Qualification: 
Ph.D, MS
tk_ramesh@blr.amrita.edu

Dr. T. K. Ramesh joined Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in August 2005 after serving as an Assistant Professor at M.V.J. College of Engineering, Bengaluru for 12 years. He has been the recipient of the ‘Best Teacher’ award for the year 2003 at M.V.J. College of Engineering, Bengaluru. He has 25 years of teaching experience.

Dr. T. K. Ramesh obtained his PhD from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in 2012 in the field of Optical Networks. He has published over 50 research publications in various Journals and Conferences. He is presently supervising several doctoral and post graduate students. His areas of research include wired and wireless networks, network on chip, embedded systems, electronic circuits and design.

Currently he is an Associate Professor and Vice-Chairperson of the Electronics and Communication Engineering Dept., Amrita School of Engineering, Bengaluru. He is also a member of various academic and administrative committees of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham and a lifetime member of the Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE).

Ongoing Research

  • Resource Management for D2D Communication in Cellular Networks
  • Routing and Wavelength Assignment Protocols for WDM Networks
  • Cluster based medium access control protocols for VANETs
  • LTE Downlink Scheduling Algorithms
  • Design of prototype for underwater water diving to monitor the health condition of a diver
  • Under Water Acoustic MODEM Design
  • Architecture and Design of Integer-N Charge-pump PLL
  • VLSI implementation of the high performance discrete wavelet transform architectures

Funded Project

Battery powered portable refrigerator, Amrita TBI Innovation Challenge 2017

Teaching

  • Optical Communication and Networks
  • Wireless Communication
  • Electronics Devices and Circuits
  • Digital IC Design
  • Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  • Analog and Digital Communication

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Journal Article

A. Koithyar and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Faster Phase Frequency Detector Using Transmission Gate-based Latch for the Reduced Response Time of the PLL”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2018.[Abstract]


In this paper, we present a new design of phase frequency detector (PFD) without reset, such that the blind zone and dead zone issues in the phase locked loop are annihilated. The PFD is designed using transmission gate-based latches, which produce UP and DOWN pulses only when there is a distinct phase difference between the reference and divided frequencies. Thus, the continuous pulses that get produced by the conventional NAND gate-based latches are avoided, leading to reduced power consumption of the PFD. The charge pump makes use of an op-amp used as a buffer, to reduce the current mismatch. The loop filter used is of second order, and the voltage-controlled oscillator is of conventional current-starved type. The divider makes use of true single-phase clock latches. It was found that the phase locked loop with new design of PFD, compared with the conventional design, consumes 27% lesser power, and the lock time is decreased by 79%. In addition, it was found that the control voltage swing is reduced by 71%, which leads to much lesser spur content at the output of the voltage-controlled oscillator.

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2018

Journal Article

S. Afaque, Vishal, D., and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Technical Survey on Underwater Communication”, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 198-203, 2018.[Abstract]


The world’s pace has elevated technology to a higher pinnacle in the field of communication, yet the research in underwater communication is progressing in a slow traverse due to its compound barriers. Underwater communication is one of the unique and challenging fields in communication engineering in the case of both designing and communication. It is limited by several factors like the multipath channel and frequency which is limiting the application of underwater communication. An appropriate choice of modulation will enable the device to give better data rates. As every communication needs higher data rates, appropriate devices must be coupled with multiple access methods to make it efficient and reliable. The paper is a plot of the data surveyed on underwater communication which combines of major challenges associated with underwater applications and the approaches to mitigate some of these challenges is data.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. Kumar, M Teja, S., ,, and Vaya, P. R., “An Adaptive Reliable Multipath Centralized RWA Algorithm for All-Optical WDM Networks”, CiiT International Journal of Networking and Communication Engineering, vol. 9, 2017.[Abstract]


Balancing the load among multiple paths leads to the degradation in the all-optical WDM network. It is always desirable to deliver the entire load on a single optimal path depending upon the current network-wide load status. For this case, multiple light paths need to be maintained to provide the choice of selecting the best light path, based on the changing traffic load conditions, This paper presents the design and analysis of an adaptive reliable multipath centralized routing algorithm (ARMCR) with two central management systems (CMS-1 and CMS-2) which considers load heuristic for selecting the optimal and backup paths. Initially in this algorithm when a request comes to a source it sends the information to CMS-1 for allocating the optimal primary and backup paths for the received request, depending on the number of available free wavelengths. With the assigned primary path, source starts clearing the request meanwhile CMS-2 keeps track of the changes in the available free wavelengths and failure of all the paths. In the assigned primary path if the available free wavelength number comes below the threshold number ‗N‘ and at the same time if any other path is available with more number of free wavelengths, then CMS-2 assigns this path as primary path and very next more number available free wavelengths path is assigned as backup path. The advantage of this algorithm is that it reduces the set up time by using two CMS which share the work and also if one fails the other will take over the entire process. As opposed to the reactive protocols, our proposed protocol is proactive in the sense that it avoids the chances of blocking. Furthermore, the approach is self-regulating, it automatically adapts to the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has low set up time and blocking.

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2015

Journal Article

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, V., M., V., P. Kumar, and K., T., “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms”, Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 369-375, 2015.[Abstract]


In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important and it is well known that irrigation by drip is very economical and efficient. In the conventional drip irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. This project makes the irrigation automated. With the use of low cost soil moisture sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer. This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity. Also, third world countries can afford this simple and low cost solution for irrigation and obtain good yield on Crops. In this work undertaken, a given area of land is divided into specific areas virtually by C.A.D software and soil moisture sensors are deployed at specific points in every sector of the division. Underground water-piping is laid covering all the sectors from all sides. The sensors sense the moisture levels continuously and water the area running low on moisture instead of the entire land. Sensors transmit the moisture content and display on to the L.C.D. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed. Provision for mixing fertilizers and other essential chemicals is also allowed through the watering route ensuring less labour work force. Armel ATMEGA328 controller supported with ARDUINO is used in this project. A 16×2 LCD is connected to the microcontroller, which displays the sector-wise moisture level. We have taken two sector divisions into consideration. Each sector division will have few moisture sensors and each sensor will transmit a value. Average value of all sensors in a field is taken. Solenoid valves are used for controlling the water flow to the prototype field. The soil moisture levels are transmitted at regular time interval to the PC through the USB port connected to ARDUINO developer board for data logging and analysis. Three relays are connected to the microcontroller for controlling two solenoid valves and the motor supplying water to different parts of the field.

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2011

Journal Article

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, S. Ashok, Bithil, K. B., Nayanar, D., and Vaya, P. R., “Distributed traffic grooming multipath routing algorithm for all optical WDM networks”, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 57, pp. 305-313, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have presented an efficient traffic grooming algorithm (DTMR) for selecting the optimal path based on the varying traffic load conditions. In this algorithm, the initial incoming packets are sent through all the possible paths. With the monitored values on each path, the source estimates the blocking probabilities of each path and the source node selects the best three paths. Then the traffic is classified into high priority and low priority by the source. Subsequently, they are classified into high speed and low speed traffic. High priority high speed data is sent through primary path. Low priority high speed data is sent through secondary path. The high priority low speed packets are inserted in a frame of fixed length containing the given packets along with replicas of the same packet. Enough replicas are added so that the size of the frame adds upto a minimum of 3.5 Gigabits and a maximum of 5 Gigabits. These high priority low speed packets are sent through the primary path. The same procedure is done for low priority low speed packets as well. These low priority low speed packets are then sent through the secondary path. Backup path is kept for survivability of the network. However, the initial duplication of packets is only done if there are no other requests waiting in queue. When these high priority low speed or low priority low speed packets arrive at another node, and if there are other low speed requests which arrive at this node to be processed; then the replica packets are discarded and the low speed packets at the other node is added in the frame. Using the number of acknowledgement packets that are received, the blocking probabilities of primary path and secondary path are updated. A threshold value "thresh" is set. Only if the maximum value of the blocking probabilities of primary path or secondary path goes above "thresh", the algorithm restarts and identifies and assigns optimal paths, thus optimizing the overall setup delay of the system. In addition the algorithm has a proactive approach, such that it minimizes the chance of blocking and also the approach is self-acting as it automatically changes with the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation result, we show that our algorithm has low blocking probability and high throughput which improves the QoS of the network.

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2011

Journal Article

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. K., M. Teja, S., Veluguleti, H., and Vaya, P. R., “A Centralized Dynamic RWA Protocol for All-optical WDM Networks”, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 56, pp. 97-103, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of a Centralized dynamic RWA protocol (CDRP) in which the number of available free wavelengths and blocking probability parameters are considered for selecting the optimal paths. In this protocol whenever a request comes to a source it sends the information to Centralized Management System (CMS-1) and the CMS-1 calculates number of available free wavelengths on each path and simultaneously the CMS-I intimate the source to transmit the request through all the paths. Based on the number of packets reached the destination CMS-1 computes the blocking probabilities of all the paths and assigns Optimal primary and backup paths based on blocking probability and number of available free wavelengths. CMS-2 repeats the above procedure when the blocking probability of optimal path reaches threshold value 'N'. In case of fiber level failure the data will be rerouted through the backup path and very next path with least blocking probability and more number of available free wavelengths is assigned as backup path. The advantage of this algorithm is that it identifies an optimal and backup path by blocking probability and number of available free wavelengths. In addition to that the tasks are shared by using two CMS, If one fails the other will take over the entire process and also our approach is self regulating, i.e., it automatically adapts to the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has minimal blocking probability and high throughput.

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2011

Journal Article

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. Kumar, and R, V. P., “A Global RWA Protocol for WDM networks”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), , vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1685-1689, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of a global RWA protocol (GRP) consisting of ‘N’ sector networks, each with a centralized management system (CMS) and sectors acts as a node of a distributed system. As per the connection request it uses centralized or hybrid method (centralized and distributed) to identify the primary and backup lightpaths. In addition an extra backup CMS is maintained to takeover if any of the sector CMS fails. It also involves in the data transmission between two sector  CMS when the optimal primary lightpath fails. In this protocol lightpaths with least blocking robabilities are used for primary and backup lightpaths. Data is transmitted through the primary lightpath and if primary lightpath fails, the data will be routed through the backup lightpath and the lightpath with next least blocking probability is used as new backup lightpath. Global network overcomes the performance bottleneck of a large network with single CMS. In addition, grooming is also used to improve the blocking probability of connection request

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2010

Journal Article

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Vaya, P. R., “An Adaptive Reliable Multipath Routing Protocol for WDM Networks”, International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Systems, IJCES, vol. 4, no. 3, 2010.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja, C. V., “Efficient SCT Protocol for Post Disaster Communication”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, vol. 225.[Abstract]


Natural and catastrophic disasters can cause damage to the communication system, the damage may be complete or it may be partial. In such areas communication and exchange of information plays a very important role and become difficult to happen in such situations. So, the rescue systems should be installed in those areas for the rescue operations and to take important decisions about how to make a connection from there to the outside world. Wireless communication network architecture should be setup in disaster areas for the communication to happen and to gather information. Wireless ad-hoc network architecture is proposed in this paper with access nodes. These access nodes acts as hotspot for certain area in which they are set up such that the Wi-Fi capable devices get connected to them for communication to happen. If the mobile battery is drained in such situations wireless charging using microwave is shown in this paper. Performance analysis of the communication transport layer protocols is shown and Efficient SCTP (ESTP) algorithm is developed which shows better results in terms of cumulative packet loss. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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2017

Conference Paper

A. Susmitha, Alakananda, T., Apoorva, M. L., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, ,, ,, and M.H., I., “Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, vol. 225.[Abstract]


In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is "Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms" (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called "Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources' (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

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2017

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja, C. V., “Efficient Networking System for Rural Human Health Care”, in International Conference on Electrical Computer and Communication Technologies, ICECCT 2017, Coimbatore, 2017.[Abstract]


In this paper, a health care system is described for rural areas considering a small village using hybrid network i.e. which operates both in ADHOC and cellular region. In this system, a small village is considered in which sensors are attached to people, the whole area is divided into clusters. The sensors considered for this system can operate in both ADHOC and GSM region. In each cluster, a sensor is fixed as cluster head (CH) and continuous energy is supplied to it ensuring that it will be active all the time. All the sensors connected to the patients will work in ADHOC region and one sensor operates in GSM network acting as a gateway between all the CH's and the base station (BS). The information about the patient's condition will be sent to BS through gateway sensor only if there is an emergency. Even in case of gateway sensor failure any other sensor in the village which is able to communicate with all sensors can act as gateway by switching its operation to cellular network. The data is sent to BS using reactive ADHOC routing protocols. By simulation it has been shown that this system is good in terms of energy efficiency and throughput compared to a system in which the CH changes periodically

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2017

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja, C. V., “Wireless sensor network protocol for patient monitoring system”, in 2017 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


In this paper, an efficient routing protocol for patient monitoring system in rural areas was proposed using wireless sensor network (WSN) so that the patients can be treated within less time. In this system, a village with GSM network is considered and the people in that village are continuously monitored using AMON sensor, an advanced medical monitoring and alert system. All the AMON's work in ADHOC region and one AMON in the village will work in GSM network acts as a gateway between the other sensors and BS. According to the patient's condition the information has to be sent to base station (BS). In this scenario, the routing of information is based on condition of the patient so on demand or reactive routing protocols are used. Different reactive routing protocols AODV, DSR are studied and modifications are done in them and compared to find the best protocol. Routing is done based on the efficient routing protocol and by simulation it is shown that the routing protocol is best in terms of throughput, end to end delay compared to other protocols.

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2017

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and N Kumar, V., “Polymer Optical Waveguide for Optical-Electrical Printed Circuit Board”, in Circuits and Systems, ICMDCS 2017, Vellore, 2017.[Abstract]


The drastic growth in internet services has led to growth in data sharing between the users. This has led to need for powerful and large data centers, where huge number of storage and computing servers are interconnected. According to the reports, annual data center traffic is growing at a very high growth rate of 25%, of which the major contribution is due to the servers within the data centers, i.e. Intra datacenters. The traffic outside the data center is handled by high-speed optical fiber network. However, within the datacenter the data is handled by both optical and electrical interconnects. It is essential that the fully network infrastructure is made optical to cater to the future needs. To fulfil the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of data centers and HPC (high performance computers). Though the server racks are connected through active optical cables, the server boards are still fully electrical, i.e. the optical-electrical conversion is done at the board edge. This conversion leads to bandwidth limitations at the server board. In this work we proposed to extend the optical reach to the processing unit i.e., microprocessors and memory unit from board edge. This is achieved by designing an OEPCB (Optical-Electrical Printed Circuit Board) using laser direct writing and to define high-speed optical waveguide. In this work, we target to demonstrate an on-board waveguide technology that can support data rate of 10 Gbps/channel. The demonstrator will enable a platform for further improvement in integration that will enable the next generation High-speed connection in Datacenters.

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2017

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Rao, P. L. Sindhuja, and Santosh, K. V. V. N. D., “Priority Based Traffic Balancing Routing Protocol for WDM Optical Networks”, in International conference on Microelectronic Devices, Circuits and Systems, ICMDCS 2017, Vellore, 2017.[Abstract]


Requirement for high bandwidth traffic has been increasing very rapidly. Efficient and effective provisioning of resources is very important now-a-days. Due to the increase in number of users, providing sufficient bandwidth has become a difficult task for the service providers and network operators. Researchers have developed many techniques to resolve this issue but they have not reached to full extent. The internet traffic is heavy during the working or office hours and less during nonworking hours. To overcome the above issues, different policies like Policy1 — Traffic Balancing (P1-TB), Policy2 — Traffic Balancing (P2-TB) and Policy3 — Traffic Balancing (P2-TB) have been developed but these schemes have few limitations. To resolve the complications of above, we have proposed an algorithm which considers the data rate, level of employee in an organization. The demand with high data rate (almost equal to the capacity of the wavelength of the fiber) will be processed directly and the demand with the lower data rate will be groomed with the existing low data rate demands. This leads in serving more number of demands. From the results, we monitored that the new protocol outperforms the existing schemes with less blocking probability by serving more number of requests

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2016

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Giriraja, C. V., “Study of reassignment strategy in Dynamic Channel Allocation scheme”, in 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, SPIN 2016, 2016, pp. 731-734.[Abstract]


In this work, an efficient channel utilization scheme based on the Distributed Dynamic Channel Assignment (DDCA) is proposed. It can handle three types of constraints Adjacent Channel Constraint (ACC), Co-Channel Constraint (CCC), Co- Site Constraint (CSC) simultaneously while assigning the channel. Previous methods like Dynamic Channel Selection and Reassignment (DCSR) scheme employs reassignment strategy to maximize the number of unavailable channels becoming available. This scheme transfers an ongoing call of one channel to the released channel if there is relatively lesser number of available channels becoming unavailable due to above mentioned constraints. The results are produced without reassignment. These results are compared with DCSR scheme. New call and handoff call block rates are plotted for comparison.

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2016

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and A, K., “Characterization of Submicron Ring Oscillator Using the First Order Design Equations”, in International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2016, 2016.[Abstract]


In this paper, we present the characterization of the Ring oscillator for submicron technology in terms of the first order design equations of the MOSFETs, and we arrive at the extent upto which the short channel effects influence the oscillating frequency. In addition, a solution is suggested to reduce the duration of metastability upto 50%. The Ring oscillator is designed from 3-stage till 15-stage, and the circuit simulations are performed, with the oscillation frequencies ranging from 1.03 GHz till 5.38 GHz. Additional observations are noted by varying the device widths and lengths. It is found that the frequency of operation is independent of the device width, and is inversely proportional to the square of the device length. As a result, the equation derived using the first order behavior can be utilized for obtaining the frequency of the Ring oscillator

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2016

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and Konda, S. K., “Energy - Efficient Resource Allocation in WDM Networks”, in International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2016,, 2016.[Abstract]


The paper describes an Energy - Efficient Resource Allocation protocol for Wavelength-Routed All-Optical WDM Networks. Protocol selects efficient and low power consumption optimal primary and backup paths. The path selection will be done by Central Management System (CMS). The selection will be by two methods, i.e., the path with less number of free wavelengths will not be considered for selection of optimal path, will be used as backup path because after serving all the requests on this link the link becomes completely free, all the links where the links are completely free can be put it off to save operational power consumption. In the remaining paths the path where the blocking probability (BP) is less will be considered as optimal path. With this efficient path selection protocol power consumption across the network will be reduced because of link switching off technique. The protocol increases the throughput over the network because of selecting optimal path by using BP and as there is no dedicated path is blocked for backup purpose. The path with link off will be used as backup path in case of requirement. The links will active/put-on again with an interrupt, this interrupt will be generated either when optimal path fails or when there is only one path exist to serve the request. Our protocol results shows high throughput with low blocking probability and power consumption in comparison with shortest path & fixed path protocols

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2016

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, M, P., Giriraja, C. V., and Konda, S. K., “Power Efficient Multicast Routing Protocol for Dynamic Intra Cluster Device to Device Communication”, in International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques, ICEEOT 2016, 2016.[Abstract]


In this paper, an efficient multicast routing protocol was proposed for device to device (D2D) communication which helps in increasing the transmission power efficiency, quality of service (QoS) and also reduces the blocking probability and latency. In our algorithm, the packet transmission sequence is decided by the users need i.e. data demand. Base station (BS) selects one as the cluster head (CH) among the users in this method based on the power level. Cluster head changes for different transmissions and will be able to access all the users at that particular time. For a particular packet transmission BS decides one of the users who have received more number of requests as transmitter and that transmits packets to all the requested users. Routing is done according to our algorithm and by simulation we have shown that transmission power efficiency increases, blocking probability and latency decreases compared with [1] and [2].

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2015

Conference Paper

Giriraja C. V. and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “SNR Based Master-Slave Dynamic Device to Device communication in underlay cellular networks”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 2114-2117.[Abstract]


In cellular networks Device to Device (D2D) communication is used to improve the resource utilization and the throughput. SNR Based Master-Slave Dynamic D2D Communication Algorithm (SMSDCA) is proposed to improve the resource utilization of the cellular network and improved Quality of Service (QoS). It is achieved by allocating some User Equipment (UE) as master in that cluster based on SNR and energy, who communicates with base station and the other UE's by using D2D. Other UE's requesting for data in that cluster are made as slaves. SMSDCA uses dynamic management of clusters and devices. In this we are handling both static and dynamic users need. For non-data requests it allocates the channel as per existence but for data requests SMSDCA will be used. In this algorithm D2D channel will be allocated by base station. Energy of the device is computed based on activities of the user, i.e., voice calls, duration and number of data packets transferred. The master can be changed dynamically based on SNR, energy and movement of device in cluster limit. By using this, the new users requesting for data and users moving from neighboring clusters are taken care accordingly. In this paper MATLAB simulation results shows that by using this algorithm the throughput and number of users can be served will be increased in comparison with Interference aware graph based resource sharing scheme for D2D communication [3]. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

M. Pushpalatha, Shruthi, N. V., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Konda, S. K., “Efficient Multicast Algorithm for Dynamic Intra Cluster Device-to-Device communication for small world model paper”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 1782-1786.[Abstract]


Device to Device (D2D) communication technique has been projected as means of taking the benefit of increasing performance of cellular communication with direct link between users. In this paper, we propose a dynamic intra cluster data sharing method taking advantage of D2D multicast. One of the users serves as cluster head to take turns to multicast at a particular time, selected by base station on the basis of power level. Cluster head at that particular time is able to access to the users in the cluster. In our algorithm dynamic data demand is considered in order to send the packets in sequence based on users need. Base station identifies the user with more requests, and informs the Cluster head. Cluster head asks that particular user to serve as transmitting user. The transmitting user monitors the acknowledgements sent by the receiving users. If acknowledgement fails to come within the minimum time (tmin) the transmitting user informs the cluster head. Then cluster head checks the reason for failure of acknowledgement. Accordingly, it requests the next user with more requests to transmit the data to the users who failed to receive it. This process continues until all the users receive the data, this improves the transmission efficiency. By simulation we prove that throughput increases, blocking probability and latency get reduced. All these increase the Quality of Service (QoS) compared to Intra cluster D2D communication for a small world model based on poor link quality between the users [3]. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh and A, K., “Analysis of Deadbeat Control for an Integer-N Charge-pump PLL”, in International Conference on Eco-friendly Computing and Communication Systems, ICECCS 2015, 2015.[Abstract]


The conventional method to decrease the settling time of oscillators is to increase the bandwidth, which in turn results in an increase in the spur content, affecting the transient performance of the PLL. Even though several architectural variations have been suggested to reduce the lock time, a novel method to reduce the settling time is "Deadbeat control", in which an additional system is implemented in feedback with the PLL. This method accomplishes the reduced settling time without any change in the design of the forward gain components. Before the implementation of the deadbeat control, the concepts of controllability and observability have to be satisfied for the PLL. In this particular work, these tests are carried out on an integer-N charge-pump PLL, and then the deadbeat control is verified. The settling time and the overshoot are deduced from the step-response of the PLL, by means of MATLAB simulation.

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2012

Conference Paper

R. Janani, Kiran, S. P., Swapna, T., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Vaya, P. R., “Efficient alternate RWA protocol for WDM networks”, in 2012 International Conference on Optical Engineering, ICOE 2012, Belgaum, Karnataka, 2012.[Abstract]


Existing methodologies in WDM networks, generally uses either lightpath distance or network congestion to identify optimal and backup lightpaths. In our paper, we have designed an efficient alternate RWA protocol (EARP) which considers both congestion and route distance so as to improve the network performance. On arrival of a request the source node sends control signals through all the paths to the destination node. In this process, the number of free continuous wavelengths and conflict information are collected at the destination. Then, the lightpaths are computed based on this information and the precomputed distance information. A subset of wavelengths in the optimal lightpath is considered at the destination node for the reservation on the basis of conflict information. Backup lightpath is used for survivability. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath but it can be shared with another backup lightpath. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has lower blocking probability than the existing.

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2011

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Reddy, A. N., Kumar, G. V. L. Praveen, Biju, K., and Vaya, P. R., “Advanced Centralized Priority Based RWA Protocol for WDM Networks”, in TISC 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing, Chennai, 2011, pp. 160-163.[Abstract]


Balancing the communication traffic between multiple lightpaths, using particular RWA protocol for all class-of-traffics, or a combination of both leads to the degradation of the WDM network performance. Hence for better performance of WDM network, in this paper we designed and analyzed an advanced centralized priority based RWA protocol (ACPR) for WDM networks in which appropriate RWA methodologies are used depending on the priority and speed of the incoming traffics to identify the optimal primary and backup lightpaths. In addition protocol uses two Centralized Management System CMS1 and CMS2 to reduce the network performance bottleneck problem by sharing the work and also if any failure occurs to either of CMS the other CMS take over its responsibilities. Whenever a request comes, it is placed in queue. Then CMS takes alternative requests from the queue. Then CMS identifies the traffic class depending on their priority and speed as high priority high speed (HPHS), high priority low speed (HPLS), low priority high speed (LPHS) and low priority low speed (LPLS). CMS uses appropriate RWA methodologies as per incoming requests to identify the optimal light paths like for HPHS it uses number of free wavelengths, for HPLS it uses number of free wavelengths and also tries for grooming, for LPHS it uses number of free wavelengths and for LPLS it uses number of free wavelengths and also tries for grooming. In this RWA protocol in order to give more importance to high priority request the available wavelength set is divided into three subsets, called P set of higher order wavelengths, C set of common wavelengths for high priority and low priority and remaining S wavelengths used as a backup wavelength for control signals. In case of any failure in control signal wavelengths, S set of backup wavelengths can be used. Protocol also finds an optimal light path for high priority request using wavelengths from subset C, else finds out using wavelengths from subset P. Optimal light path for low priority traffics are found by only using wavelengths from subset C. Further for survivability of connections in the case of failure the backup light path is allocated. The selection of backup light path is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup light path. By simulation results, we have shown that high priority requests have low blocking probability in comparison to low priority requests. This electronic document is a "live" template. The various components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated by the portions given in this document.

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2011

Conference Paper

S. Kashyap, Suman, I. V. S. A., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Vaya, P. R., “Priority Based Efficient and Reliable Centralized Connection Management Scheme for Computer Networks”, in TISC 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing, Chennai, 2011, pp. 169-172.[Abstract]


The Centralized connection management method is vulnerable due to its single point of failure and also as the traffic load increases, the control traffic to and from the controller increases substantially and the central controller requires sufficient buffer and processing speed to handle the requests. To overcome the above limitation, we present the design and analysis of a Priority based efficient and reliable centralized connection management scheme with two central management systems (CMS-1 and CMS-2) for computer networks (PERCC). In this scheme whenever a request comes, the odd-numbered requests will be taken up by CMS-1 and also stored in a queue of CMS-2 and vice-versa for the even-numbered requests. CMS-1 and CMS-2 check for any high priority request among three requests in the incoming buffer queue, when taking up. If the request-taken CMS cannot allocate a path, then the other CMS will automatically take it up after t seconds in case if it's a low priority request, or before t1 seconds if it's a high priority request (t1 < t), which gives a second chance for any failed request for getting a path. The timer for high priority requests is less than low priority ones. They will be attended faster/before than low priority requests. Furthermore, if any one of the CMS fails, then the other CMS will take over the entire work. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed centralized connection management scheme has low blocking probability and processing time in comparison with the single CMS connection management scheme.

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2011

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Janani, R., Kiran, S. P., Swapna, T., and Vaya, P. R., “Automated Distributed Dynamic Survivable RWA Protocol for WDM Networks”, in TISC 2011 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing, Chennai, 2011, pp. 194-198.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have designed a distributed dynamic survivable RWA protocol based on automatic updation (ADDR). The updation mechanism involves calculation of number of free wavelengths and shortest distance at the source node to identify the optimal and backup lightpath to reduce the congestion and delay in the network. As soon as the request approaches the node, it is served with the best lightpath with the help of the data available in the node table which reduces the setup time. Backup lightpath is used for survivability. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath but it can be shared with another backup lightpath. Grooming is used for low speed traffics to reduce the connection request blocking. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has low blocking probability.

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2011

Conference Paper

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Amrutha, L. N., Madhu, A., Reddy, K. S., and Vaya, P. R., “A proactive and self-regulated ant-based RWA protocol for all-optical WDM networks”, in Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Process Automation, Control and Computing, PACC 2011, Coimbatore, 2011.[Abstract]


Balancing the load among multiple path leads to the degradation in the all-optical WDM networks. It is always desirable to deliver the entire load on a single optimal path depending upon the current network load status. This paper employs the use of ant colony optimization (ACO) for routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem of all-optical WDM networks along with survivability. Our algorithm proactively updates the changes in the network status and finds optimal and sub-optimal paths depending upon the number of free wavelengths available per link along the path from source to destination. When a connection request arrives at a node, the data is routed through the readily available optimal path thereby reducing the setup time. Furthermore, the approach is self-regulating i.e. it automatically adapts to traffic load variations across the network. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has high throughput and bandwidth utilization.

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Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Conference Proceedings

M. Daliya V. K and Dr. T. K. Ramesh, “A Survey on Enhancing the Interoperability aspect of IoT Based System”, International Conference on Smart Technologies for Smart Nation (SmartTechCon 2017). REVA University, Bangalore , 2017.

2017

Conference Proceedings

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Rao, M. P. L. Sind, and Santhosh, M. K. V. V. N., “Power Efficient Resource Utilization Protocol for WDM Optical Networks”, 6th International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI’17) . Manipal University, Karnataka, 2017.[Abstract]


Requirement for high bandwidth internet traffic is growing rapidly now-a-days. Utilization of the available resources becomes troublesome due to rise in the number of users. So it is important to provide the resources efficiently. To solve the problem of resource provisioning, many developments have been made by the researchers. During working hours, the scheduled traffic is huge and sluggish during rest of the time which leads to the blocking of requests during working hours. To overcome the above issues, different schemes like Earliest set-up demand first (ESDF) and Earliest tear-down demand first (ETDF) have been developed. These schemes have few limitations like consumption of resources in ESDF and more delay in ETDF process. To resolve the complications of the existing policies, we proposed Power Efficient-Resource Utilization protocol (PERUP) wherein the capacity of the wavelength and the data rate of each demand will be considered. The demand with high data rate (almost equal to the capacity of the wavelength of the fiber) will be processed directly and the demand with the lower data rate will be groomed with the existing low data rate demands. This leads in serving more number of demands. From the results, we monitored that the new protocol outperforms the existing schemes with Resource utilization ratio (RUR), number of requests served and proper usage of bandwidth. Here we also focus on the power consumption of the network by selecting the route based on the cost of the link.

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2012

Conference Proceedings

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Konda, S. K., and Vaya, P. R., “Survivable traffic grooming RWA protocol for WDM networks”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 30. Coimbatore, pp. 334-340, 2012.[Abstract]


In this paper, we have presented an efficient RWA protocol for WDM networks. The optimal and sub-optimal lightpaths are found by the ants (control agents) depending upon the number of free wavelengths available, the length of the lightpath (hop count) and number of conversion required from source to destination. When a connection request arrives at a node, the high speed data are routed through the readily available optimal lightpath thereby reducing the processing time. The low speed data are first tried to groom over the existing low speed data, else routed through the readily available lightpath. As opposed to the reactive protocols, our proposed protocol is proactive in the sense that it proactively updates the changes in the network status using the concept of ant colony optimization. Further for survivability backup lightpath is maintained. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath but it can be shared with another backup lightpath. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has low blocking probability and delay.

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2011

Conference Proceedings

K. S. K., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and R., V. P., “Advanced centralized RWA protocol for WDM networks”, 2011 Annual IEEE India Conference: Engineering Sustainable Solutions, INDICON-2011. 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of an Advanced Centralized RWA Protocol (ACRP) in which the cost of a lightpath is computed based on its number of available free wavelengths and number of wavelength conversions. Centralized Management System (CMS I) assigns optimal primary and backup lightpaths. CMS II updates the optimal primary and backup lightpaths as and when the number of free wavelengths of primary lightpath reaches the threshold value 'N≤ 4'. In case of failure the data will be rerouted through the backup lightpath and very next lightpath with best cost is assigned as backup lightpath. The advantage of this protocol is that the tasks are shared using two CMS which improves the computation bottleneck and also if one fails the other will take over the entire process. By simulation results, we showed that our proposed protocol has minimal request rejection and set-up time.

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2011

Conference Proceedings

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, S, A., B, B. K., Nayanar, D., and , “Distributed Dynamic Multipath RWA Algorithm for Enhancement of QoS for all-optical WDM Networks”, Proceedings of 2011 3rd IEEE International Conference on Information Management and Engineering, ICIME 2011. 2011.[Abstract]


Balancing the load between multiple paths leads to the degradation of performance in all-optical WDM networks. It is always desirable to carry the entire load on a single optimal path depending upon the current network load condition. Hence multiple lightpaths need to be maintained to provide the choice of selecting the optimal path based on the varying traffic load conditions. In this paper, we have presented a distributed dynamic multipath RWA algorithm (DDMR). In this algorithm, first, the incoming traffic is sent through all the possible paths. With the number of acknowledgements received, the source estimates the blocking probabilities of each path and the source node selects the best three paths based on lowest three blocking probabilities. Data is then classified based on their priorities. High priority data is sent through primary path, the path having the lowest blocking probability; and low priority data through secondary path, the path having the second lowest blocking probability. Backup path, which has the third lowest blocking probability, is kept for survivability of the network. With acknowledgement received on the data sent, blocking probabilities of primary path and secondary path are constantly updated. A threshold value "thresh" is set. Only if the maximum value of blocking probabilities of primary path or secondary path goes above the value of "thresh", the algorithm restarts; by which it identifies and assigns optimal paths again. This improves the overall setup delay of the system. In addition the algorithm has a proactive approach, such that it minimizes the chance of blocking and also the approach is self-acting as it automatically changes with the traffic load variation across the network. By simulation using MATLAB, we have shown that our algorithm leads to considerably lower blocking probability, higher throughput and better channel utilization which improves the QoS of the network.

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Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2012

Book Chapter

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, A. Reddy, N., Kumar, G. V. L. Praveen, Biju, K., and Vaya, P. R., “A centralized priority based RWA protocol for WDM networks”, in Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 269 CCIS, Vellore, TN: , 2012, pp. 300-307.[Abstract]


In this protocol we use appropriate RWA methodologies depending on the priority and speed of the incoming traffics to identify the optimal lightpaths. As request arrives, centralized management system (CMS) identifies the traffic class depending on their priority and speed. Accordingly CMS uses appropriate RWA methodologies to identify the optimal lightpaths. To give more importance to high priority request the available wavelength set is divided into two subsets, called P set of higher order wavelengths and C set of remaining wavelengths. Protocol first tries to find an optimal lightpath for high priority request using wavelengths from subset C, else finds out using P. Lightpaths for low priority traffics are found by only using subset C. Further for survivability backup lightpath is maintained. The selection of backup lightpath is done in such a way that there is no shared link between the primary and backup lightpath. By simulation results, we have shown high priority requests have low blocking probability. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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2012

Book Chapter

Dr. T. K. Ramesh, Janani, R., S. Kiran, P., Swapna, T., and Vaya, P. R., “RWA protocol for larger WDM networks”, in Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 269 CCIS, Vellore, TN: , 2012, pp. 322-328.[Abstract]


In this paper we present the design of a RWA protocol for larger WDM network (RPLN), consisting of 'N' sector networks, each with a centralized management system (CMS). A backup central CMS of high capacity is maintained to share the work and to takeover if any of the sector CMS fails. As per the connection request, the central CMS decides inter or intra sector transmission. In the case of intra transmission, the sector CMS identifies the optimal lightpaths based on number of free wavelength and distance. For inter transmission, it acts as a node for the central CMS. The central CMS acts as the backup CMS if anyone of the sector CMS fails. By this we introduce a new concept of centralized-centralized-distributed. RPLN overcomes the single point failure and performance bottleneck of a large network with single CMS. Furthermore grooming is also used to improve the blocking probability of connection requests. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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2012

Book Chapter

S. Kashyap, Shravan, I. V., Suman, A., Dr. T. K. Ramesh, and Vaya, P. R., “An Efficient and Reliable Centralized Connection Management Scheme for Computer Networks”, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 7135 LNCS, Surathkal: , 2012, pp. 444-450.[Abstract]


The Centralized connection management method is vulnerable due to its single point failure and also it requires sufficient buffer and processing speed to handle the requests. To overcome this, we present an efficient and reliable centralized connection management scheme with two central management systems (CMS) for computer networks (ERCC). In ERCC, when a request comes, the odd-numbered requests will be taken up by CMS-1 and also stored in a queue of CMS-2 and vice-versa for the even-numbered requests. If the request-taken CMS cannot allocate a path, then the other CMS will automatically take it up after 't' seconds. It gives a second chance for failed requests. Furthermore, if any one of the CMS fails, other CMS will take over the entire work. By simulation, we showed that our proposed centralized connection management scheme has low blocking probability and processing time in comparison with the single CMS connection management scheme. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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