-learning and e-assessments.

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2017

Conference Paper

S. K. Babu, McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Collaborative Game Based Learning of Post-Disaster Management: Serious Game on Incident Management Frameworks for Post Disaster Management”, in Proceedings - IEEE 8th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2016, 2017.[Abstract]


In the face of technological advancements, serious games are becoming more widely recognized as effective educational tools. This paper presents a serious game that teaches a complex subject in a simplified and easy to understand manner-Communication and collaboration during post-disaster operations. The game is multiplayer where each player works through a simulated disaster using an incident management systematic framework that highlights the importance of communication and collaboration. To achieve this, we introduce a unique live audio/video communication system where the players interact with each other to solve problems in a realistic scenario. The game also provides basic training for Rapid Damage Assessments and Incident Command System, two strategies used to carry out post disaster management. The game was piloted to a focus group consisting of students and faculty from Amrita University. Results from the surveys showed the game and proposed frameworks were very effective in providing the players with basic knowledge of post disaster management operations. The need of using such training methods is very much necessary since it will help the disaster response activities to be faster and easier. © 2016 IEEE.

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2017

Conference Paper

M. D. Soumya, Sugathan, T., and Kamal Bijlani, “Improve Student Placement using Job Competency Modeling and Personalized Feedback”, in 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


Identifying students' eligibility for a specific job is crucial even before commencement of the Job? Placement process. In this study, a tailored method has been proposed to generate a personalized job competency profile. First, the domain competencies are identified for a specific job. Secondly, the job competency score is calculated based on students' past performances, pertinent to the relevant domain competencies. Students with low scores can review their results with the personalized feedback. This should help student improve his/her skill in the required area to attempt the domain tests. With this improved scores, the students become eligible to participate in the placement process for a specific job. The domain tests will provide the score for each concept and the student can identify the gaps in their knowledge.

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2017

Conference Paper

S. Narayanan, Kommuri, V. S., Subramanian, S. N., and Kamal Bijlani, “Question Bank Calibration using Unsupervised Learning of Assessment Performance Metrics”, in 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


In traditional e-assessments as well as in personalized learning, question bank calibration plays an important role in ensuring high-quality assessment outcomes. We propose an unsupervised learning approach that uses performance metrics derived from test-taker responses for precise calibration of question banks. We show partitioning test-takers into three groups using their scores is an effective feature extraction method. This approach, enables us to accurately capture performance variations in test-taker sub-groups thereby effectively capturing inter-item correlations. Integration of such a Machine Learning (ML) approach into the Question Bank module of a cloudbased e-assessment system enables seamless automatic question calibration. We validate the effectiveness of our approach, using a large dataset, collected from a two thousand student universitylevel proctored assessment.

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2017

Conference Paper

N. Joseph, Pradeesh, N., Chatterjee, S., and Kamal Bijlani, “A Novel Approach for Group Formation in Collaborative Learning using Learner Preferences”, in 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


Collaborative learning is widely accepted as an approach to promote learning effectiveness and student satisfaction. However, the quality and outcomes of collaboration depend upon a number of factors, among which group formation plays an important role. Existing approaches take into account groups formed through random assignment or based on certain criteria such as academic performance, demographic features, and communication skills. This paper proposes an approach where preferences of learners in terms of the composition of the group to which they would like to belong are taken into account. Machine learning algorithm (K-Means) is applied to cluster large learner groups and to analyze their preferences. Further, prior knowledge and communication skills of learners are likely to influence effectiveness of collaborative learning. Therefore, these two factors are considered in addition to learner preferences. Initially, groups are formed using learner preferences. Then an attempt is made to include learners with good academic performance and communication skills in each group. Results from this study shows that the proposed approach for group formation enhances learner satisfaction in collaborative learning, which is likely to improve learning outcomes.

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2017

Conference Paper

K. R. Jayahari, Nair, S. P., and Kamal Bijlani, “Solution for Automating Teaching Environment Setup”, in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials, ICSTM 2017 - Proceedings, 2017.[Abstract]


Nowadays traditional learning is getting changed to smart learning due to the advancement of smart classes. A smart classroom is a proficient method for instructing technique, active teaching methodologies are utilized as a part of the smart classroom. Time is one of the most challenging constraints faced by instructors teaching in smart classrooms, in our study we could find that this is mainly because of the time wastage in setting up equipment (switch on the computer, projector) and loading the teaching material. In this paper, we are trying to depict this study and our implementation of an automated setup of teaching environment through a smart-phone. This system can let instructors reduce the time wastage on setting up equipment and loading the teaching material, thereby increasing the lecture time to some extent. Instructors can upload the material ahead of time to the system and also can remotely switch on the equipment in the classroom using their smart-phone from the staff room, this makes it possible to make the teaching environment automatically kept ready for teaching by the time instructor reaches the classroom.

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2017

Conference Paper

K. R. Jayahari, Beenu, B., and Kamal Bijlani, “Delivery Monitoring System for Teachers' Voice in Traditional Classrooms and Automatic Controlling System in Smart/Remote Classrooms”, in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials, ICSTM 2017 - Proceedings, 2017.[Abstract]


Teaching is one of the essential elements, which impact the learning process. An effective teaching happens only if the students can hear and grasp what is taught clearly. In a classroom, teachers' voice quality will greatly affect the students' comprehensibility and interest in learning. So teachers should make sure that every student in the classroom could hear the voice in clear, precise and audible manner. This paper introduces a system that monitors the delivery of teachers' voice in classrooms and indicates the teachers if the voice could not be heard at some part of the traditional classroom (classrooms without speakers). In smart or remote classrooms, where multiple speakers are integrated, the system automatically controls the volume of the speakers to the adequate level so that every student is able to hear the teacher. The paper also involves research study and survey to identify the influence of teachers' voice on learners. Results from this study show that efficient lecture delivery helps students to improve their learning ability.

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2017

Conference Paper

P. P. Parvathy, Sindhumol, S., and Kamal Bijlani, “Usage Analytics in A-VIEW”, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies, ICICCT 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


The objective of this work is to perform usage analytics in Amrita-Virtual Interactive E-learning World (AVIEW) using the technique of association rule mining. Apriori algorithm is used in this work for analyzing the usage of AVIEW features with users' voting pattern. A-VIEW synthetic data, which has the features like document sharing and video with their user ratings, is applied to evaluate the methodology. The experimental results, user rating count 23 for document sharing, Good and 28 for video, Excellent indicate that document sharing needs improvement in its usability while working with A-VIEW. It is also observed that the feature video streaming has got an excellent user rating, 23 of the total count.

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2017

Conference Paper

D. Dinesh, S. Narayanan, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Student Analytics for Productive Teaching/Learning”, in Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Information Science, ICIS 2016, 2017.[Abstract]


This paper presents an automated analytics system which monitors the students attending online lectures from a remote location and provides feedback to the teacher. The classroom videos are recorded and analyzed to identify the student trends, which might not be noticed by a teacher during class hours. Student behaviors are classified into five affective states: Active, Transcribing, Unavailing, Distracted and Transition. The student faces are tracked and optical flow of each student is calculated. Displacements and head motion of students are derived using a simple method and each student is automatically mapped to a particular affective state. The state transitions are provided to the educator as a feedback for assessment. Three different experiments were conducted with sessions from online courses, and was observed that the automated system efficiently differentiates the attention level of students and helped the teachers to improve their style of instruction. The engagement states also defined the height of student interest on a topic and classified the attentiveness automatically, without exploiting human effort.

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2017

Conference Paper

S. Prathish, S. Narayanan, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “An Intelligent System for Online Exam Monitoring”, in Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Information Science, ICIS 2016, 2017.[Abstract]


For the past few years, e-learning has become popular across countries because of its flexibility, availability and user friendliness. As far as online examinations are concerned; the major challenge faced by the research community is the proctoring techniques used. In this paper, we present a method to avoid the physical presence of a proctor throughout the exam by creating a comprehensive multi modal system. We have used hardware such as web-cam to capture audio and video along with active window capture. This combination forms the inputs to an intelligent rule based inference system which has the capability to decide whether any malpractices have happened. Examinee's face is detected and is used to extract feature points thereby estimating a head pose. Misconduct is detected based on yaw angle variations, audio presence and active window capture. Our system has been tested in an e-learning scenario and we were able to make exam monitoring easy. Experiment results proved that our system performed well than the existing systems.

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2017

Conference Paper

A. Neethu, S. Narayanan, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “People Count Estimation using Hybrid Face Detection Method”, in Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Information Science, ICIS 2016, 2017.[Abstract]


People counting systems have wide range of applications and it is a difficult task in image processing. Face detection techniques are widely used to count the presence of people in an image. In this paper we present a hybrid face detection method for people count by combining three efficient face detection methods - Normalized Pixel Difference (NPD) , haar classifier and haar classifier for profile face. NPD is a scale invariant method and its performance is good in difficult backgrounds and low illuminations. A combination of these three face detectors are used in order to improve the accuracy and to reduce false detections. Experimental results shows that our proposed hybrid method effectively count the number of people and reduced the false detection rates. The accuracy of the proposed method is up to 90.20%. © 2016 IEEE.

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2017

Conference Paper

K. Seena and Sundaravardhan, R., “Application of Nyaya Inference Method for Feature Selection and Ranking in Classification Algorithms”, in 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


The success of machine learning (ML) algorithms depends on the quality of data given to them. If the input data contains insufficient or irrelevant features, the accuracy of machine learning algorithm decreases. Attribute selection has a key role in creation of classification models. Based on the 'logic behind the inference' principle in the Nyaya school of thought, this paper proposes a new method - Nyaya Inference Method for Attribute selection and Ranking (NIMAR), for feature selection for the two class classification problem. The Anvayavyatireka Vyapti and hetvabhasa methodologies of the Nyaya school of thought were used for ranking attributes, and removal of irrelevant attributes, respectively. The NIMAR approach showed a remarkable improvement in accuracy compared to the principal component analysis (PCA) method and as good as the Relief feature selection algorithm and the information gain (IG) methods

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2016

Conference Paper

P. M. Neena, S. Narayanan, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Copyright Protection for E-Learning Videos Using Digital Watermarking”, in Proceedings - 2015 5th International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications, ICACC 2015, 2016, pp. 447-450.[Abstract]


E-Learning system provides a new platform for learning and is becoming more and more popular nowadays. As part of E-Learning, digital multimedia contents like video lectures, seminar talks are made available to the learners through the internet. The teachers or the authority upload videos in the file repositories of E-learning systems. It is not so difficult to copy such files without quality loss. Any user can obtain the copies of these videos and upload and claim it as their own. So the security plays an important role in ELearning. Digital watermarking is a strong solution for this problem. In this paper we propose a method for digital watermarking in which frequency domain transforms (Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)) are used for the data insertion. The decoding is based on the side information which produced at the time of watermarking. We have compared the Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) of the results. The testing includes applying of spatial attacks and compression attacks on the watermarked video. The result shows that the method using wavelet transform is more efficient.

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2016

Conference Paper

Aa Sajana, Kamal Bijlani, and Jayakrishnan, R., “An interactive serious game via visualization of real life scenarios to learn programming concepts”, in 6th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2015, 2016.[Abstract]


Learning Programming concepts are widely known to be hardest thing with respect to novice learners. Here, we propose learn concepts via serious games together with Linear programmed instruction methodology provides innovative ways to become more engaged in Learning with intrinsic motivation. The Game is based on visualizations of different programming concepts as real life scenarios and on the interpretation of concepts. Intention is to renovate novice to expert in an effortless environment which allows them to practice, make mistakes and learn. Associated review section caused learner to complete levels quicker, providing amplified understanding. The results demonstrate that the students are fascinated towards computer games towards learning of programming concepts. Students responded that, game based learning is motivating, entertaining, concepts in programming can be visualized and learnt owing to game playing and game encourages intrinsic motivation to deeper learning

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2016

Conference Paper

D. Upendran, Chatterjee, S., Sindhumol, S., Kamal Bijlani, J, M., and J., J., “Application of Predictive Analytics in Intelligent Course Recommendation”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2016, vol. 93, pp. 917-923.[Abstract]


Students who pursue admission to colleges usually experience a difficulty to select a course. In this paper, we propose a course recommendation system to find out the courses which are apt for a student pursuing admission to the college. Typically, the prediction is based on the career goal or the present job trend. In this system proposed, the prediction is formulated based on the grades acquired by the student in twelfth standard; which is taken as a sign of the previous academic performance and cognitive ability of the student. A model is generated from the legacy data or data from the students who have completed the course successfully. This model is used for predicting the courses for new students. The idea behind this approach is that when a student with specific set of skills is successful in a course then another student with similar set of skills will have a higher success probability in the said course.

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2016

Conference Paper

U. V. Archana, Rajeshwaran, A., McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Rao, B., and Jayakrishnan, R., “Game Based Learning to Reduce Carbon Foot Print”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2016, pp. 89–98.[Abstract]


Technology in the classroom is changing the way educators teach. When a serious game is combined with a pedagogical learning strategy the probability of learning and synthesizing new concepts can become much greater. In this work we take the concept of learning about one's carbon footprint and combine it with the step by step process of Bloom's Taxonomy, a proven and well-established learning method, and incorporate it into a serious game. The objective is to demonstrate that learning in this way will result in higher learning motivation and a better understanding of the subject matter. In the game the player needs to reduce their carbon footprint in an office building. Unlike in a traditional classroom where the student is only a receiver of knowledge, in this serious game the student has a more direct experience of the subject, eliciting good decision making and improving subject comprehension.

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PDF icongame-based-learning-reduce-carbon-foot-print.pdf

2016

Conference Paper

P. Meera, McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Rao, B. R., “Serious Game on Flood Risk Management”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2016, pp. 197–206.[Abstract]


The applications of using serious games as a teaching tool are vast. One of the fields of knowledge that is now being implemented in serious games is Disaster Relief Management. Serious games use a variety of multimedia and strategies that allow the learner to participate in a graphic simulation of a disaster. This work gamifies the topic of flood risk management. Floods are a unique type of disaster in that they have an element of predictability. This predictability can be utilized as a gaming element involving time limits to reduce the amount of destruction and loss of life due to flooding. Of the many benefits of using games for educational purposes, it can help people who live in rural areas who may have limited education comprehend this complex material in a meaningful way. A learning approach called Kolb's Learning Model is used to convey the material. It familiarizes people with the different responses and terminologies of the hazard while achieving high concentration and interest from the learner. After developing this game, the effectiveness of this gaming method is analyzed by a comparative study of text book learning and this serious game.

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PDF iconserious-game-flood-risk-management.pdf

2016

Conference Paper

K. R. Parvathy, McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Bhavani, R. R., “Augmented Reality Simulation to Visualize Global Warming and Its Consequences”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2016, pp. 69–78.[Abstract]


Augmented Reality (AR) technology is considered to be an important emerging technology used in education today. One potentially key use of AR in education is to teach socio-scientific issues (SSI), topics that inure students towards social conscience and critical thinking. This work uses multiple markers and virtual buttons that interact with each other, creating a life-like visual spectacle. Learning about issues such as global warming by using AR technology, students will have an increased sense of experiencing immersion, immediacy, and presence, thereby enhancing their learning as well as likely improving their ability to make better informed decisions about considerations of such issues. Another advantage of AR is that it is a low cost technology, making it advantageous for educators to adapt to their classrooms. Also in this work we compare the effectiveness of AR versus ordinary video by polling a group of students to assess the content understandability, effectiveness and interaction of both the delivery methods.

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PDF iconaugmented-reality-simulation-visualize-global-warming-and-its-consequences.pdf

2016

Conference Paper

G. Mahesh, Jayahari, K. R., and Kamal Bijlani, “A Smart Phone Integrated Smart Classroom”, in International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies, 2016.[Abstract]


Smart phones are playing a vital role in our day-today life, especially in the field of education. A student can use his personal smart phone for carrying his softcopies of his lecture notes (as storage device), for reading the lecture notes (display device), even it is a complete encyclopaedia due to the technological inventions in smart phone area. Even though smart phones have all these educational advantages, mobile phones are banned in many educational institutions as students misuse the phones during the class, by chatting with friends, playing games... This project involves research and survey to identify how usage of mobile phones at education institutions can be made under the control of authorities and how 1000s of lecture hours can be saved in a year using this device. We propose a mobile application which will help institution authorities to control the students' mobile phones and attendance will be taken by the students itself for saving the time of taking attendance. Students will be forced to run this application as their attendance will be marked through this application. This will also save the lecture time to some extend and will reduce the chances of students marking proxy attendances. Authorities can configure the list of white listed applications students can use in their phones when they are inside the campus

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2016

Conference Paper

R. Sreelakshmi, McLain, M. L., Jayakrishnan, R., Rajeshwaran, A., Rao, B., and Kamal Bijlani, “Gamification to Enhance Learning using Gagne's Learning Model”, in 6th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2015, 2016.[Abstract]


Technology enhanced Learning has brought drastic changes in the field of education in the modern world. In this study we explore a novel way to improve how high school students learn by building a serious game that uses a pedagogical model developed by Robert Gagne. By integrating serious game with principles of Gagne's learning model can provide engaging and meaningful instructions to students. The game developed in this study is a waste sorting game that can easily and succinctly demonstrate the principles of this learning model. All the tasks in the game that the player has to accomplish correspond to Gagne's Nine Events of Learning. A quiz is incorporated in order to get data on the progress made by the player in understanding the concept and as well as to assess them. Additionally, an experimental study was conducted which demonstrates that game based learning using Gagne's event is more effective than a traditional classroom setup.

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2016

Conference Paper

A. Gopal, Kamal Bijlani, Rengaraj, V., and Jayakrishnan, R., “An Approach to Overcome Startup Issues Using Serious Game”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2016.[Abstract]


n the business world, the term ``startup'' is frequently ringing the bell with the high frequency of young ventures. The main dilemma of startups is the unsuccessful management of the unique risks that have to be confronted in the present world of competition and technology. This research work tried to bring out a game based methodology to enhance enough real-world experience among entrepreneurs as well as management students to handle risks and challenges in the field. The game will provide experience to the player to overcome challenges like market problems, running out of cash, poor management, and product problems which can be resolved by a proper strategic approach in the entrepreneurship world. The proposed serious game works on the life cycle of a new software enterprise where the entrepreneur moves from the planning stage to secured financial stage, laying down the basic business structure, and initiates the operations ensuring the increment in confidence level of the player.

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2016

Conference Paper

G. Thomas, Kumar, A., Kamal Bijlani, and Aswathy, R., “Phieval: Four-Phase Plagiarism Detection System in Private MOOCs”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, Singapore, 2016.[Abstract]


Massive open online courses or MOOCs have gained significant prominence as an e-learning platform. With large participation in MOOCs, an instructor is challenged with a gigantic task of assessing submissions for correctness and authenticity. For offering reputed and high-quality course completion certificates, a plagiarism detector is a must. In this paper we propose a four-phase plagiarism detection system that operates on large-scale submissions. This system exploits the dual but independent concepts of geodata and fast string-matching algorithms on top of big data platforms to solve this problem to a large extent. Given the context of these learning systems, and very high volume student participation, we are able to apply several optimizations in checking for plagiarism. This system is intended to benefit the course instructors by encouraging them to post advanced levels of courseware and more complicated assignments without bothering much about evaluation-related issues such as plagiarism.

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2016

Conference Paper

R. K. Lekshmipriya, Kumar, A., Mahadevan, D., and Kamal Bijlani, “Classroom Collaboration Using an In-Home Gaming Device”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2016.[Abstract]


Few common devices currently used in classrooms for collaboration include computers, projectors, interactive whiteboards and multi-touch devices. Such devices are often expensive and not easily acquirable to all. We propose a low-cost multi-touch collaborative surface that can be created using a simple and inexpensive gaming device, Nintendo's Wiimote. Wiimote and hand-made IR-LED pen was combined to setup the multi-touch surface. IR sensor in Wiimote was programmed to accurately track the IR signal from the IR-LED pen. Our system can be used to create a multi-touch surface anytime-anywhere and thus overcoming the mobility constraints that exist with current systems. Proposed system was found to be effective for collaborative classroom activities through the closed-group experiments conducted at multiple workshops on certain digital-media based classroom activities. Through the proposed system we have created a pathway to bring in gaming devices to classroom to make learning fun and more engaging with less complex setup and at an optimized cost

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2016

Conference Paper

S. Sajan and Kamal Bijlani, “Integrating Neural Linguistic Programming with Exergaming”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2016.[Abstract]


The widespread effects of digital media help people to explore the world more and get entertained with no effort. People became fond of these kind of sedentary life style. The increase in sedentary time and a decrease in physical activities has negative impacts on human health. Even though the addiction to video games has been exploited in exergames, to make people exercise and enjoy game challenges, the contribution is restricted only to physical wellness. This paper proposes creation and implementation of a game with the help of digital media in a virtual environment. The game is designed by collaborating ideas from neural linguistic programming and Stroop effect that can also be used to identify a person's mental state, to improve concentration and to eliminate various phobias. The multiplayer game is played in a virtual environment created with Kinect sensor, to make the game more motivating and interactive.

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2015

Conference Paper

B. R. Mohan, Kamal Bijlani, and Jayakrishnan, R., “Simulating Consequences of Smoking with Augmented Reality”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 919-924.[Abstract]


Visualization in an educational context provides the learner with visual means of information. Conceptualizing certain circumstances such as consequences of smoking can be done more effectively with the help of the technology, Augmented Reality (AR). It is a new methodology for effective learning. This paper proposes an approach on how AR based on Marker Technology simulates the harmful effects of smoking and its consequences using Unity 3D game engine. The study also illustrates the impact of AR technology on students for better learning.

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2015

Conference Paper

D. Mahadevan, Kumar, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Virtual Group Study Rooms for MOOCS”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 1711-1714.[Abstract]


E-Learning has been growing exponentially in the past few years due to the advent of MOOCs. But the collaborative modes of study, which are complimentary to the online learning experience, are still in its infant stage. In this paper, we propose a framework for collaborative mode of learning using online group study, which can complement the existing methods for collaboration and interaction such as forums and meetups in MOOCs. This framework can be seamlessly integrated with MOOCs and students can create small groups and share their ideas to work collaboratively like as if they do in a physical group study that students often conduct just before their exams, among their classmates. Here, we also present comparative study of features of the existing collaboration tools to analyze the suitable features for improved collaboration in E-Learning platforms. We have also included the specifications of the proposed framework that we developed and integrated with the Open edX platform to measure the effectiveness of group study in a private instance of MOOC. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

N. C. Nair, Archana, J. S., Chatterjee, S., and Kamal Bijlani, “Knowledge Representation and Assessment using Concept based Learning”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 848-854.[Abstract]


The process of learning can be improved with proper and timely feedback. This paper proposes a system that provides feedback for both teacher and student using concept-based learning. Various types of concepts are defined, and assessment is done for each concept. The level of knowledge acquired by students can be clearly represented using this approach. The feedback provided is goal-oriented, active, personalized, timely, ongoing and consistent, which counts for the novelty of this approach. Results from this study show that concept-based assessment and feedback motivates the students and helps them improve their examination score

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2015

Conference Paper

R. S. V. Raj, Narayanan, S. A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Heuristic-based Automatic Online Proctoring System”, in Proceedings - IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies: Advanced Technologies for Supporting Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning, ICALT 2015, 2015.[Abstract]


This paper proposes a novel multi-modal method for automatic online proctoring using a combination of image processing, audio processing and PC monitoring techniques. In the proposed system the remote proctor only has to inspect the examination room. The proposed system is evaluated with a dataset mimicking the malpractice scenarios, the accuracy of the system is demonstrated with false positive rate of 0.08 and true negative rate of 0.13.

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2015

Conference Paper

R. Anbalagan, Kumar, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Footprint Model for Discussion Forums in MOOC”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2015.[Abstract]


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have gained immense popularity in the last few years. An integral part of any course that runs on a MOOC platform is the learners' interaction. Most of this interaction happens today via forums that are built into the course section. In this paper, we begin by highlighting the purpose of forums in MOOCs and its shortcomings such as quantity of participation, good set of resident or visiting experts, unregulated exchange of information and lack of auto answering. Then we turn our focus on analysing the data of successful Community Question and Answer (CQ&A) sites such as Stack Overflow, Quora and Yahoo! Answers using data mining techniques. Based on what we learnt, we list features that are needed in MOOC forums. Finally, we also propose a forum footprint that can adjust dynamically based on community behaviour.

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2015

Conference Paper

N. T. Thomas, Kumar, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Automatic Answer Assessment in LMS Using Latent Semantic Analysis”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2015.[Abstract]


E-Learning uses systems like Learning Management Systems (LMSs), to support and enhance teaching-learning process. When we compared some of the popular LMSs, a lack of efficient mechanisms to assess descriptive answers like long answers and essays, was observed. Also, it is tedious for the teachers to manually evaluate for large number of students. Hence, we propose an automatic system to assess descriptive answers of students and provide teachers with immediate feedback. This is achieved by first, comparing student's answer with teacher's ideal answer set, using latent semantic analysis (LSA). Then, estimating the order of previous and upcoming words in an answer using positional indexing, based on the keyword list added by the teacher. A final score is then generated depending on LSA, correct keyword usage and also on spell check. Cohen's kappa coefficient of human rater-tool agreement showed a good strength when the system was integrating into an existing LMS.

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2015

Conference Paper

R. Ravi, Kumar, A., Kamal Bijlani, Sharika, T. R., A.P., J., and D., A. - J., “Self-Adaptive Interface for Comprehensive Authoring”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2015.[Abstract]


The advent of MOOCs gives, different varieties of teachers with different computer proficiency, the opportunity to create online courses. However, to provide an authoring environment that suits all types of teachers is a challenging task. We address this issue by categorizing the teachers into four broad classes based on their computer proficiency and providing them with customized authoring experience. Our system achieves this by collecting data about the teacher's performance during initial authoring process. This helps the system to identify the category of the teacher and adjust its interface. The system also adheres to ADDIE instructional design model. From the experiments, it is observed that the proposed system showed a better performance among teachers than the existing authoring environment.

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2015

Conference Paper

T. R. Sharika, Kumar, A., Kamal Bijlani, Ravi, R., A.P., J., and D., A. - J., “Authoring in MOOC with Wizard Based Recommendations for Improving Learner Engagement”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2015.[Abstract]


Increasing popularity of Massive Open Online Courses has raised the demand of effective tools to author them. In this paper we propose an authoring model that helps novice and intermediate teachers to create online courses with less effort and improved effectiveness for learners. This model enables teachers to author pedagogically rich online courses with limited effort and time. And help teachers author with least effort and evaluate them. The pedagogical model made is a combination of Bloom's Taxonomy and ARCS Motivational design to help in making motivating and engaging courses. The courses created are ensured to be pedagogical compliance by a pedagogical evaluation and ensured effective for students. This model helps novice teachers in authoring engaging and attentive courses for MOOC learners.

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2015

Conference Paper

L. Athira, Kumar, A., and Kamal Bijlani, “Discovering Learning Models in MOOCs Using Empirical Data”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, New Delhi, 2015.[Abstract]


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) is an emerging model in the field of education, which has data about learners from various industries and universities to enhance learning. However, these courses are facing tremendous dropout with the expansion in the figures of the enrolled learners at various stages. In this paper, we are proposing a three-dimensional model: learner categorization, course categorization and learner background categorization, to acquire a deeper insight of the issue. This analysis model analyses the individual need of each learner along the three dimensions to diminish the dropout rate. In this model, each dimension is examined using various data mining techniques to understand the behavioral patterns of learners. Furthermore, this analysis also explores the interdependencies among the three dimensions to understand course participation and knowledge dissemination among the learners, employing the association rules. We have also examined some of the factors leading to dropout in MOOC courses. The results from the study suggest certain remedial measures to transform failures to success, thereby, enhancing learner engagement and course completion rate.

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2014

Conference Paper

A. S Narayanan, Kaimal, M. R., Kamal Bijlani, Prasanth, M., and K Kumar, S., “Computer Vision based Attentiveness Detection Methods in E-Learning”, in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing, 2014.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have reviewed the current state of the art about attentiveness detection methods used in e-learning. Classification of the prior works is done based on features measured, affective states considered, affect classification method and e-learning context. We have listed the drawbacks of webcam based elearning systems. We have also proposed a framework for elearning classroom. The different attention patterns exhibited by students under e-learning are studied. The potential applications of attentiveness detection system in e-learning are explored. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

S. N Subramanian, Sruthy Anand, and Kamal Bijlani, “Enhancing E-learning Education with Live Interactive Feedback System”, in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing, 2014.[Abstract]


With the recent technological advancements, the E-learning platform has taken a prominent role in the field of education. There are a number of E-learning software applications available and many of the teaching-learning happens through them. However, most of the E-learning applications lack good interaction mechanisms resulting in providing far less benefits than intended. The students will lose attention as they passively listen to the teacher for a longer duration. Our research work mainly focuses on how to solve this lack of interaction, by introducing a Live Interactive Feedback system (LIF) for online classes. LIF provides Quiz, Polling, interactive white board, chat, question, voting and multimedia modules to help teachers to verify effectiveness of their online classes. In this work, we mainly focuses on implementing the LIF system in the E-learning software A-VIEW [1], to make it a more interactive tool for large scale online learning implementation. In this paper we also present how mobile technologies can be used in a synchronized live e-class room platform.

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2014

Conference Paper

D. Krishnaswamy, Qamar, A., Krishnan, R., Rajagopal, K., Narayan, N., Kamal Bijlani, and Moudgalya, K., “Bringing Knowledge to the Edge with Jnana Edge and Buddhi Edge: Architecture, Implementation, and Future Directions”, in Technology for Education (T4E), 2014 IEEE Sixth International Conference on, 2014.[Abstract]


Jnana Edge provides a fundamentally different approach to bringing a knowledge experience, in a qualitatively rich, focused way to specific demographics. This is done through an interdisciplinary convergence of key technological advancements from scalable hierarchical system architectures, cloud computing, dynamic cache hierarchies, and distributed virtualization. Architecture and implementation considerations are presented, particularly for Buddhi Edge which instantiates the Jnana Edge framework in the educational scope. Future directions are also suggested. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

Sruthy Anand, Kamal Bijlani, Vijayan, V., K.R, J., and Kumar, A., “Digital Pedagogy in Smart Classroom for Large Scale Training”, in 6th IEEE international conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Sruthy Anand, Chatterjee, S., and Kamal Bijlani, “Pedagogy Experiments with Recorded Video Lectures”, in Technology for Education (T4E), 2014 IEEE Sixth International Conference on, Clappana, 2014.[Abstract]


This paper explores the effectiveness of various video based learning methods. In recent years the flipped classroom has emerged as an innovative teaching-learning process. In a flipped classroom, study materials are made available to students for self learning before class starts and class hours are utilized for student teacher interaction in a variety of ways. In this research work we experiment with three broad scenarios to facilitate learning: a) delivering the lecture live and providing the entire recorded video of the class to the students, b) delivering the lecture live and providing short videos of the main concepts discussed in that class, c) recording lecture videos and making them available prior to the actual class (flip classroom model). We evaluate the impact of these three scenarios. For that we use observations, questionnaires, and interviews of both instructor and students for a semester course in Digital Image Processing. The results show that recorded videos are useful for students. Among these scenarios the students find the methodology of the delivery of the live lecture followed by short recorded video summary as the most effective way for learning.

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2014

Conference Paper

Sruthy Anand, Jayahari, K. R., Kamal Bijlani, Vijayan, V., and Chatterjee, S., “Pedagogy - Based Design of Live Virtual Classroom for Large-Scale Training”, in 2014 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Technology for Education, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, , 2014.[Abstract]


A major issue faced by the education system in highly populated countries like India is the shortage of experienced and trained teachers and trainers. In order to alleviate this issue, we describe how the e-Learning tool AVIEW is being used for large-scale online training and teaching. A-VIEW allows thousands of participants at various geographical locations to be trained and taught at the same time. In our years of research and development with large scale virtual classrooms, we have found that the basic online platform needs to be built with strong e-learning pedagogy considerations such as learner engagement, ease of use, various types of assessment and cost-effectiveness. To support these pedagogy principles, we have done research and built innovations in the form of several unique technical features which have been incorporated into the virtual classroom platform A-VIEW. In addition, the virtual classroom system needs to be operate in an environment with basic infrastructure requirements in order to be effective for large scale operations. Our current implementation with over 5000 colleges in higher education shows that large-scale training and teaching is working well in the field, the customized online platform A-VIEW has tremendous potential for India

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2013

Conference Paper

Kamal Bijlani, Chatterjee, S., and Sruthy Anand, “Concept Maps for Learning in a Flipped Classroom”, in Technology for Education (T4E), 2013 IEEE Fifth International Conference on, Kharagpur, 2013.[Abstract]


This paper examines how concept maps can be used to facilitate learning in a flipped classroom. Concept maps are a method for visual knowledge representation. In a flipped classroom, learning materials are made available to students for self-learning before class starts, while in-class time is used for student-teacher interaction. In this paper, we consider the role of concept maps created by the teacher in three different ways: a) as learning materials for students in a flipped classroom, b) as an organizational tool for the knowledge representation, and c) as an assessment method in which the questions are created for each concept so that the teacher is able to identify which concept the student has not grasped properly. This methodology was implemented in a pilot study with final year MCA students. The preliminary findings are extremely positive, further research work is in progress and large-scale experimentation is planned.

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2012

Conference Paper

C. S. Solanki, Fernandes, B. G., Arora, B. M., Sharma, P., Agarwal, V., Patil, M. B., Vasi, J., Phatak, D. B., Atrey, M., Moudgalya, K., and Kamal Bijlani, “Teach a 1 Teachers: A Methodology for the Rapid Ramp-up of Photovoltaics Manpower Required for India's National Solar Mission”, in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Austin, TX, 2012, pp. 2477-2480.[Abstract]


India's Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) envisages that 100, trained personnel will be needed by the solar industry in India. To achieve this, a rapid ramp-up methodology is required to first create trained teachers of solar energy courses. We have used a novel method to run a 2-week course on Solar Photovoltaics: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications. Over 1200 teachers from 370 colleges and institutions across India attended the program at 35 remote centers. This paper describes this effort which simultaneously trained a large number of teachers, and generated palpable excitement for solar PV among educators. © 2012 IEEE.

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2012

Conference Paper

R. Krishnan, Krishnaswamy, D., Qamar, A., Kamal Bijlani, and Moudgalya, K., “BuddhiEdge: Taking Education to the Edge”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2012, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 2012, pp. 235-236.[Abstract]


BuddhiEdge is a distributed system leveraging compute, storage and networking resources at the edge of an educational network to better serve end users at the edge of the network. Educational content is delivered either from the cloud or from edge servers to edge clients. Distributed educational content storage and edge content delivery help in scaling the number of users that can be concurrently served, and, in improving thequality of experience for end users. © 2012 IEEE.

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2012

Conference Paper

S. A. Narayanan, Prasanth, M., Mohan, P., Kaimal, M. R., and Kamal Bijlani, “Attention Analysis in E-learning Environment using a Simple Web Camera”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012, Kerala, 2012.[Abstract]


A real-time non-intrusive attention tracking system using a simple web camera is proposed in this paper. This system is scale and rotation invariant and tolerant to blink related false attention state classifications. Attention states of the students are classified into three: attentive, sleepy and disappeared. A simple geometric model for eye corners detection is proposed. Active and passive attention tracking experiments are conducted with a 54 minutes video lecture as the e-learning session content. Experimental results show that the proposed system clearly discriminates the attention states of the student participated in the E-learning session. The execution time of the proposed algorithm is 10 milliseconds per image frame. The proposed system is highly suitable for real-time applications. © 2012 IEEE.

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2011

Conference Paper

Kamal Bijlani, Jayahari, K. R., and Mathew, A., “A-VIEW: Real-time Collaborative Multimedia E-Learning”, in MM'11 - Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Multimedia Conference and Co-Located Workshops - ACM International Workshop on Multimedia Technologies for Distance Learning, MTDL'11, Scottsdale, AZ, 2011, pp. 13-18.[Abstract]


The emergence of collaborative multimedia-based instructional technology has been a catalyst in creating virtual learning environments. Collaborative multimedia has enriched the form of teaching-learning milieu and brought powerful changes to the traditional classrooms emboldening viewer centered and social network based pedagogy. The paper initially delves into the germane effect of real-time collaborative multimedia on different levels of learning. Then we present a case study based on a unique architecture for collaborative multimedia environment. The client side architecture makes use of caching the multimedia content according to the user's state and available system resources for creating multimodal interactions for e-Learning. The server side architecture makes it possible to build a Real-Time Collaborative Multimedia e-Learning tool, sustaining support for large number of live users. In addition, we cover how simulations, quizzes, multiplayer games, online content such as graphics and recorded lectures help learners by increasing their autonomy, enhancing their interest in learning on multiple devices which varies from workstations with multiple large displays to mobile devices.

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2011

Conference Paper

A. S. Narayanan and Kamal Bijlani, “A Practical Solution to Checker Pattern Detection based on Contour Validation”, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision, and Pattern Recognition, IPCV 2011, Las Vegas, NV, 2011, vol. 2, pp. 983-987.[Abstract]


Checker Pattern detection in the presence of miscellaneous background objects is a challenging task in computer vision systems. In practical applications, the direct detection of corner points fails due to the illumination variation in the lighting system. A computationally efficient checker pattern detection method using morphological operations and contour tree validation is proposed. The proposed method is tolerant to illumination, rotation and scaling variation. Comparative analysis with corner detection demonstrates the viability of the proposed algorithm as a valuable tool for automatic camera calibration and 3D measurements

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2010

Conference Paper

Kamal Bijlani, Rangan, P. V., Sreejith, K. H., Jayahari, K. R., and Narayan, K., “ACE: Architecture for Collaborative Environments”, in Proceedings - 2010 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, ICCSIT 2010, Chengdu, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 78-82.[Abstract]


With the advent of Facebook and Twitter, people are demanding high-performance high-quality online multimedia systems where a large number of users can collaborate with each other. Incorporating these features usually results in the following issues: high bandwidth usage, lower interactivity, higher latency; and often, only low quality compressed multimedia content can be used. In this paper we present the ACE architecture which is implemented in a virtual collaborative environment and tries to overcome the mentioned drawbacks.

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2010

Conference Paper

Kamal Bijlani, Rangan, P. V., Subramanian, S., Vijayan, V., and Jayahari, K. R., “A-VIEW: Adaptive Bandwidth for Telepresence and Large user Sets in Live Distance Education”, in ICETC 2010 - 2010 2nd International Conference on Education Technology and Computer, Shanghai, 2010, vol. 2, pp. V2219-V2222.[Abstract]


For distance education, several obstacles in live video conferencing are preventing widespread adoption. These include network bottlenecks, lack of telepresence, proprietary hardware usage, and inability to scale up for large user sets. In this paper, we present A-VIEW, a novel software system that has an architecture with an extensible multi-display video conferencing and telepresence solution customized for distance education, which can be effectively used for real-time teaching and training. We show sample deployments of A-VIEW with variable number of displays. We contend that a hybrid set of adaptive bandwidth techniques and domain-specific heuristics can be effectively used to accommodate a large number of users. For example, for each client, A-VIEW can operate with a constant bandwidth (upload and download) of around 256 kbps. A-VIEW can also be used at high bandwidths to provide a high-resolution telepresence solution. Unlike many other applications, A-VIEW does not use any proprietary hardware. Having a software only system makes A-VIEW extremely versatile for widespread deployment in teaching and training applications.

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2010

Conference Paper

Rao R. Bhavani, Rajamani, K., Kamal Bijlani, Achuthan, K., Sreedha, N., Nithyanandan, V., Rahul, J., and Sheshadri, S., “Virtual Media Enhanced Vocational Education Curriculum”, in 2010 Second International Conference on Computer Research and Development, 2010, pp. 280-284.[Abstract]


The following paper discusses the development of a virtual media enhanced vocational education curriculum that ultimately aims to reduce the digital and economic divide by targeting the illiterate and neo-literate sectors of India. While the application utilizes enhanced graphics, the end user experiences a simplistic interface. The virtual environment is developed in a modular way, enabling the user to learn methodically and at their own pace. The application's key usability element is that the fully developed virtual media enhanced vocational education curriculum will be web-based, where the user can access the program from any location through the medium of a computer and internet. Such an application has the potential to impart effective vocational training to the masses and at a pace that is at the comfort and pace of individual users. While the following paper discusses a specific application developed to train plumbers, the concept is generic and can be extended to any vocational training.

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PDF iconvirtual-media-enhanced-vocational-education-curriculum.pdf

2009

Conference Paper

N. Gupta, Yogeshwara, K., Kumar, R. N. Vinay, Bisht, R. Singh, Ginnela, Y., Rajamani, K., Kamal Bijlani, Krishnasree Achuthan, and Rao R. Bhavani, “Virtual Fabric Paint Environment using Touch and Gesture for Vocational Training”, in Haptic Audio visual Environments and Games, 2009. HAVE 2009. IEEE International Workshop on, 2009.[Abstract]


The objective of this work is to enhance the pace of learning occupational skills by developing multimedia enriched computerized vocational training programs targeted towards the illiterate and neo-literate sections of a society. This is achieved by developing virtual computer based vocational training environments. The experience of these environments is enriched with touch and gesture based technology. This paper talks about the creation of virtual vocational training scenario of a fabric painting application. We have successfully created a working prototype which brings out the real experience of fabric painting to the end user. Emphasis is placed on human-computer interactions that will allow simplistic interface for illiterate or neo-literate individuals. This approach of ‘virtual’ computer-based vocational training environment has great potential that stimulates self-learning processes of these vocational skills to a diverse audience with varying skill sets.

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PDF iconvirtual-fabric-paint-environment-using-touch-and-gesture-vocational-training.pdf

2008

Conference Paper

Kamal Bijlani, Manoj, P., and P. Rangan, V., “VIEW: A Framework for Interactive Elearning in a Virtual World”, in CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Innsbruck, 2008, vol. 333, pp. 177-187.[Abstract]


In the field of eLearning systems, several systems have been implemented in order to create a virtual university or virtual training center. By connecting several virtual universities together, we extend the concept of an online university setting to a virtual world where there is richer interaction between the players. In this virtual world, several universities can interact, the best instructors deliver the lectures, and after the class, the interaction and learning continue in a social online chat room where members from all the universities can participate. We propose a generic eLearning framework called A-VIEW (Amrita Virtual Interactive eLearning World) for educational, corporate, and other applications. The A-VIEW project is a joint venture of Amrita University, ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization), TIFAC India, and the Indo-US eLearning Initiative.

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Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2016

Journal Article

A. Narayanan, Kaimal, R. M., and Kamal Bijlani, “Estimation of Driver Head Yaw Angle using a Generic Geometric Model”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 17, pp. 3446-3460, 2016.[Abstract]


Head yaw angle is an important indicator of a driver's distraction. Forward collision warning systems incorporate head yaw angle estimators for detecting driver's head-off-road glances. This paper presents a generic geometric model for head yaw estimation. The generic model is customized into 12 different models. The performance of the cylindrical and ellipsoidal models is improved by introducing nose projection and truncation. The yaw estimation problem is formulated using a single variable. This formulation provides better visualization of the cylindrical and ellipsoidal models. It is shown that the ellipsoidal model in literature is indeed a cylindrical model with nose projection. We have also proved that, under the ellipsoidal/cylindrical framework, the estimated yaw angle is independent of shifting the center of rotation along depth. Four previous works are shown as the customization of the proposed generic model. The performance of the proposed models are evaluated using four standard head pose datasets and an ADAS dataset. The proposed nose-projected truncated ellipsoidal model outperforms the state-of-the-art geometric models. Further, we have studied the impact of model parameters and inaccurate facial feature localization through simulation experiments.

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2015

Journal Article

Dr. Vidhya Balasubramanian, Doraisamy, S. Gobu, and Kanakarajan, N. Kumar, “A Multimodal Approach for Extracting Content Descriptive Metadata from Lecture Videos”, Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, vol. 46, pp. 121–145, 2015.[Abstract]


The rapidly increasing availability of e-learning content and lecture videos over the internet, has brought forth an imperative need for developing effective content based retrieval systems. Comprehensive metadata extraction and support for topic-level search within videos are key factors in developing such systems. In this paper, we propose a multimodal metadata extraction system which extracts an optimal set of keyphrases and topic based segments that effectively summarize the content of a lecture video. The extraction process utilizes features from both audio transcripts and slide content in video streams. A hybrid approach combining a Naive Bayes classifier and a rule-based refiner is used for effective retrieval of the metadata in a lecture. The proposed content-descriptive metadata extraction technique has been evaluated using actual lecture videos from different sources, and our results show that our multimodal approach is effective in summarizing the lecture's content, potentially improving the user experience during retrieval and browsing.

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2014

Journal Article

Dr. Athinarayanan S., Dr. Kaimal, M. R., and Kamal Bijlani, “Yaw Estimation using Cylindrical and Ellipsoidal Face Models”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 2308-2320, 2014.[Abstract]


Accurate head yaw estimation is necessary for detecting driver inattention in forward collision warning systems. In this paper, we propose three geometric models under the ellipsoidal framework for accurate head yaw estimation. We present theoretical analysis of the cylindrical and ellipsoidal face models used for yaw angle estimation of head rotation. The relationship between cylindrical, ellipsoidal, and proposed models is derived. We provide error functions for all models. Furthermore, for each model, over/under estimation of angle, zero crossings of error, bounds on yaw angle estimate, and bounds on error are presented. Experimental results of the proposed models on four standard head pose data sets yielded a mean absolute error between 4° and 8° demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed models over the state-of-the-art methods.

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2013

Journal Article

A. S Narayanan, Arumugam, G., and Kamal Bijlani, “Trimmed Median Filters for Salt and Pepper Noise Removal”, International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2013.[Abstract]


With this paper we propose an iterative trimmed median filter and an adaptive window trimmed median filter for effective suppression of salt and pepper noise. The iterative trimmed median filter works in a way that, when a selected neighborhood window of a noise pixel is completely noisy, such pixels will be left unchanged in the current iteration and will be processed in the next iteration. The adaptive window trimmed median filter works in a way, when a selected neighborhood window of a noise pixel is completely noisy, the size of the neighborhood window is adaptively increased till an image pixel is found in the neighborhood. The visual quality of the denoised image using the proposed methods outperforms the Trimmed Median Filter (TMF) in terms of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) values. At high noise densities, the proposed iterative filter outperforms the proposed adaptive window filter More »»

2012

Journal Article

Kamal Bijlani, Krishnamoorthy, S., Rangan, V., and Venkataraman, R., “A-VIEW: Context-Aware Mobile E-learning for the Masses”, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol. 93 LNICS, pp. 1-14, 2012.[Abstract]


Developing countries typically have large populations in rural areas with inadequate resources for quality education. Concurrently, low-cost mobile devices are becoming quite popular in rural areas. The trends in the mobile industry show that a variety of mobile devices and choices in connectivity are becoming available and affordable. Synchronous e-learning is also starting to show immense potential with expert instructors being available to train teachers in other areas. The combination of these factors is unfolding a new era in mobile e-learning where the ubiquity of connected mobile devices has provided a tremendous potential for knowledge to reach large numbers of learners in rural areas. In this paper, we present a case study in a large developing country like India where a major national initiative has been undertaken for providing e-learning to the masses. This program is addressing issues like nation-wide connectivity, affordable mobile devices and high-quality online content. As part of this program, we contribute a highly scalable framework called A-VIEW (Amrita Virtual Interactive E-Learning World) that provides live interaction between expert trainers and large number of learners. A-VIEW is designed to be context-aware, thus addressing the practical needs of a variety of users in various strata of society according to their available infrastructure, connectivity, bandwidth, local language and mode of learning. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

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