Qualification: 
MDS, BDS
balagopalvarma@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Balagopal Varma joined the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Amrita School of Dentistry in December 2004.

He is currently serving as the Principal of Amrita School of Dentistry and Professor and Head of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. He obtained his B. D. S. and M. D. S. degrees from the College of Dental Surgery, Manipal. He has worked as Assistant Professor in Pedodontics at College of Dental Surgery, Manipal & Mangalore. Before joining Amrita School of Dentistry, he was working as Professor & Head of Pedodontics at Ragas Dental College & Hospital, Chennai. He has also worked as a Senior Registrar in Paediatric Dentistry at the Royal Children’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

In April 2012, Dr. Varma was awarded membership to the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons (MRACDS) in the special field stream of Paediatric Dentistry.

Dr. Varma has published widely in the academic literature. He has 12 national publications and 4 international publications to his credit. In January 2003, he received the Best Scientific Paper Award at 57th National Indian Dental Conference for his paper titled Amelogenesis Imperfecta – A Clinician’s Chalange.

He has co-authored the text books of Dental Anatomy, Physiology & Development and Essentials of Preventive and Community Dentistry, published by Arya Publications, New Delhi. He has 2 scientific paper presentations at International Conferences and 18 scientific paper presentations at National Conferences.

He was the Joint Editor of Indian Journal of Orofacial Genetics during 1997-1998. He was also the founder Secretary during the term 2009 - 11 and President of the Association of Pediatric and Preventive Dentists of Kerala during 2011 - 12. He has also served as the Executive Member of the Indian Society of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry (ISPPD).

He is currently Member of Board of Studies (UG) of Kerala University of Health Sciences and an Editorial member of International Journal of Clincal Paediatric Dentistry (IJCPD) and Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry (JISPPD).

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

Vijay P., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Dr. Balagopal Varma R., “Feeding difficulty in an infant with stickler’s syndrome – A case report”, A case report. ContempClin Dent , 2020.

2019

Abraham B., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Kumar S. J., “Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of Aloe Vera gel with milk and HBSS in maintaining the viability of PDL cells in avulsed teeth”, Drug Inv Today , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 996-999, 2019.

2019

Resmy Nair, Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Dr. Balagopal Varma R., “Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of mothers toward emergency management of dental trauma in high literacy population”, J Int Oral Health, no. 11, pp. 287-292, 2019.

2019

Sathish A. M., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumaran P., and Menon M. M., “Dental age assessment in 8-16 year old girls in a tertiary care hospital in Cochin – a comparative study”, Drug Inv Today , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 996-999, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Age determination plays a great role in forensic medicine, pediatric endocrinology, and pedodontic treatment planning. It helps in the management of different types of malocclusion in relation to maxillofacial growth. The aim of the study was to determine the dental developmental stages in female population and to test the applicability of Demirjian’s and Nolla’s criteria for maturity scoring in dental age assessment. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 200 females of 8–16 years were taken and the dental age was calculated using the Demirjian’s and Nolla’s dental age estimation method. Chronological age was also recorded and correlated to the dental ages obtained. Results: A strong correlation was found between chronological and dental ages (P < 0.005). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two methods showed excellent agreement between the two (P < 0.005). Conclusion: A positive high degree correlation noticed between chronological age, dental age, and both age estimation methods may thus be applicable to the female population in Cochin.

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2019

Sreekumar P., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Kumar S. J., “Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the remineralization potential of three suitable materials – An in-vitro SMH & SEM study”, J ClinDiag Res , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. ZC01-ZC04, 2019.

2018

George T., Parvathy Kumaran, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Janardhanan S. K., and S., G. B., “Salivary Interleukin-6 levels of children with Early Childhood Caries and Ventricular Septal defect – A randomized clinical trial”, J IndSocPedodPrev Dent , vol. 36, pp. 130-134, 2018.

2018

Leena Unnikrishn Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, and J. Suresh Kumar, “Efficacy of a Calcium Sucrose Phosphate Based Toothpaste in Elevating the Level of Calcium, Phosphate Ions in Saliva and Reducing Plaque: A Clinical Trial.”, Contemp Clin Dent, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 151-157, 2018.[Abstract]


Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of "calcium sucrose phosphate" (CaSP) toothpaste (Enafix 5%) with ordinarily used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste in elevating the level of calcium, phosphate ions in saliva. Secondary aims were to evaluate substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste.

Materials and Methods: Thirty study participants of age group 6-13 years were divided into two groups: Group X (Control group) was made to continue brushing with their regularly used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste and Group Y (Test group) was allotted CaSP toothpaste. 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was periodically collected from both groups to determine any alteration in the salivary calcium, phosphate level. Parameters such as substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste were also evaluated. Salivary mineral's intergroup comparison was evaluated by Student's -test while its intragroup comparison along with the plaque amount variation in Group Y was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's test.

Results: Group Y showed an increase in the salivary calcium level though not statistically significant. The increase was pronounced in samples collected on day 1. Group Y showed a consistent level of calcium, phosphate in samples collected immediately and 6 h postbrushing, indicating its substantivity. In addition, Group Y had an impact in reducing the plaque level when the 1-month plaque score was compared with the 12-month score.

Conclusion: CaSP leads to an increase in the salivary calcium level though it was not statistically significant. Supervised brushing and dietary habits showed a positive effect on both the groups. CaSP toothpaste also showed substantivity and plaque-reducing ability.

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2017

N. Renahan, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment.”, Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 107-110, 2017.[Abstract]


The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised.

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2016

Navya P. Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Janardhanan, S., Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, “Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 475-480, 2016.[Abstract]


Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4-7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P < 0.05]). However, intergroup comparison between MTA and TheraCal showed no statistical difference in reparative dentin formation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. More »»

2016

Medhini Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Dr. Sajitha Krishnan, Parvathy Kumaran, Sangeetha G. Bhat, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Suresh Kumar J., “Evaluation of salivary interleukin-6 in children with early childhood caries after treatment”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 198-202, 2016.[Abstract]


Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6) in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P&lt; 0.000). The gingival index scores had also reduced significantly 3-months post treatment (P&lt; 0.002). Conclusions: Children with ECC when completely rehabilitated and kept under frequent follow up, which includes reinforcement of oral hygiene measures and maintaining a low caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6) can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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2015

Vimi George, Suresh Kumar Janardhanan, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Clinical and radiographic evaluation of indirect pulp treatment with MTA and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth (in-vivo study)”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 104-110, 2015.[Abstract]


Objectives: Clinical and radiographic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (white MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) of primary teeth over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial with sample size of 40 primary molars between the age group of 5-9 years, of which, 20 teeth were considered, each for MTA and Dycal. Measurements on the digitized radiographs were performed at baseline, third and sixth month, increase in dentin was then measured using Corel Draw software. Result: Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 months and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness with both MTA and Dycal (P-value ≤ 0.001) was found. Within the MTA group, the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months, (P ≤ 0.001) evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months, it was 0.030 mm (P-value ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, MTA is superior to Dycal as a good IPT medicament in primary teeth.

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2015

R. Renju, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumar, S. J., and Parvathy Kumaran, “Mandibulofacial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome): A case report and review of literature”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 5, pp. 532-534, 2015.[Abstract]


Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) or Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable phenotypic expression. It presents with characteristic facial appearance enabling it to be easily recognizable. A case of a 10-year-old girl having TCS is briefly described in this article. A review of the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment options are also discussed. More »»

2015

Niloofar Fathima, Parvathy Kumaran, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Management of congenital choanal atresia: A pedodontist′s role”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 259-261, 2015.[Abstract]


Choanal atresia is a rare cryptic congenital anomaly with developmental failure of the nasal cavity to communicate with the nasophaynx, resulting in a significant physiological and anatomical alteration of the dento-facial complex. It is considered as a life-threatening or lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Elective transnasal endoscopic repair is the most preferred and minimally invasive procedure to correct this anomaly. This case report describes the multi-disciplinary team approach that included pedodontists to manage the case of a 6-month-old infant with choanal atresia suffering from breathlessness, feeding difficulty, and disturbed sleep.

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2015

N. Renahan, Raj, R., Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and S. J., K., “Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: Two case reports and felicitous approaches to prosthetic management”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 274-276, 2015.[Abstract]


Ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which exhibit a classic triad of hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome is the most common condition among ectodermal dysplasia patients. This is a case report on two Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome cases and two different approaches to prosthetic management.

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