Qualification: 
Ph.D, MS
tk_ramesh@blr.amrita.edu

Dr. T. K. Ramesh joined Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in August 2005 after serving as an Assistant Professor at M.V.J. College of Engineering, Bengaluru for 12 years. He has been the recipient of the ‘Best Teacher’ award for the year 2003 at M.V.J. College of Engineering, Bengaluru. He has 25 years of teaching experience.

Dr. T. K. Ramesh obtained his PhD from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in 2012 in the field of Optical Networks. He has published over 50 research publications in various Journals and Conferences. He is presently supervising several doctoral and postgraduate students. His areas of research include wired and wireless networks, network on chip, embedded systems, electronic circuits and design.

Currently, he is an Associate Professor of the Electronics and Communication Engineering Dept., Amrita School of Engineering, Bengaluru. He is also a member of various academic and administrative committees of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham and a lifetime member of the Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE).

Ongoing Research

  • Resource Management for D2D Communication in Cellular Networks
  • Routing and Wavelength Assignment Protocols for WDM Networks
  • Cluster based medium access control protocols for VANETs
  • LTE Downlink Scheduling Algorithms
  • Design of prototype for underwater water diving to monitor the health condition of a diver
  • Under Water Acoustic MODEM Design
  • Architecture and Design of Integer-N Charge-pump PLL
  • VLSI implementation of the high performance discrete wavelet transform architectures

Funded Project

Battery powered portable refrigerator, Amrita TBI Innovation Challenge 2017

Teaching

  • Optical Communication and Networks
  • Wireless Communication
  • Electronics Devices and Circuits
  • Digital IC Design
  • Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  • Analog and Digital Communication

Publications

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Title

2021

M. N. Purohit and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Fair Scheduling Non-orthogonal Random Access for 5G Networks”, in Advances in Signal and Data Processing, S. N. Merchant, Warhade, K., and Adhikari, D., Eds. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2021.[Abstract]


The potential growth of communication medium and its associated devices are rapidly increasing day by day. A most powerful communication support with 5G network features is required nowadays to resolve all communication overheads. The traditional method of embryonic data transfer between base station and the user device follows channel allocation strategy, which is internally used for the maintenance of random entry of data packets resulted in poor scalable nature, poor traffic handling, latency, and so on. The efficiency of network technologies with 5G support suffers from major issues such as the network performance, collision, and delay that are needed to be concerned with. To combat this, the technique of decoding of two or more packets is followed; hence, the concept of NORA was proposed. In analysis of the existing NORA method, Zadoff–Chu sequence was used to obtain the performance of NORA in 5G which gave better performance yet, resulting in collisions. Keeping these issues in consideration, an efficient communication model called fair scheduling non-orthogonal random access (FSNORA) is proposed. In the proposed method, we have scrutinized NORA to improve the fairness of scheduling by using round-robin algorithm so as to make a contentionless system and improve the channel enhancement of 5G networks. Simulation results convey that there is an improvement in the access delay, success probability, throughput, collision probability, and the preamble transmissions in context with contention compared to the existing NORA method.

More »»

2012

S. Kashyap, Shravan, I. V., Suman, A., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Vaya, P. R., “An Efficient and Reliable Centralized Connection Management Scheme for Computer Networks”, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 7135 LNCS, Surathkal: , 2012, pp. 444-450.[Abstract]


The Centralized connection management method is vulnerable due to its single point failure and also it requires sufficient buffer and processing speed to handle the requests. To overcome this, we present an efficient and reliable centralized connection management scheme with two central management systems (CMS) for computer networks (ERCC). In ERCC, when a request comes, the odd-numbered requests will be taken up by CMS-1 and also stored in a queue of CMS-2 and vice-versa for the even-numbered requests. If the request-taken CMS cannot allocate a path, then the other CMS will automatically take it up after 't' seconds. It gives a second chance for failed requests. Furthermore, if any one of the CMS fails, other CMS will take over the entire work. By simulation, we showed that our proposed centralized connection management scheme has low blocking probability and processing time in comparison with the single CMS connection management scheme. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

More »»

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Title

2021

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Functional Safety Method for End-to-End Wireless System Applications Using Quality of Service Metrics”, 2021.

2020

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Novel Method of Mathematical Expression for the Output Frequency of the Single-Ended Ring Oscillator”, 2020.

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

P. Telluri, Bulusu, S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Centralized Swarm Network”, Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, vol. 17, pp. 109-114, 2020.

2020

A. Koithyar and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Integer-N charge pump phase locked loop for 2.4 GHz application with a novel design of phase frequency detector”, IET Circuits, Devices & Systems, vol. 14, pp. 60-65, 2020.[Abstract]


In this article, a novel design is presented, for an Integer-N charge pump phase locked loop (PLL). The design is with a resetless phase frequency detector, and with the differential design of charge pump. The voltage-controlled oscillator is of current starved type. The proposed PLL is not having any blind zone and is having near-zero dead zone. When compared to the conventional design, the current mismatch in the charge pump is reduced by 3.21%, and the lock time of the PLL is reduced by 79%. The PLL is intended for 2.4 GHz application, and the obtained lock time is 1.7 μs. The implementation is done with the three-stage ring oscillator, with divider of modulus as 24, in 180 nm TSMC technology. At 1.8 V supply voltage, the circuit consumes 9.72 mW of power.

More »»

2020

Giriraja C. V., Chirag V., Sudheendra C., S., B. Samarth, Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Dr. K. N. Meera, “Priority Based Time-Division Multiple Access Algorithm for Medium Range Data Communication in Very High Frequency Radios”, Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, Volume 17, Number 1, vol. 17, Number 1, 2020.[Abstract]


In this paper, A novel and efficient time division multiple access (TDMA) algorithm for military last-mile data communication is designed. A dynamic slot assignment method coupled with an out-of-band control mechanism is used for the proposed design. In out-of-band, there is a well-defined control segment along with the data segment. So, if a new node specifically a high priority node arrives at the network, it can signal its arrival by a response in the designated mini-slots and can also check the slot in the network, if no idle slots are available. Assigning priority to the nodes would also ensure the delivery of the important messages first. Query messages are broadcasted by the Central node in order to detect new nodes. This reduces nodes working time and also ensures that the nodes don’t interrupt any existing communication. Furthermore, we describe the feasibility and the reliability of this algorithm for military’s last-mile (end user) data communication.

More »»

2020

M. Vinodhini, N. S. Murty, and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Transient Error Correction Coding Scheme for Reliable Low Power Data Link Layer in NoC”, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 174614-174628, 2020.[Abstract]


Ensuring reliable data transmission in multicore System on Chip (SoC), which employs Network on Chip (NoC), is a challenging task. This task is well addressed by Error Correcting Codes (ECC) in on-chip as well as off-chip networks. ECC significantly improves reliability of NoC interconnects with area and power overhead. In this paper, we propose a novel Transient Error Correction (TEC) coding scheme for reliable low power data link layer in NoC to attain a high error correction capability with less hardware overhead. Performance of TEC scheme is evaluated with realistic traffic patterns and validated with simulation results. The proposed scheme has less residual errors than the Hamming product code enabling reliable transmission at lower link swing voltage. Further, the scheme reduces the power consumption of NoC interconnects up to 71% as compared to Hamming product code with a marginal increase in codec delay and thus router delay. TEC scheme performs well in high noise environment with no delay penalty associated with retransmission.

More »»

2020

A. Koithyar and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Modeling of the submicron CMOS differential ring oscillator for obtaining an equation for the output frequency”, Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 2020.[Abstract]


A symbolic expression that approximates the output frequency of the submicron differential ring oscillator, using the detailed transient behavior of the MOSFETs, is presented in this article. The circuit of the oscillator is simulated from 3-stage till 21-stage, with the range of output frequency from 0.3756 GHz till 2.6925 GHz. Later on, for verifying the similar functionality with different Beta ratios, a 7-stage differential ring oscillator is utilized. The average difference between the computed and the simulated values of the output frequency is found to be 1.98%, with TSMC 180 nm technology, when the value of Beta ratio was 2.3. The expression indicates that the output frequency is inversely proportional to the square of the device length. By including an empirical constant in the derived equation, the mathematical expression can be utilized for the hand calculations, for obtaining the output frequency of the differential ring oscillator.

More »»

2019

B. Uma Maheswari and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “An Improved Delay Resistant Adaptive Multicasting Strategy for High Definition Video Delivery in Wireless Overlay Network”, Wireless Personal Communications, pp. 1-15, 2019.[Abstract]


The Multimedia based application services have been getting attention in recent years in various fields. These services require a stringent delay resistant protocol in order to provide the best Quality of Service to end users. Existing protocols are predominantly designed using load balancing, tree, multi-tree and mesh based mechanisms. These mechanisms suffer in the presence of channel noise and incur more delay due to improper multicasting techniques adopted. Overlay network using hybrid (tree over mesh) structure along with multicasting strategies are used to address this issue. In this paper, an Improved Delay Resistant Adaptive Multicasting (IDRAM) model which adopts hybrid overlay creation, sub-packet based multi path transmission technique and error correction based on Forward Error Correction along with arbitrary IDRAM-A and selective IDRAM-S multicasting techniques are proposed and evaluated. Simulation is conducted to calculate frame success ratio, throughput, number of packet retransmission and transmission delay. The results obtained prove that IDRAM-S outperforms better than IDRAM-A and existing sub packet based multi path techniques. The number of retransmission requests made by IDRAM-S is reduced compared to the existing model. This reduction in the number of retransmission enables in minimizing end to end delay and thereby achieve stringent delay constraints associated with multimedia data delivery.

More »»

2018

A. Koithyar and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A faster phase frequency detector using transmission gate–based latch for the reduced response time of the PLL”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 46, pp. 842-854, 2018.[Abstract]


Summary In this paper, we present a new design of phase frequency detector (PFD) without reset, such that the blind zone and dead zone issues in the phase locked loop are annihilated. The PFD is designed using transmission gate–based latches, which produce UP and DOWN pulses only when there is a distinct phase difference between the reference and divided frequencies. Thus, the continuous pulses that get produced by the conventional NAND gate–based latches are avoided, leading to reduced power consumption of the PFD. The charge pump makes use of an op-amp used as a buffer, to reduce the current mismatch. The loop filter used is of second order, and the voltage-controlled oscillator is of conventional current–starved type. The divider makes use of true single-phase clock latches. It was found that the phase locked loop with new design of PFD, compared with the conventional design, consumes 27% lesser power, and the lock time is decreased by 79%. In addition, it was found that the control voltage swing is reduced by 71%, which leads to much lesser spur content at the output of the voltage-controlled oscillator.

More »»

2018

B. Uma Maheswari and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “An Improved Delay-Resistant and Reliable Hybrid Overlay for Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming in Wired and Wireless Networks”, IEEE Access, United States, vol. 6, 1 vol., pp. 56539-56550, 2018.[Abstract]


Live streaming applications become hugely popular in the Internet era. However, these applications place tremendous pressure on video servers. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) communication models are a wise solution to video server pressure due to their scalability and low cost. Many P2P streaming schemes have been proposed and deployed on the Internet. These approaches are mainly based on the tree, mesh, and hybrid overlay structures. However, most overlay structures are proposed for either wired or wireless networks, and their performance was not investigated for both wired and wireless networks. We propose a reputation-based, resilient, delay-resistant hybrid overlay streaming structure called AStream. This hybrid structure aims to multicast videos to peers with the primary goal of delivering video packets before the deadline and maintaining good video quality over both wired and wireless networks. The overlay evolves from tree to a hybrid structure consists of tree and mesh clusters over a period of time. Initially, a tree is constructed using arrival time and location-based approach and is then transformed to a hybrid overlay to reduce delays in video data delivery. Video continuity during peer dynamics is guaranteed by providing multiple parents and auxiliary connections. Simulations are carried out by applying the proposed scheme in both wired and wireless networks. We also investigate the additional delays incurred when the video server is located outside the Wi-Fi network compared to those when the video server is located inside the wireless mesh network. Simulation results show that AStream outperforms the existing overlay structures and delivers faster, better video content with reduced load on the underlying physical network.

More »»

2018

Ganapathi Hegde, Reddy, K. S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A new approach for 1-D and 2-D DWT architectures using LUT based lifting and flipping cell”, AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 97, pp. 165-177, 2018.[Abstract]


In this paper, area and power efficient lifting and flipping discrete wavelet transform (DWT) architectures are proposed. DWT architectural metrics such as critical path delay, area of utilization, power consumption are mainly dependent on the arithmetic components such as adders and multipliers. They constitute the data-path of the DWT structure. A multiplier of the DWT data-path plays major role in basic lifting, flipping cells and further it demands optimization. In this work, an area and power efficient lifting and flipping cells are implemented using look up table (LUT) based multipliers. The proposed DWT architectures are implemented in gate level Verilog HDL and are synthesized using Cadence RC design compiler. Based on the area, delay, and power results obtained from post synthesis, parameters like area delay product (ADP) and power delay product (PDP) are computed. The ADP and PDP values prove that the proposed LUT based architectures are efficient over recently projected lifting and flipping DWT architectures. © 2018 Elsevier GmbH

More »»

2018

N. Reshma and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Underwater channel design for diver communication”, International Journal of Engineering and Technology(UAE), vol. 7, pp. 214-222, 2018.[Abstract]


Underwater channels are usually considered to be very difficult media for communication purposes. There are many reasons that pull back us from considering these types of channels for communication purposes. Limited bandwidth, Doppler effect, multipath propaga-tion etc are some of those reasons. These reasons limit the usage of underwater channel for wide range of applications.Optical waves, RF waves and acoustic waves are generally used. Among the methods, acoustic waves are used in most of the cases since less attenuation and scattering properties are offered by acoustic waves. There are many acoustic channel models existing but require some improvisa-tions according to the diving application. An efficient acoustic underwater channel for diver communication is designed and implement-ed in this paper. Rayleigh channel model is considered in our algorithm that can deal with multipath propagation and Doppler effect with underwater specifications incorporated to it.This method gives a better result compared to OFDM and MIMO models. Further, a compar-ison between different modulation techniques like ASK, BPSK and QAM have been done. Results show QAM is a better modulation scheme for underwater environment. © 2018Reshma N, T K Ramesh.

More »»

2018

Aravinda K and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Frequency equation for the submicron CMOS ring oscillator using the first order characterization”, Journal of Semiconductors, vol. 39, 2018.[Abstract]


By utilizing the first order behavior of the device, an equation for the frequency of operation of the submicron CMOS ring oscillator is presented. A 5-stage ring oscillator is utilized as the initial design, with different Beta ratios, for the computation of the operating frequency. Later on, the circuit simulation is performed from 5-stage till 23-stage, with the range of oscillating frequency being 3.0817 and 0.6705 GHz respectively. It is noted that the output frequency is inversely proportional to the square of the device length, and when the value of Beta ratio is used as 2.3, a difference of 3.64% is observed on an average, in between the computed and the simulated values of frequency. As an outcome, the derived equation can be utilized, with the inclusion of an empirical constant in general, for arriving at the ring oscillator circuit's output frequency. © 2018 Chinese Institute of Electronics.

More »»

2018

S. Afaque, Vishal, D., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Technical Survey on Underwater Communication”, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 198-203, 2018.[Abstract]


The world’s pace has elevated technology to a higher pinnacle in the field of communication, yet the research in underwater communication is progressing in a slow traverse due to its compound barriers. Underwater communication is one of the unique and challenging fields in communication engineering in the case of both designing and communication. It is limited by several factors like the multipath channel and frequency which is limiting the application of underwater communication. An appropriate choice of modulation will enable the device to give better data rates. As every communication needs higher data rates, appropriate devices must be coupled with multiple access methods to make it efficient and reliable. The paper is a plot of the data surveyed on underwater communication which combines of major challenges associated with underwater applications and the approaches to mitigate some of these challenges is data.

More »»

2018

Aravinda K and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Faster Phase Frequency Detector Using Transmission Gate-based Latch for the Reduced Response Time of the PLL”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2018.[Abstract]


In this paper, we present a new design of phase frequency detector (PFD) without reset, such that the blind zone and dead zone issues in the phase locked loop are annihilated. The PFD is designed using transmission gate-based latches, which produce UP and DOWN pulses only when there is a distinct phase difference between the reference and divided frequencies. Thus, the continuous pulses that get produced by the conventional NAND gate-based latches are avoided, leading to reduced power consumption of the PFD. The charge pump makes use of an op-amp used as a buffer, to reduce the current mismatch. The loop filter used is of second order, and the voltage-controlled oscillator is of conventional current-starved type. The divider makes use of true single-phase clock latches. It was found that the phase locked loop with new design of PFD, compared with the conventional design, consumes 27% lesser power, and the lock time is decreased by 79%. In addition, it was found that the control voltage swing is reduced by 71%, which leads to much lesser spur content at the output of the voltage-controlled oscillator.

More »»

2015

A. P Reddy, SVrajendranand, G. S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Multi-User Visible Light Communication”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol. 4, no. 10, 2015.[Abstract]


As the number of users of wireless communication are soaring, radio frequency spectrum will soon become very difficult to be accessible for all users. So, another means to wireless communication is necessary to adjust the highly increasing demand for wireless traffic. Visible Light Communication (VLC) systems is an ideal alternative to the current wireless transfer of information, where light from LEDs acts as the medium for communication. In VLC systems, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink at a fast rate such that the change in light intensity is not noticeable to a human eye, but a photodiode is sensitive enough to the change in this light intensity. So it can detect the on-off behavior of the LED and decode the information sent by it. In this paper, we deal with the implementation of Multi-User Visible Light Communication (MU-VLC) where multiple signals are transmitted simultaneously using Time Division Multiplexing (TDM).

More »»

2015

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, V., M., V., P. Kumar, and K., T., “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms”, Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 369-375, 2015.[Abstract]


In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important and it is well known that irrigation by drip is very economical and efficient. In the conventional drip irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. This project makes the irrigation automated. With the use of low cost soil moisture sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer. This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity. Also, third world countries can afford this simple and low cost solution for irrigation and obtain good yield on Crops. In this work undertaken, a given area of land is divided into specific areas virtually by C.A.D software and soil moisture sensors are deployed at specific points in every sector of the division. Underground water-piping is laid covering all the sectors from all sides. The sensors sense the moisture levels continuously and water the area running low on moisture instead of the entire land. Sensors transmit the moisture content and display on to the L.C.D. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed. Provision for mixing fertilizers and other essential chemicals is also allowed through the watering route ensuring less labour work force. Armel ATMEGA328 controller supported with ARDUINO is used in this project. A 16×2 LCD is connected to the microcontroller, which displays the sector-wise moisture level. We have taken two sector divisions into consideration. Each sector division will have few moisture sensors and each sensor will transmit a value. Average value of all sensors in a field is taken. Solenoid valves are used for controlling the water flow to the prototype field. The soil moisture levels are transmitted at regular time interval to the PC through the USB port connected to ARDUINO developer board for data logging and analysis. Three relays are connected to the microcontroller for controlling two solenoid valves and the motor supplying water to different parts of the field.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. Kumar, M Teja, S., ,, and Vaya, P. R., “An Adaptive Reliable Multipath Centralized RWA Algorithm for All-Optical WDM Networks”, CiiT International Journal of Networking and Communication Engineering, vol. 9, 2011.[Abstract]


Balancing the load among multiple paths leads to the degradation in the all-optical WDM network. It is always desirable to deliver the entire load on a single optimal path depending upon the current network-wide load status. For this case, multiple light paths need to be maintained to provide the choice of selecting the best light path, based on the changing traffic load conditions, This paper presents the design and analysis of an adaptive reliable multipath centralized routing algorithm (ARMCR) with two central management systems (CMS-1 and CMS-2) which considers load heuristic for selecting the optimal and backup paths. Initially in this algorithm when a request comes to a source it sends the information to CMS-1 for allocating the optimal primary and backup paths for the received request, depending on the number of available free wavelengths. With the assigned primary path, source starts clearing the request meanwhile CMS-2 keeps track of the changes in the available free wavelengths and failure of all the paths. In the assigned primary path if the available free wavelength number comes below the threshold number ‗N‘ and at the same time if any other path is available with more number of free wavelengths, then CMS-2 assigns this path as primary path and very next more number available free wavelengths path is assigned as backup path. The advantage of this algorithm is that it reduces the set up time by using two CMS which share the work and also if one fails the other will take over the entire process. As opposed to the reactive protocols, our proposed protocol is proactive in the sense that it avoids the chances of blocking. Furthermore, the approach is self-regulating, it automatically adapts to the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has low set up time and blocking.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. Kumar, and R, V. P., “A Global RWA Protocol for WDM networks”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), , vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1685-1689, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of a global RWA protocol (GRP) consisting of ‘N’ sector networks, each with a centralized management system (CMS) and sectors acts as a node of a distributed system. As per the connection request it uses centralized or hybrid method (centralized and distributed) to identify the primary and backup lightpaths. In addition an extra backup CMS is maintained to takeover if any of the sector CMS fails. It also involves in the data transmission between two sector  CMS when the optimal primary lightpath fails. In this protocol lightpaths with least blocking robabilities are used for primary and backup lightpaths. Data is transmitted through the primary lightpath and if primary lightpath fails, the data will be routed through the backup lightpath and the lightpath with next least blocking probability is used as new backup lightpath. Global network overcomes the performance bottleneck of a large network with single CMS. In addition, grooming is also used to improve the blocking probability of connection request

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. K., M. Teja, S., Veluguleti, H., and Vaya, P. R., “A Centralized Dynamic RWA Protocol for All-optical WDM Networks”, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 56, pp. 97-103, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of a Centralized dynamic RWA protocol (CDRP) in which the number of available free wavelengths and blocking probability parameters are considered for selecting the optimal paths. In this protocol whenever a request comes to a source it sends the information to Centralized Management System (CMS-1) and the CMS-1 calculates number of available free wavelengths on each path and simultaneously the CMS-I intimate the source to transmit the request through all the paths. Based on the number of packets reached the destination CMS-1 computes the blocking probabilities of all the paths and assigns Optimal primary and backup paths based on blocking probability and number of available free wavelengths. CMS-2 repeats the above procedure when the blocking probability of optimal path reaches threshold value 'N'. In case of fiber level failure the data will be rerouted through the backup path and very next path with least blocking probability and more number of available free wavelengths is assigned as backup path. The advantage of this algorithm is that it identifies an optimal and backup path by blocking probability and number of available free wavelengths. In addition to that the tasks are shared by using two CMS, If one fails the other will take over the entire process and also our approach is self regulating, i.e., it automatically adapts to the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has minimal blocking probability and high throughput.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, S. Ashok, Bithil, K. B., Nayanar, D., and Vaya, P. R., “Distributed traffic grooming multipath routing algorithm for all optical WDM networks”, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 57, pp. 305-313, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have presented an efficient traffic grooming algorithm (DTMR) for selecting the optimal path based on the varying traffic load conditions. In this algorithm, the initial incoming packets are sent through all the possible paths. With the monitored values on each path, the source estimates the blocking probabilities of each path and the source node selects the best three paths. Then the traffic is classified into high priority and low priority by the source. Subsequently, they are classified into high speed and low speed traffic. High priority high speed data is sent through primary path. Low priority high speed data is sent through secondary path. The high priority low speed packets are inserted in a frame of fixed length containing the given packets along with replicas of the same packet. Enough replicas are added so that the size of the frame adds upto a minimum of 3.5 Gigabits and a maximum of 5 Gigabits. These high priority low speed packets are sent through the primary path. The same procedure is done for low priority low speed packets as well. These low priority low speed packets are then sent through the secondary path. Backup path is kept for survivability of the network. However, the initial duplication of packets is only done if there are no other requests waiting in queue. When these high priority low speed or low priority low speed packets arrive at another node, and if there are other low speed requests which arrive at this node to be processed; then the replica packets are discarded and the low speed packets at the other node is added in the frame. Using the number of acknowledgement packets that are received, the blocking probabilities of primary path and secondary path are updated. A threshold value "thresh" is set. Only if the maximum value of the blocking probabilities of primary path or secondary path goes above "thresh", the algorithm restarts and identifies and assigns optimal paths, thus optimizing the overall setup delay of the system. In addition the algorithm has a proactive approach, such that it minimizes the chance of blocking and also the approach is self-acting as it automatically changes with the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation result, we show that our algorithm has low blocking probability and high throughput which improves the QoS of the network.

More »»

2010

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Vaya, P. R., “An Adaptive Reliable Multipath Routing Protocol for WDM Networks”, International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Systems, IJCES, vol. 4, no. 3, 2010.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Title

2020

V. Jayasuryaa Govindraj, Yashwanth, P. V., Bhat, S. V., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Smart Door Using Biometric NFC Band and OTP Based Methods”, in 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET), Belgaum, India, 2020.[Abstract]


In this technologically evolving era, with the transition towards a wireless world, security plays a vital role in ensuring the safety. Over the years various methods have been proposed by researchers across the globe which have proven to be successful but have lacked in areas such as security and authentication time. This paper presents an innovative design for a Smart door with the aid of a biometric NFC band and OTP authentication methods which would provide secure and easy access to our homes. Our idea brings forth the opportunity to mitigate the issues faced by these systems by reducing authentication time with the help of a biometric fingerprint sensor and adds an extra layer of security using the help of a local server to generate OTP authentication. This implementation has shown better results and higher performance rate than existing methods.

More »»

2020

P. S. Manasi, Nishitha, N., Pratyusha, V., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Smart Traffic Light Signaling Strategy”, in 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Chennai, India, 2020.[Abstract]


This article presents the idea of an innovative method of traffic evacuation management at single intersection of roads, with special consideration of the reduction of vehicular congestion. When compared to the classical (manual) design and modern automatic designs of traffic signaling, the proposed design of signaling is found to be substantially reducing the complexity of traffic management, allowing more vehicles for clearance. The proposed model mainly emphasizes on the efficient and effective traffic management system by taking the time of traversing of vehicles across a predetermined region monitored by sensors into major focus using the constraints- Time of entry and Time of exit.

More »»

2020

N. Nishitha, Vasuda, R., Poojith, M., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Irrigation Monitoring and Controlling System”, in 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Chennai, India, 2020.[Abstract]


There are lot of resources available in nature. Among the resources, water plays an important role in our day to day activities and in agriculture. But, nowadays water has become a major problem in many parts of the world. Day by day, as the population increases, the requirement for water resources is rapidly increasing. So, a lot of new ideologies are being implemented in conserving water resources. One of the ways of controlling water resources is by reducing the usage of water in irrigation. Many ideas were proposed and implemented in attempts to reduce the usage of water. The existing model, “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources” (AISWP), lacks efficiency in precise weather prediction and also it is proposed such that it works for only one particular crop. So, for better efficiency of the system, the method called “Irrigation Monitoring and Controlling System” (IMCS) has been proposed. In this method, the shortcomings of AISWP method has been rectified by watering the crops considering the moisture content of the soil and weather prediction of the surroundings, using web scraper. Web scraper can also be used to perform watering based on the type of crop that is being grown. The model has also been provided with an additional feature to calculate the pH of the soil so that fertilizers can be used according to it. So, by using this method, watering of the plants can be precisely monitored based on the climatic conditions, type of crop that is being harvested and to check the pH value of the soil to avoid soil erosion.

More »»

2020

S. Akshay and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Efficient Machine Learning Algorithm for Smart Irrigation”, in 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Chennai, India, 2020.[Abstract]


The shortage of water around the world force us to minimize the usage of water. More than 75% of fresh water resources were using for irrigation purpose so efficient utilization of water in irrigation system with advanced method is required. This paper presents an advanced technology based smart system to predict the irrigation requirements of a field by sensing of ground parameter like moisture of the soil, temperature-humidity and water level using Machine learning algorithm (ML). Existing algorithms like K-mean and SVM are facing overfitting problem to overcome this problem we are using K-Nearest neighbor method along with this proposed system has a capacity to realize a fully automated irrigation scheme and discussed in detail about the information processing results with three weeks pre-defined data based on the proposed algorithm. The system is capable and the prediction results are more accurate.

More »»

2020

S. Shanmukha Kalyan, Pratyusha, V., Nishitha, N., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Vehicle Detection Using Image Processing”, in 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON), Bangluru, India, 2020.[Abstract]


Nowadays, detection of the vehicles and their classification is very essential and also it has a lot of importance because of its use in many applications. One of the main applications is controlling and managing traffic. Vehicle detection and tracking plays a major role in the project of preventing road accidents using image processing. Tracking of moving objects is important in monitoring surveillance videos and capturing human motion. Taking its importance into consideration, an efficient algorithm is proposed to detect vehicles in an image using image processing. The image is captured from the front view of the vehicles. So, this algorithm detects vehicles using the front view. Each vehicle is detected based on its size. The two major techniques used in this algorithm are edge detection and morphological processing. Edge detection as well as morphological processing are important applications in image processing because of their wide range of uses. Edge detection is used to enhance the objects in image. Morphological operations are used to remove noise and as well as to adjust image in such a way to detect objects in an image. The simulation work of this algorithm is done in MATLAB which is a very strong scientific tool.

More »»

2020

M. Katta and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Virtual Channel and Switch Traversal in parallel to improve the latency in Network on Chip”, in 2020 2nd PhD Colloquium on Ethically Driven Innovation and Technology for Society (PhD EDITS), Bangalore, India, 2020.[Abstract]


Network on Chip (NoC) connects multiple cores on a single chip. Traditionally input queued routers were used to arrange packets in a fixed order in a Virtual Channel (VC). This leads to Head of Line (HoL) blocking and increased latency. To address this issue, a VC router architecture is proposed which minimizes the total number of pipeline stages and uses a special buffer to avoid HoL blocking. The design is implemented using Booksim and the results show improved latency over conventional router.

More »»

2020

D. V. K, Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and A, S., “A Machine Learning based Ensemble Approach for Predictive Analysis of Healthcare Data”, in 2020 2nd PhD Colloquium on Ethically Driven Innovation and Technology for Society (PhD EDITS), Bangalore, India, 2020.[Abstract]


The following topics are dealt with: pattern classification; MIMO communication; channel estimation; routing protocols; learning (artificial intelligence); error statistics; Rayleigh channels; regression analysis; Internet of Things; correlation methods.

More »»

2020

Giriraja C. V. and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Weather Condition Based Automatic Irrigation System”, in 2020 2nd PhD Colloquium on Ethically Driven Innovation and Technology for Society (PhD EDITS), 2020.[Abstract]


In agriculture water is one of the important constraint in getting good yield. Ground water level is continuously decreasing and it should be optimally used. This work is based on understanding and analyzing the variations in the moisture content of the soil under various external factors along with weather condition. We have implemented and analyzed this in various climatic conditions with soil moisture sensors placed at different depths inside the soil. Different factors like atmospheric humidity, soil temperature, and atmospheric temperature have been taken into consideration.

More »»

2019

N. Sumedh, Kailaswar, V., Devarakonda, L. Prasuna, and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Design and analysis of an optical transit network”, in 2019 4th International Conference on Recent Trends on Electronics, Information, Communication Technology (RTEICT), Bangalore, India, 2019.[Abstract]


Transit networks are a set of intermediate connector systems responsible for forwarding long haul internetwork traffic. With the increase in network convergence across the globe, the available bandwidth in transit networks has become an issue of great significance. One of the solutions to this issue is the formulation of optical transit systems. This study proposes an effective and efficient networking solution to deal with the increase in transit networking traffic. Categorically, this research aims to formulate a mechanism to implement IP based Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) over Optical Circuit Switched (OCS) networks and a Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithm to maximize performance. Furthermore, the discussed design schematics have shown a significant drop in request blocking probability and an increase in carried load. The necessary calculations and analysis to maximize effectiveness have also been provided.

More »»

2019

S. Shrivastava and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Integration of SDN Controller, Time-Sliding Window, and Quantum Key Distribution with Resource Allocation Strategy in Optical Networks for High Security”, in 2019 Global Conference for Advancement in Technology (GCAT), Bangalore, India, 2019.[Abstract]


Resource Allocation/ Assignment in optical communication is extremely essential to enable effective and secure communication in optical networks. There have been various strategies suggested by people around the world and research for which is aggressively on-going and thriving. In this paper, we will be discussing about the enhanced quantum key distribution (QKD), Time Sliding Window (TSW), Software Defined Network Controller (SDN) and its implementation in Routing, wavelength and time slot assignment (RWTA) networks. As we know that with the advancements in technology and with advent of quantum computers, the present cryptographic techniques are vulnerable to hacking and eavesdropping, which is a grave concern when it comes to implement this powerful technology in the finance and the defence industry. Therefore, there is an utmost need of secure mechanism for data transmission in optical networks. To explain further, here we address QKD implementation with enhanced AES algorithm and Software defined Networking (SDN) based QKD enabled architecture for efficient management of resources/data. With the implementation of such an architecture the issue of time conflict possibility in case of dynamic requests may arise, this issue has been addressed with time-sliding window mechanism as a possible solution.

More »»

2019

S. Kalyan, Pratyusha, V., Bhavana, Y., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Effective Energy Consumption Strategy For Smart Homes”, in 2019 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT), 2019.

2019

V. K. Daliya and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Data Interoperability Enhancement of Electronic Health Record data using a hybrid model”, in 2019 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT), Tirunelveli, India, 2019.[Abstract]


An IoT based healthcare system promises the implementation of high-quality healthcare services in a time bound and accurate manner. But the varieties of data coming from various sources will make the system more heterogeneous and hence it is challenging to process them further. These data coming from sensors are usually collected from the sensor's web and stored in Electronic Health Records (EHR). Data in EHR consists of each patients' details with respect to his hospital visits, previous treatment history, medication used, medical history etc. An error free and understandable data handling process enhances data interoperability among various EHRs, which use different ways of representing data. To handle these multiple types of data stored in different EHRs, data interoperability enhancement techniques such as semantic and syntactic methods play major roles. But, Syntactic method fails in tapping the meaning of the data while semantic method does not consider the format of the data. These shortcomings are overcome by the proposed hybrid method which can tap the meaning of data from heterogeneous sources while bringing uniformity for the data format as well. The proposed technique is analyzed in healthcare domain and is proven to be more efficient than using each method separately.

More »»

2019

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Survey on scheduling algorithm for downlink in LTE cellular network”, in 2019 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT), Tirunelveli, India, 2019.[Abstract]


Wireless internet access was introduced to the world, which led to more mobile phone subscriptions. Data services were first available in the second generation. Later after working past a lot of challenges to achieve the needs and higher performance, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) created High Speed Packet Access (HSPA). There is a lot of demand on the mobile applications, which then requires higher data rates and low latency. So the 3GPP further started working on Long Term Evolution (LTE), that improves all necessities. The introduction of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) further improved throughput rate but scheduling algorithm has a greater part in increasing overall performance of network. The scheduling algorithms are used to allocate time, space and resources to the users. These algorithms have also been employed in downlink (i.e. the communication from base station to the mobile) since it requires high data rates with lower packet loss compared to uplink therefore efficient algorithms are required for downlink. This paper focuses on the detailed study and comparisons of existing downlink scheduling algorithms which are namely Proportional Fair (PF), Max-Rate, Maximum Largest Weighted Delay First, Round Robin(RR), and Exponential Rule(EXP-Rule). Moreover, this paper provides some of improvements that can be done in the above mentioned algorithms.

More »»

2019

Jayasree M. Oli and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Security Enhanced and Over Head Reduction Algorithm for Vehicular Networks”, in 2019 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT), Tirunelveli, India, 2019.[Abstract]


Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are given more research importance in the recent days, because of its special characteristics. The VANETs are different from MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc networks) in features like frequent high vehicle mobility, frequent link failure, and frequent topology changes. However, there are also few other hitches which affect the efficiency of such networks. Instability is the major problem that has to be taken care. In this paper, we are introducing an algorithm to enhance the system with a security feature being integrated with the existing overhead reduction algorithm. This is an enhanced algorithm that has been designed over the existing Overhead Reduction Algorithms. The main aim here is to secure the network and also to measure the sub-optimal numbers of the overhead messages transferred between the cluster head and the cluster members. In the first part we reduce the overhead messaging by limiting few of the parameters and in the next step we do introduce a law executer into the network which acts as a secured authenticator for the nodes to enter the Network. NS2 simulator has been used to evaluate the performance of the mentioned algorithm.

More »»

2019

A. Kumar, Jois, A. S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Distance and energy aware device to device communication”, in Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2019, 2019, pp. 522-525.[Abstract]


In Cellular or mobile network Device to Device communication is used to reduce the burden on the root network and increase the spectral efficiency by proper utilization of the available resources. Distance and Energy Aware Device to Device communication uses an innovative technique termed as K-means algorithm along with the concept of residual energy in the user equipment's to form the cluster and the cluster head. After each round of data transfer from the user equipment to the cluster head the residual energy in each user equipment along with the cluster head is calculated for further selection of cluster head in each cluster. In this paper while forming the network both distance and energy is considered for evaluation purpose and thus the MATLAB simulation results give an improved achievement as compared to the already existing network protocols. © 2019 IEEE.

More »»

2018

D. V. K and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A survey on Data Interoperability Enhancement in IoT based system”, in IEEE conference proceedings of ICEECCOT-2018, 2018.

2018

V. K Sai, K Reddy, B., Giriraja C. V., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Coordinates Based Clustering Technique in Device to Device Communication”, in 2018 3rd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information Communication Technology (RTEICT), Bangalore, India, 2018.[Abstract]


To increase the energy and spectral efficiency in the field of communication, a new technique named Device to Device Communication (D2D) is proposed. This is very essential as there has been a massive growth in the number of connected devices now a days. D2D takes advantage of the physical proximity of communication devices and enables direct communications between them (i.e.) devices communicate with each other without the intermediate nodes. This proximity of devices helps in achieving extremely high bit rates, low delays, and low power consumption. Although there are many benefits of D2D, the implementation of it is very strenuous. There are a number of challenges need to be addressed before establishing a successful D2D connection. One among those is the clustering of devices. Clustering is the grouping of devices based on a particular criteria. In this paper, we first created nodes, found which devices are capable of forming a D2D link, divided them into clusters and then found the cluster head (CH) for each cluster. Finally we plotted graphs for throughput versus the threshold SNR and the distance between the links.

More »»

2018

B. Uma Maheswari and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Reliability Enhanced Overlay Structure for Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming”, in International Conference on Intelligent Data Communication Technologies and Internet of Things (ICICI) 2018, Cham, 2018, vol. 26, pp. 1088-1096.[Abstract]


Nowadays, people using live video streaming applications in the Internet are gaining momentum. Client/server model is the simple way to provide video streaming to multiple users. However, this model is not attractive due to server overload/failure and not sharing the client resources. In contrast, Peer to Peer (P2P) approach offers an advantage of creating a self-organizing network. Each byte of data is very important, as these applications demand a high Quality of Service (QoS). Peer failure and/or link failure may cause an interruption in the video delivery. Hence creating a reliable overlay is the primary concern in the streaming system. In this paper, we propose reliability approaches named RA:1, RA:2, RA:3, RA:4, and RA:5 for a hybrid overlay consists of tree and mesh-clusters (MC), where Cluster Heads (CH) are connected to the leaf of the tree. We evaluate and analyze the performance of each approach in the presence of node and link failures and indicate the best among them. RA:5 uses 60.5% more additional connections than RA:1 approach, and it achieves the highest frame success ratio of 99.32%.

More »»

2018

D. Vishal, Reddy, R. J., M. Abhirami, B., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Real Time Traffic Control for Emergency Service Vehicles”, in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, ICCIC 2017, 2018.[Abstract]


According to the recent survey there are thousands of people losing their lives due to the delay in the emergency services. Experts say that 3,000 more heart attack victims could be saved each year if 90 per cent of the delay could be minimized. And in the present scenario the number of deaths are in lakhs and this number can be effectively reduced by providing timely and accurate ambulance service. By avoiding the unnecessary time delay near traffic jams during an emergency situation. The shortest and the most efficient route that is asphalt constructed to the accident spot or the required location is displayed and the central server checks for the vehicles location and changes the traffic signal when the ambulance is approaching the traffic lights. The design and implementation of this technique is directly targeted for traffic management so that emergency service vehicles on road get a better way to reach their destination in shorter duration, efficiently and without any interference. © 2017 IEEE.

More »»

2018

Sumedh N, O. V. L. Narayana, Madhav Reddy, Nalini S., Ms. Priya B. K., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Modular Assembly Systems in Industry 4.0 Milieu”, in 2nd IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES) 2018, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, 2018.

2018

V. K. Daliya, Dr. T. K. Ramesh, S.S., M., V.R., H., and S.K., N., “A survey on enhancing the interoperability aspect of IoT based systems”, in Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference On Smart Technology for Smart Nation, SmartTechCon 2017, 2018, pp. 581-586.[Abstract]


Internet of things has become the buzzword of the technology world. It has given rise to a huge number of IoT deployments consisting of millions of IoT based devices which are heterogeneous in nature. As the number of components increases there is a huge demand for robust infrastructure with very less issues in terms of connectivity, traffic of data, Security, Privacy, and Interoperability. Among all these issues this paper focuses on the impact of interoperability in IoT. This issue becomes critical in hard real time systems which require constant monitoring of data. Several methods are in use to address the interoperability issues. This paper will discuss about the challenges and issues involved with the existing methods and the future aspects to control them. © 2017 IEEE.

More »»

2018

Aravinda K and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Integer-N charge pump phase locked loop with reduced current mismatch”, in Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking, WiSPNET 2017, 2018, vol. 2018-January, pp. 650-653.[Abstract]


The design of an Integer-N charge pump phase locked loop is presented in this paper, with emphasis on the current mismatch within the charge pump. The usage of differential amplifier in between the two limbs of the charge pump is found to reduce the current mismatch. The conventional charge pump requires 9 transistors and the proposed design reduces the current mismatch by 14%, with the inclusion of additional 3 transistors. The application intended for the PLL is 2.4 GHz, and the lock time obtained is 55 ns. The complete PLL circuit is implemented in 180 nm technology, with the NAND based PFD, and current starved type VCO based on 3-stage ring oscillator. The circuit consumes 13.32 mW of power, at the supply voltage of 1.8 V. © 2017 IEEE.

More »»

2018

P. L. S. Rao, Santosh, K. V. V. N. D., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Konda, S. K., “Earliest execution demand first routing protocol for WDM optical networks”, in Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking, WiSPNET 2017, 2018, vol. 2018-January, pp. 1545-1549.[Abstract]


Resource provisioning is usually done for static and dynamic traffic. It is considered to be a major problem in communication networks. Many proposals have been developed to overcome the issues, but as the demands are increasing day by day the researchers are mainly focussed towards developing efficient strategies. In multi-domain optical networks, the scheduled traffic (ST) like the looming interactive media and multi-vendor applications is repeated and recurring day by day. The traffic is usually more during working/functional hours and slump during non-working hours. Hence, the deficiency of resources is increasing which leads to the blocking of demands. To overcome this, Earliest set-up demand first (ESDF) and Earliest tear-down demand first (ETDF) schemes have been developed but these have few limitations. In ESDF, the consumption of resources will be more and in ETDF, the delay will be more. To resolve the problems of existing schemes we propose an efficient routing protocol Earliest Execution Demand First (EEDF) which gives priority to the execution time of the demands. In the simulation results we notice that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing strategies with respect to number of connections accepted and resource utilization ratio (RUR). © 2017 IEEE.

More »»

2017

D. Kanteti, Srikar, D. V. S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Intelligent smart parking algorithm”, in 2017 International Conference On Smart Technologies For Smart Nation (SmartTechCon), Bengaluru, India, 2017.[Abstract]


In this paper, we will be discussing about the parking system in a city which is embedded with various features like automated, rotary parking and nearest parking slot allotment using IoT and sensor technology. As we know that parking is one of the major problems especially in cities due to lack of required amount of parking area, maintenance facility and lack of proper guidance to park the car. Also there are situations which lead to chaos between people due to lack of proper guidance between them while travelling in the parking area to park the car. In this, we will be providing an algorithm which provides an effective and efficient solution to park the car by using hybrid parking mechanisms to provide more parking efficiency and cost effective with less maintenance and power consumption. Here, we will be using the CMOS sensors for number plate identification, speed sensors for speed detection, ultrasonic sensors for vehicle detection, softwares working OCR, arduino as a microcontroller and Raspberry Pi to interface all the components. The paper focuses on the effective and efficient smart working methods along with guided user safety.

More »»

2017

N. Reshma and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Underwater diving and diver health concerns a survey”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), Kollam, India, 2017.[Abstract]


Underwater communication is a field of communication where much of the developments have not taken place yet as it is a challenging environment to deal with. A prevalent technique to explore the underwater environment is `diving'. Underwater diving is considered to be a very dangerous as well as an adventurous task. The reason behind this is underwater environment is always varying in terms of temperature and pressure. Divers when dive through deep sea beds, heart beat and blood pressure keeps on varying. Sometimes they fail to inhale properly because they may not get sufficient airflow. In such cases, divers have to communicate with buoy station. But many times, the communication fails and divers die out of these issues. So a continuous monitoring of diver health is important where in diver can communicate and get the issues solved. There are many researches done on this issue. But none of them are up to the mark. This is the reason why we need a survey on this topic.

More »»

2017

V. D, Aishwarya, H. M., K, N., T, R. B., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Sign language to speech conversion”, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, ICCIC 2017, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, India,, 2017.

2017

D. Vishal, H. Afaque, S., D. Vishnu, S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Mobile Integrated Classroom”, in 2017 5th IEEE International Conference on MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), Bangalore, 2017.[Abstract]


Education is the first step to explore the world through knowledge. In an endeavor to make the learning process more engaging through mobile platforms which perhaps attract the students and help them to gain knowledge with interest. Efforts have been done to make the process of online tests and information delivery to the students, yet there is a gap in knowledge transfer between teachers and students. Here we have proposed a platform that utilizes the combination of biometric scanners, speech to text conversion techniques and image processing techniques to make the process of learning effective, interesting, and collaborative. We have added a tool that uses today's modern mobile technology to take attendance and reduce the wastage of valuable time in the class. Also we developed a tool, called Smart notes that have ability to reduce the burden of taking notes on students and worry about the knowledge gap between sections of the same campus. To reach out to every student we have found that the Instant Chatting tool introduced will be helpful to clear all the doubts. This tool can be used to for group discussions and to perform group activities. Hence the platform introduced integrated with three tools provides an excellent quality of education to fulfill every students need in comparison to the existing methods.

More »»

2017

D. Kanteti, Srikar, D. V. S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Active Learning Techniques and Impacts”, in 2017 5th IEEE International Conference on MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), Bangalore, India, 2017.[Abstract]


In this paper, we will be discussing about active learning techniques which will enhance students' abilities and makes them to overcome the fear of studies and lack of interest. In the present day, most of the students are discontinuing their studies due to many reasons like lack of interest, lack of proper prioritization of their interest, lack of good grade and many more. There might be many reasons for students for not getting engaged into academics but the main reason which makes them uninterested is lack of proper learning or teaching activity. So, active learning is just like a root of the tree which will make students to prioritize their interests in their learning age and make them to put their efforts to reach their goal. This paper also gives a clear idea about how to structure their mind sets and follow the path which helps them to reach their goal and also helps them to prioritize their interests and helps them to adopt according to current market needs.

More »»

2017

D. Kanteti, Srikar, D. V. S., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Smart parking system for commercial stretch in cities”, in 2017 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Chennai, India, 2017.[Abstract]


This paper introduces the concept of using smart technology in car parking services in particular commercial area in cities. People nowadays face problem while parking their vehicles in parking lots in a city. In order to overcome this, we have developed a Smart Parking System design which enables the user to find the nearest parking area and gives the availability of parking lots in that respective parking area. This design makes the traditional concept of parking system smarter by leveraging the power of IoT and embedding it with the latest innovation of electronic sensors & computers. It mainly focuses on reducing the time involved in finding parking lots and also on avoiding unnecessary travel through filled parking lots in a parking area. Many software applications and mobile apps have been proposed to provide a good parking experience to the users but there are many limitations like proper time usage in pre-booking through apps, traffic clearance, valet parking and allocation of slots near to the user required area. We have proposed a smart parking system for commercial stretch in cities (SPSCSC) which can be implemented using different database storage systems like Cloud, MySQL, Python wherein the vehicle is guided to the parking lot using the data, which is collected by sensors and image detectors, which is then processed and the necessary instructions are sent to the mobile of the user.

More »»

2017

P. L. Sindhuj Rao, Santosh, K. V. V. N. D., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Resource utilization protocol for static demands in WDM optical networks”, in 2017 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Chennai, India, 2017.[Abstract]


Resource provisioning is one of the major problems in optical communication networks. With the increase in number of users, the demand for high bandwidth is growing enormously which results in shortage of resources. So it is important to provide the resources efficiently. Generally there are two types of traffic demands which are static and dynamic. Both the set-up time as well as the tear-down time of demands is known earlier in static demands. In dynamic, lightpath is established for each demand as soon as it arrives only for definite amount of time. For efficient provisioning of resources, many different schemes have been developed by researchers. In optical networks, scheduled traffic due to multimedia and multi-vendor applications is reproducing day by day. During working hours, the scheduled traffic is huge and sluggish during rest of the time which leads to the blocking of requests during working hours. To overcome the above issues, different schemes like Earliest set-up demand first (ESDF) and Earliest tear-down demand first (ETDF) have been developed. These schemes have few limitations like consumption of resources in ESDF and more delay in ETDF process. To resolve the complications of the existing policies, we proposed Resource Utilization protocol wherein the capacity of the wavelength and the data rate of each demand will be considered. The demand with high data rate (almost equal to the capacity of the wavelength of the fiber) will be processed directly and the demand with the lower data rate will be groomed with the existing low data rate demands. This leads in serving more number of demands. From the results, we monitored that the new protocol outperforms the existing schemes with Resource utilization ratio (RUR), number of requests served and proper usage of bandwidth.

More »»

2017

D. Vishal, H. Afaque, S., Bhardawaj, H., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “IoT-driven road safety system”, in 2017 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Communication, Computer, and Optimization Techniques (ICEECCOT), 2017.[Abstract]


Roads are integral part of human civilization. They are the nervous system of any country; hence these are being laid on hill sides and narrow ridges which is a major hazard to human life. As roads play a crucial role in our daily routine these can be modelled in a smart manner to serve us with enhanced capabilities. The architecture of IoT is comprised of an ability to make things more coherent and effective. This paper synchronizes the concept of IoT with roads to make them smart. The paper talks about using the IoT technologies, with the onset of smart cities, to reduce the risk of run off road collisions. As every vehicle is IoT enabled and connected to the internet, we have an effective technique to guide emergency service vehicles through the road within least time. This IoT system is a combination of simple cost-effective antenna technology and internet platforms which works with complete automation. These abilities will make the system to serve us with better accuracy and delicacy.

More »»

2017

Ganapathi Hegde, Reddy, K. Srinivasa, and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “An approach for area and power optimization of flipping 3-D discrete wavelet transform architecture”, in 2017 7th International Symposium on Embedded Computing and System Design (ISED), Durgapur, India, 2017.[Abstract]


In this work, an approach for optimizing the 3-D Discrete wavelet transform (3-D DWT) architecture is recommended. Conventional 3-D DWT architectures include basic building blocks such as 1-D DWT module, 2-D DWT module, transpose memory unit, and temporal memory unit. Proposed 3D DWT architecture is designed by suitably interconnecting the fundamental constituents (1-D DWT and 2-D DWT modules) which do not demand transposition and temporal memory units. Architecture employing the recommended approach is realized in gate level Verilog HDL. Design is functionally verified, synthesized using Cadence RC design compiler, and implemented on 90nm standard cell library. Experimental results exhibit that the proposed approach for the architecture offers significant gain in both area and power.

More »»

2017

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Rao, P. L. Sindhuja, and Santosh, K. V. V. N. D., “Priority Based Traffic Balancing Routing Protocol for WDM Optical Networks”, in International conference on Microelectronic Devices, Circuits and Systems, ICMDCS 2017, Vellore, 2017.[Abstract]


Requirement for high bandwidth traffic has been increasing very rapidly. Efficient and effective provisioning of resources is very important now-a-days. Due to the increase in number of users, providing sufficient bandwidth has become a difficult task for the service providers and network operators. Researchers have developed many techniques to resolve this issue but they have not reached to full extent. The internet traffic is heavy during the working or office hours and less during nonworking hours. To overcome the above issues, different policies like Policy1 — Traffic Balancing (P1-TB), Policy2 — Traffic Balancing (P2-TB) and Policy3 — Traffic Balancing (P2-TB) have been developed but these schemes have few limitations. To resolve the complications of above, we have proposed an algorithm which considers the data rate, level of employee in an organization. The demand with high data rate (almost equal to the capacity of the wavelength of the fiber) will be processed directly and the demand with the lower data rate will be groomed with the existing low data rate demands. This leads in serving more number of demands. From the results, we monitored that the new protocol outperforms the existing schemes with less blocking probability by serving more number of requests

More »»

2017

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and N Kumar, V., “Polymer Optical Waveguide for Optical-Electrical Printed Circuit Board”, in Circuits and Systems, ICMDCS 2017, Vellore, 2017.[Abstract]


The drastic growth in internet services has led to growth in data sharing between the users. This has led to need for powerful and large data centers, where huge number of storage and computing servers are interconnected. According to the reports, annual data center traffic is growing at a very high growth rate of 25%, of which the major contribution is due to the servers within the data centers, i.e. Intra datacenters. The traffic outside the data center is handled by high-speed optical fiber network. However, within the datacenter the data is handled by both optical and electrical interconnects. It is essential that the fully network infrastructure is made optical to cater to the future needs. To fulfil the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of data centers and HPC (high performance computers). Though the server racks are connected through active optical cables, the server boards are still fully electrical, i.e. the optical-electrical conversion is done at the board edge. This conversion leads to bandwidth limitations at the server board. In this work we proposed to extend the optical reach to the processing unit i.e., microprocessors and memory unit from board edge. This is achieved by designing an OEPCB (Optical-Electrical Printed Circuit Board) using laser direct writing and to define high-speed optical waveguide. In this work, we target to demonstrate an on-board waveguide technology that can support data rate of 10 Gbps/channel. The demonstrator will enable a platform for further improvement in integration that will enable the next generation High-speed connection in Datacenters.

More »»

2017

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja C. V., “Efficient Networking System for Rural Human Health Care”, in International Conference on Electrical Computer and Communication Technologies, ICECCT 2017, Coimbatore, 2017.[Abstract]


In this paper, a health care system is described for rural areas considering a small village using hybrid network i.e. which operates both in ADHOC and cellular region. In this system, a small village is considered in which sensors are attached to people, the whole area is divided into clusters. The sensors considered for this system can operate in both ADHOC and GSM region. In each cluster, a sensor is fixed as cluster head (CH) and continuous energy is supplied to it ensuring that it will be active all the time. All the sensors connected to the patients will work in ADHOC region and one sensor operates in GSM network acting as a gateway between all the CH's and the base station (BS). The information about the patient's condition will be sent to BS through gateway sensor only if there is an emergency. Even in case of gateway sensor failure any other sensor in the village which is able to communicate with all sensors can act as gateway by switching its operation to cellular network. The data is sent to BS using reactive ADHOC routing protocols. By simulation it has been shown that this system is good in terms of energy efficiency and throughput compared to a system in which the CH changes periodically

More »»

2017

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja C. V., “Wireless sensor network protocol for patient monitoring system”, in 2017 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


In this paper, an efficient routing protocol for patient monitoring system in rural areas was proposed using wireless sensor network (WSN) so that the patients can be treated within less time. In this system, a village with GSM network is considered and the people in that village are continuously monitored using AMON sensor, an advanced medical monitoring and alert system. All the AMON's work in ADHOC region and one AMON in the village will work in GSM network acts as a gateway between the other sensors and BS. According to the patient's condition the information has to be sent to base station (BS). In this scenario, the routing of information is based on condition of the patient so on demand or reactive routing protocols are used. Different reactive routing protocols AODV, DSR are studied and modifications are done in them and compared to find the best protocol. Routing is done based on the efficient routing protocol and by simulation it is shown that the routing protocol is best in terms of throughput, end to end delay compared to other protocols.

More »»

2017

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Giriraja C. V., ,, ,, and M.H., I., “Efficient SCT Protocol for Post Disaster Communication”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, vol. 225.[Abstract]


Natural and catastrophic disasters can cause damage to the communication system, the damage may be complete or it may be partial. In such areas communication and exchange of information plays a very important role and become difficult to happen in such situations. So, the rescue systems should be installed in those areas for the rescue operations and to take important decisions about how to make a connection from there to the outside world. Wireless communication network architecture should be setup in disaster areas for the communication to happen and to gather information. Wireless ad-hoc network architecture is proposed in this paper with access nodes. These access nodes acts as hotspot for certain area in which they are set up such that the Wi-Fi capable devices get connected to them for communication to happen. If the mobile battery is drained in such situations wireless charging using microwave is shown in this paper. Performance analysis of the communication transport layer protocols is shown and Efficient SCTP (ESTP) algorithm is developed which shows better results in terms of cumulative packet loss. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

More »»

2017

A. Susmitha, Alakananda, T., Apoorva, M. L., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, ,, ,, and M.H., I., “Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, vol. 225.[Abstract]


In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is "Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms" (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called "Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources' (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

More »»

2016

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, M, P., Giriraja C. V., and Konda, S. K., “Power Efficient Multicast Routing Protocol for Dynamic Intra Cluster Device to Device Communication”, in International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques, ICEEOT 2016, 2016.[Abstract]


In this paper, an efficient multicast routing protocol was proposed for device to device (D2D) communication which helps in increasing the transmission power efficiency, quality of service (QoS) and also reduces the blocking probability and latency. In our algorithm, the packet transmission sequence is decided by the users need i.e. data demand. Base station (BS) selects one as the cluster head (CH) among the users in this method based on the power level. Cluster head changes for different transmissions and will be able to access all the users at that particular time. For a particular packet transmission BS decides one of the users who have received more number of requests as transmitter and that transmits packets to all the requested users. Routing is done according to our algorithm and by simulation we have shown that transmission power efficiency increases, blocking probability and latency decreases compared with [1] and [2].

More »»

2016

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Konda, S. K., “Energy - Efficient Resource Allocation in WDM Networks”, in International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2016,, 2016.[Abstract]


The paper describes an Energy - Efficient Resource Allocation protocol for Wavelength-Routed All-Optical WDM Networks. Protocol selects efficient and low power consumption optimal primary and backup paths. The path selection will be done by Central Management System (CMS). The selection will be by two methods, i.e., the path with less number of free wavelengths will not be considered for selection of optimal path, will be used as backup path because after serving all the requests on this link the link becomes completely free, all the links where the links are completely free can be put it off to save operational power consumption. In the remaining paths the path where the blocking probability (BP) is less will be considered as optimal path. With this efficient path selection protocol power consumption across the network will be reduced because of link switching off technique. The protocol increases the throughput over the network because of selecting optimal path by using BP and as there is no dedicated path is blocked for backup purpose. The path with link off will be used as backup path in case of requirement. The links will active/put-on again with an interrupt, this interrupt will be generated either when optimal path fails or when there is only one path exist to serve the request. Our protocol results shows high throughput with low blocking probability and power consumption in comparison with shortest path & fixed path protocols

More »»

2016

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and A, K., “Characterization of Submicron Ring Oscillator Using the First Order Design Equations”, in International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2016, 2016.[Abstract]


In this paper, we present the characterization of the Ring oscillator for submicron technology in terms of the first order design equations of the MOSFETs, and we arrive at the extent upto which the short channel effects influence the oscillating frequency. In addition, a solution is suggested to reduce the duration of metastability upto 50%. The Ring oscillator is designed from 3-stage till 15-stage, and the circuit simulations are performed, with the oscillation frequencies ranging from 1.03 GHz till 5.38 GHz. Additional observations are noted by varying the device widths and lengths. It is found that the frequency of operation is independent of the device width, and is inversely proportional to the square of the device length. As a result, the equation derived using the first order behavior can be utilized for obtaining the frequency of the Ring oscillator

More »»

2016

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja C. V., “Study of reassignment strategy in Dynamic Channel Allocation scheme”, in 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, SPIN 2016, 2016, pp. 731-734.[Abstract]


In this work, an efficient channel utilization scheme based on the Distributed Dynamic Channel Assignment (DDCA) is proposed. It can handle three types of constraints Adjacent Channel Constraint (ACC), Co-Channel Constraint (CCC), Co- Site Constraint (CSC) simultaneously while assigning the channel. Previous methods like Dynamic Channel Selection and Reassignment (DCSR) scheme employs reassignment strategy to maximize the number of unavailable channels becoming available. This scheme transfers an ongoing call of one channel to the released channel if there is relatively lesser number of available channels becoming unavailable due to above mentioned constraints. The results are produced without reassignment. These results are compared with DCSR scheme. New call and handoff call block rates are plotted for comparison.

More »»

2015

M. Pushpalatha, Shruthi, N. V., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Konda, S. K., “Efficient Multicast Algorithm for Dynamic Intra Cluster Device-to-Device communication for small world model paper”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 1782-1786.[Abstract]


Device to Device (D2D) communication technique has been projected as means of taking the benefit of increasing performance of cellular communication with direct link between users. In this paper, we propose a dynamic intra cluster data sharing method taking advantage of D2D multicast. One of the users serves as cluster head to take turns to multicast at a particular time, selected by base station on the basis of power level. Cluster head at that particular time is able to access to the users in the cluster. In our algorithm dynamic data demand is considered in order to send the packets in sequence based on users need. Base station identifies the user with more requests, and informs the Cluster head. Cluster head asks that particular user to serve as transmitting user. The transmitting user monitors the acknowledgements sent by the receiving users. If acknowledgement fails to come within the minimum time (tmin) the transmitting user informs the cluster head. Then cluster head checks the reason for failure of acknowledgement. Accordingly, it requests the next user with more requests to transmit the data to the users who failed to receive it. This process continues until all the users receive the data, this improves the transmission efficiency. By simulation we prove that throughput increases, blocking probability and latency get reduced. All these increase the Quality of Service (QoS) compared to Intra cluster D2D communication for a small world model based on poor link quality between the users [3]. © 2015 IEEE.

More »»

2015

Giriraja C. V. and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “SNR Based Master-Slave Dynamic Device to Device communication in underlay cellular networks”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 2114-2117.[Abstract]


In cellular networks Device to Device (D2D) communication is used to improve the resource utilization and the throughput. SNR Based Master-Slave Dynamic D2D Communication Algorithm (SMSDCA) is proposed to improve the resource utilization of the cellular network and improved Quality of Service (QoS). It is achieved by allocating some User Equipment (UE) as master in that cluster based on SNR and energy, who communicates with base station and the other UE's by using D2D. Other UE's requesting for data in that cluster are made as slaves. SMSDCA uses dynamic management of clusters and devices. In this we are handling both static and dynamic users need. For non-data requests it allocates the channel as per existence but for data requests SMSDCA will be used. In this algorithm D2D channel will be allocated by base station. Energy of the device is computed based on activities of the user, i.e., voice calls, duration and number of data packets transferred. The master can be changed dynamically based on SNR, energy and movement of device in cluster limit. By using this, the new users requesting for data and users moving from neighboring clusters are taken care accordingly. In this paper MATLAB simulation results shows that by using this algorithm the throughput and number of users can be served will be increased in comparison with Interference aware graph based resource sharing scheme for D2D communication [3]. © 2015 IEEE.

More »»

2012

R. Janani, Kiran, S. P., Swapna, T., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Vaya, P. R., “Efficient alternate RWA protocol for WDM networks”, in 2012 International Conference on Optical Engineering, ICOE 2012, Belgaum, Karnataka, 2012.[Abstract]


Existing methodologies in WDM networks, generally uses either lightpath distance or network congestion to identify optimal and backup lightpaths. In our paper, we have designed an efficient alternate RWA protocol (EARP) which considers both congestion and route distance so as to improve the network performance. On arrival of a request the source node sends control signals through all the paths to the destination node. In this process, the number of free continuous wavelengths and conflict information are collected at the destination. Then, the lightpaths are computed based on this information and the precomputed distance information. A subset of wavelengths in the optimal lightpath is considered at the destination node for the reservation on the basis of conflict information. Backup lightpath is used for survivability. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath but it can be shared with another backup lightpath. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has lower blocking probability than the existing.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Amrutha, L. N., Madhu, A., Reddy, K. S., and Vaya, P. R., “A proactive and self-regulated ant-based RWA protocol for all-optical WDM networks”, in Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Process Automation, Control and Computing, PACC 2011, Coimbatore, 2011.[Abstract]


Balancing the load among multiple path leads to the degradation in the all-optical WDM networks. It is always desirable to deliver the entire load on a single optimal path depending upon the current network load status. This paper employs the use of ant colony optimization (ACO) for routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem of all-optical WDM networks along with survivability. Our algorithm proactively updates the changes in the network status and finds optimal and sub-optimal paths depending upon the number of free wavelengths available per link along the path from source to destination. When a connection request arrives at a node, the data is routed through the readily available optimal path thereby reducing the setup time. Furthermore, the approach is self-regulating i.e. it automatically adapts to traffic load variations across the network. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has high throughput and bandwidth utilization.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Janani, R., Kiran, S. P., Swapna, T., and Vaya, P. R., “Automated Distributed Dynamic Survivable RWA Protocol for WDM Networks”, in TISC 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing, Chennai, 2011, pp. 194-198.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have designed a distributed dynamic survivable RWA protocol based on automatic updation (ADDR). The updation mechanism involves calculation of number of free wavelengths and shortest distance at the source node to identify the optimal and backup lightpath to reduce the congestion and delay in the network. As soon as the request approaches the node, it is served with the best lightpath with the help of the data available in the node table which reduces the setup time. Backup lightpath is used for survivability. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath but it can be shared with another backup lightpath. Grooming is used for low speed traffics to reduce the connection request blocking. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has low blocking probability.

More »»

2011

S. Kashyap, Suman, I. V. S. A., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Vaya, P. R., “Priority Based Efficient and Reliable Centralized Connection Management Scheme for Computer Networks”, in TISC 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing, Chennai, 2011, pp. 169-172.[Abstract]


The Centralized connection management method is vulnerable due to its single point of failure and also as the traffic load increases, the control traffic to and from the controller increases substantially and the central controller requires sufficient buffer and processing speed to handle the requests. To overcome the above limitation, we present the design and analysis of a Priority based efficient and reliable centralized connection management scheme with two central management systems (CMS-1 and CMS-2) for computer networks (PERCC). In this scheme whenever a request comes, the odd-numbered requests will be taken up by CMS-1 and also stored in a queue of CMS-2 and vice-versa for the even-numbered requests. CMS-1 and CMS-2 check for any high priority request among three requests in the incoming buffer queue, when taking up. If the request-taken CMS cannot allocate a path, then the other CMS will automatically take it up after t seconds in case if it's a low priority request, or before t1 seconds if it's a high priority request (t1 < t), which gives a second chance for any failed request for getting a path. The timer for high priority requests is less than low priority ones. They will be attended faster/before than low priority requests. Furthermore, if any one of the CMS fails, then the other CMS will take over the entire work. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed centralized connection management scheme has low blocking probability and processing time in comparison with the single CMS connection management scheme.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Reddy, A. N., Kumar, G. V. L. Praveen, Biju, K., and Vaya, P. R., “Advanced Centralized Priority Based RWA Protocol for WDM Networks”, in TISC 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing, Chennai, 2011, pp. 160-163.[Abstract]


Balancing the communication traffic between multiple lightpaths, using particular RWA protocol for all class-of-traffics, or a combination of both leads to the degradation of the WDM network performance. Hence for better performance of WDM network, in this paper we designed and analyzed an advanced centralized priority based RWA protocol (ACPR) for WDM networks in which appropriate RWA methodologies are used depending on the priority and speed of the incoming traffics to identify the optimal primary and backup lightpaths. In addition protocol uses two Centralized Management System CMS1 and CMS2 to reduce the network performance bottleneck problem by sharing the work and also if any failure occurs to either of CMS the other CMS take over its responsibilities. Whenever a request comes, it is placed in queue. Then CMS takes alternative requests from the queue. Then CMS identifies the traffic class depending on their priority and speed as high priority high speed (HPHS), high priority low speed (HPLS), low priority high speed (LPHS) and low priority low speed (LPLS). CMS uses appropriate RWA methodologies as per incoming requests to identify the optimal light paths like for HPHS it uses number of free wavelengths, for HPLS it uses number of free wavelengths and also tries for grooming, for LPHS it uses number of free wavelengths and for LPLS it uses number of free wavelengths and also tries for grooming. In this RWA protocol in order to give more importance to high priority request the available wavelength set is divided into three subsets, called P set of higher order wavelengths, C set of common wavelengths for high priority and low priority and remaining S wavelengths used as a backup wavelength for control signals. In case of any failure in control signal wavelengths, S set of backup wavelengths can be used. Protocol also finds an optimal light path for high priority request using wavelengths from subset C, else finds out using wavelengths from subset P. Optimal light path for low priority traffics are found by only using wavelengths from subset C. Further for survivability of connections in the case of failure the backup light path is allocated. The selection of backup light path is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup light path. By simulation results, we have shown that high priority requests have low blocking probability in comparison to low priority requests. This electronic document is a "live" template. The various components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated by the portions given in this document.

More »»

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Title

2017

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Rao, M. P. L. Sind, and Santhosh, M. K. V. V. N., “Power Efficient Resource Utilization Protocol for WDM Optical Networks”, 6th International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI’17) . Manipal University, Karnataka, 2017.[Abstract]


Requirement for high bandwidth internet traffic is growing rapidly now-a-days. Utilization of the available resources becomes troublesome due to rise in the number of users. So it is important to provide the resources efficiently. To solve the problem of resource provisioning, many developments have been made by the researchers. During working hours, the scheduled traffic is huge and sluggish during rest of the time which leads to the blocking of requests during working hours. To overcome the above issues, different schemes like Earliest set-up demand first (ESDF) and Earliest tear-down demand first (ETDF) have been developed. These schemes have few limitations like consumption of resources in ESDF and more delay in ETDF process. To resolve the complications of the existing policies, we proposed Power Efficient-Resource Utilization protocol (PERUP) wherein the capacity of the wavelength and the data rate of each demand will be considered. The demand with high data rate (almost equal to the capacity of the wavelength of the fiber) will be processed directly and the demand with the lower data rate will be groomed with the existing low data rate demands. This leads in serving more number of demands. From the results, we monitored that the new protocol outperforms the existing schemes with Resource utilization ratio (RUR), number of requests served and proper usage of bandwidth. Here we also focus on the power consumption of the network by selecting the route based on the cost of the link.

More »»

2017

M. Daliya V. K and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Survey on Enhancing the Interoperability aspect of IoT Based System”, International Conference on Smart Technologies for Smart Nation (SmartTechCon 2017). REVA University, Bangalore , 2017.

2015

A. Koithyar and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “Analysis of Deadbeat Control for an Integer-N Charge-pump PLL”, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 70. pp. 392-398, 2015.[Abstract]


The conventional method to decrease the settling time of oscillators is to increase the bandwidth, which in turn results in an increase in the spur content, affecting the transient performance of the PLL. Even though several architectural variations have been suggested to reduce the lock time, a novel method to reduce the settling time is “Deadbeat control”, in which an additional system is implemented in feedback with the PLL. This method accomplishes the reduced settling time without any change in the design of the forward gain components. Before the implementation of the deadbeat control, the concepts of controllability and observability have to be satisfied for the PLL. In this particular work, these tests are carried out on an integer-N charge-pump PLL, and then the deadbeat control is verified. The settling time and the overshoot are deduced from the step-response of the PLL, by means of MATLAB simulation.

More »»

2012

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. K., and Vaya, P. R., “Survivable traffic grooming RWA protocol for WDM networks”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 30. Coimbatore, pp. 334-340, 2012.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have presented an efficient RWA protocol for WDM networks. The optimal and sub-optimal lightpaths are found by the ants (control agents) depending upon the number of free wavelengths available, the length of the lightpath (hop count) and number of conversion required from source to destination. When a connection request arrives at a node, the high speed data are routed through the readily available optimal lightpath thereby reducing the processing time. The low speed data are first tried to groom over the existing low speed data, else routed through the readily available lightpath. As opposed to the reactive protocols, our proposed protocol is proactive in the sense that it proactively updates the changes in the network status using the concept of ant colony optimization. Further for survivability backup lightpath is maintained. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath but it can be shared with another backup lightpath. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has low blocking probability and delay.

More »»

2012

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, A. Reddy, N., Kumar, G. V. L. Praveen, Biju, K., and Vaya, P. R., “A centralized priority based RWA protocol for WDM networks”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 269 CCIS. Vellore, TN, pp. 300-307, 2012.[Abstract]


In this protocol we use appropriate RWA methodologies depending on the priority and speed of the incoming traffics to identify the optimal lightpaths. As request arrives, centralized management system (CMS) identifies the traffic class depending on their priority and speed. Accordingly CMS uses appropriate RWA methodologies to identify the optimal lightpaths. To give more importance to high priority request the available wavelength set is divided into two subsets, called P set of higher order wavelengths and C set of remaining wavelengths. Protocol first tries to find an optimal lightpath for high priority request using wavelengths from subset C, else finds out using P. Lightpaths for low priority traffics are found by only using subset C. Further for survivability backup lightpath is maintained. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath. By simulation results, we have shown high priority requests have low blocking probability. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

More »»

2012

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Janani, R., S. Kiran, P., Swapna, T., and Vaya, P. R., “RWA protocol for larger WDM networks”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 269 CCIS. Vellore, TN, pp. 322-328, 2012.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of a RWA protocol for larger WDM network (RPLN), consisting of 'N' sector networks, each with a centralized management system (CMS). A backup central CMS of high capacity is maintained to share the work and to takeover if any of the sector CMS fails. As per the connection request, the central CMS decides inter or intra sector transmission. In the case of intra transmission, the sector CMS identifies the optimal lightpaths based on number of free wavelength and distance. For inter transmission, it acts as a node for the central CMS. The central CMS acts as the backup CMS if anyone of the sector CMS fails. By this we introduce a new concept of centralized-centralized-distributed. RPLN overcomes the single point failure and performance bottleneck of a large network with single CMS. Furthermore grooming is also used to improve the blocking probability of connection requests. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

More »»

2011

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, S, A., B, B. K., Nayanar, D., and , “Distributed Dynamic Multipath RWA Algorithm for Enhancement of QoS for all-optical WDM Networks”, Proceedings of 2011 3rd IEEE International Conference on Information Management and Engineering, ICIME 2011. 2011.[Abstract]


Balancing the load between multiple paths leads to the degradation of performance in all-optical WDM networks. It is always desirable to carry the entire load on a single optimal path depending upon the current network load condition. Hence multiple lightpaths need to be maintained to provide the choice of selecting the optimal path based on the varying traffic load conditions. In this paper, we have presented a distributed dynamic multipath RWA algorithm (DDMR). In this algorithm, first, the incoming traffic is sent through all the possible paths. With the number of acknowledgements received, the source estimates the blocking probabilities of each path and the source node selects the best three paths based on lowest three blocking probabilities. Data is then classified based on their priorities. High priority data is sent through primary path, the path having the lowest blocking probability; and low priority data through secondary path, the path having the second lowest blocking probability. Backup path, which has the third lowest blocking probability, is kept for survivability of the network. With acknowledgement received on the data sent, blocking probabilities of primary path and secondary path are constantly updated. A threshold value "thresh" is set. Only if the maximum value of blocking probabilities of primary path or secondary path goes above the value of "thresh", the algorithm restarts; by which it identifies and assigns optimal paths again. This improves the overall setup delay of the system. In addition the algorithm has a proactive approach, such that it minimizes the chance of blocking and also the approach is self-acting as it automatically changes with the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation using MATLAB, we have shown that our algorithm leads to considerably lower blocking probability, higher throughput and better channel utilization which improves the QoS of the network.

More »»

2011

K. S. K., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and R., V. P., “Advanced centralized RWA protocol for WDM networks”, 2011 Annual IEEE India Conference: Engineering Sustainable Solutions, INDICON-2011. 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of an Advanced Centralized RWA Protocol (ACRP) in which the cost of a lightpath is computed based on its number of available free wavelengths and number of wavelength conversions. Centralized Management System (CMS I) assigns optimal primary and backup lightpaths. CMS II updates the optimal primary and backup lightpaths as and when the number of free wavelengths of primary lightpath reaches the threshold value 'N≤ 4'. In case of failure the data will be rerouted through the backup lightpath and very next lightpath with best cost is assigned as backup lightpath. The advantage of this protocol is that the tasks are shared using two CMS which improves the computation bottleneck and also if one fails the other will take over the entire process. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has minimal request rejection and set-up time.

More »»

2010

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Vaya, P. R., “A Proactive and Self Regulating Protocol for WDM All-Optical Networks”, iCIRET 2010. Park College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore., 2010.

2010

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Vaya, P. R., “A Simple Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm with Blocking Probability Heuristics for Fault Tolerant Computing in All- Optical WDM Networks’ ”, ICODC 2010 . Oxford College of Engineering and Technology Bengaluru, 2010.

2010

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Vaya, P. R., “An efficient algorithm for Routing issues in WDM optical networks”, NCICT‐2010. New Horizon College of Engineering, Bengaluru, 2010.

2010

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, S., S., and S., E., “Traffic classifications in switched Ethernet”, NACTECIT – 2010. CMR Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, 2010.

Faculty Research Interest: