Qualification: 
Ph.D, M.Tech
s_dhanya@cb.amrita.edu

Dr. Dhanya Sathyan currently serves as Assistant Professor (Sr.Gr.) at Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Coimbatore Campus. Her areas of research include Structural Engineering and Concrete Technology. She pursued her M.Tech. in Structural Engineering from NIT Calicut. Dhanya is currently pursuing PhD in the area of cement superplasticizer compatibility from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Awards & Fellowships

  • Qualified in GATE 2003 with All India Rank of 389
  • Reviewer and Editorial board member of reputed Civil Engineering journals

Administrative Responsibilities

  • Academic Co-ordinator of the Civil Engineering Department
  • OBE Co-ordinator of the Civil Engineering Department
  • IQAC Co-ordinator of Civil Engineering Department
  • Disciplinary committee member from the Civil Engineering Department
  • BOS member of M.Tech Structural and Construction Engineering
  • Acting as a class advisor from the inception of B.Tech/M.Tech civil Engineering

Funded Project

Sl.No Title of the project Agency Present status Role (PI/CI)
1 Development of high volume fly ash foam concrete wall Panel using rice straw as thermal insulation material DST Ongoing CI
2 Investigation of compatibility between portland pozzolana cement and admixtures in high performance concrete (DST No:SR/S3/MERC-0041/2011(G) Dated 16/4/2012 DST Completed CI

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Conference Title

2019

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Mini K. M., and Raj, A., “Physical and Functional Characteristics of Foam Concrete: A Review”, Construction and Building materials , 2019.

2019

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Mini K. M., and R, A. N., “Rice Husk Incorporated Foam Concrete Wall Panels as a Thermal Insulating Material in Building”, Indoor and built environment, 2019.

2019

Dhanya Sathyan and Dr. Anand K. B., “Influence of superplasticizer family on the durability characteristics of fly ash incorporated cement concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 204, pp. 864-874, 2019.[Abstract]


Nowadays, researchers are focusing on developing more durable cementitious matrices. Major durability problems are associated with sulphate attack, acid attack, chloride penetration etc. The important method to improve the durability characteristics of concrete is to reduce the permeability of concrete by giving good compaction. Superplasticizer addition is one of the methods to improve the workability and thereby reducing the porosity. A large amount of CO 2 is emitted into the atmosphere from the cement plants during the calcination of CaCO 3 and also through the burning of fuel in the kiln. The environmental pollution can be reduced by replacing the cement with the pozzolanic materials like fly ash. Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) is nowadays considered as a sustainable substitute of ordinary portland cement (OPC). The combined influence of pozzolanic and superplasticizer from four different families on the durability properties of concrete and mortar is studied is in this work by conducting laboratory tests like the sorptivity test, acid resistance test, RCPT test and sulphate resistance tests. In this study sorptivity value of the superplasticized mixes are found to be less than that of control specimen without superplasticizer. In all durability related aspects, the mixes with PCE based superplasticizer showed better performance than the control mix and that of mixes with other families of superplasticizer. Improvement in durability characteristics is observed for the mixes containing commercially available PPC compared to the mixes prepared with site blended PPC (ie OPC + 25% FA).

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2018

Suganya M, Dr. Mini K. M., and Dhanya Sathyan, “Performance of Concrete Made Using Waste Fiber Reinforced Polymer (Frp) Powder as A Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregate”, Material today proceeding, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 24114-24123, 2018.

2018

F. G. Kottukappalli, Ramkrishnan, R., Mini, K. M., and Dhanya Sathyan, “Strength properties of concrete blocks with quarry sludge as partial replacement to fine aggregate”, Material today proceeding, 2018.

2018

N. Manomi, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Anand K. B., “Coupled effect of superplasticizer dosage and fly ash content on strength and durability of concrete”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 24033 - 24042, 2018.[Abstract]


The incorporation of fly ash in concrete enhanced the durability of portland cement concrete more effectively. Fly ash is incorporated as a mineral admixture because of its advantageous properties like pozzolanic reaction and pore refinement. At the point when fly ash is added in concrete, calcium hydroxide, liberated during cement hydration, reacts with the reactive silica present in fly ash and forms calcium silicate hydrate(C-S-H) gel. This research investigates the influence of fly ash in conjunction with four different superplasticizers (SP) namely Polycarboxylate ether (PCE), Lignosulphonate (LS), Sulphonated Melamine Formaldehyde (SMF) and Sulphonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde (SNF) and on the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. Concrete was made with different levels of class F flyash replacement (0,15, 25, and 35% by mass) of cement, the w/c ratio were maintained constant as 0.37 and the superplasticizer dosage corresponding to saturation dosage. The saturation dosage of superplasticizer is measured by conducting marsh cone and minislump tests. The mechanical and durability properties tested were compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and Sorptivity. PCE based superplasticizers are found to be more effective. Modification in the mechanical by increase in later age strength and durability properties by increase of the concrete was observed with the addition of fly ash and superplasticizer in control mix

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2018

Dhanya Sathyan, K. B. Anand, and Sindu Menon M, “Rheological parameter study of superplasticized portland pozzolana cement paste at different temperatures and Modeling using random kitchen sink algorithm”, Journal of materials in civil engineering, 2018.

2018

R. C Robert, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Anand K. B., “Effect of superplasticizers on the rheological properties of fly ash incorporated cement paste”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 23955-23963, 2018.[Abstract]


The rheology is a study of flow of matter. Rheological behavior of cement paste changes with composition of cement, amount of mineral and chemical admixtures, family of superplasticizer, temperature etc. This paper explores the influence of superplasticizer dosage, superplasticizer family and mineral admixture dosage on the rheological behavior of cement paste. For this purpose cement pastes were prepared at a water cement ratio of 0.37 using OPC and different percentage of fly ash (15, 25, 35) and different dosages of superplasticizer (one from each family). Four families of superplasticizer used for this study are polycarboxylate ether, sulphonate melamine formaldehyde, sulphonate naphthalene formaldehyde and lignosulphates. Rheological tests were performed in a coaxial cylinder viscometer (Brookfield DV-II). Saturation dosage of the superplasticizers in the cement paste mixes with different percentage of fly ash replacement were obtained through marsh cone and mini slump tests on cement paste. Cement pastes were placed in the sample chamber of coaxial cylinder viscometer and shear stress produced measured with known shear rate ranging from 30 S to 65 S-1 applied to the fluid through the spindle. Rheological parameters like yield stress and plastic viscosities were calculated using Bingham and Herschel bulkley model. Change in rheological parameters of the cement paste with fly ash replacement percentage, superplasticizers dosage and family were measured and comparison is made

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2018

S. Aparna, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Anand K. B., “Microstructural and rate of water absorption study on fly-ash incorporated cement mortar”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 23692-23701, 2018.[Abstract]


Today durability is the most concerning factor in the construction field. Durability and strength are mainly controlled by microstructure of the concrete. Dense microstructure with less interconnected pores results in good strength and durable concrete. A dense microstructure can be obtained by providing good compaction, curing and by the use of mineral admixtures. This paper deals with the study on the effect of fly ash addition and superplasticizer dosage and its family in improving the strength, microstructure and durability of mortar. For this purpose mortar is prepared at a water to cement ratio of 0.37 with ordinary portland cement, class F fly ash at different percentage replacement to cement such as 0%, 15%, 25%, and 35% and superplasticizer. The superplasticzer from four different family such as Polycarboxylate ether (PCE), Lignosulphonate (LS), Sulphonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde (SNF) and Sulphonated Melamine Formaldehyde (SMF) is also used in this study. Durability of the mortar is determined by checking the 28th day rate of water absorption in mortar specimen and also by checking the size and connectivity of the pores by means of microscopic study in hardened concrete. There is decrease in 28th day compressive strength for mortar specimen with all levels of fly-ash replacement was observed in this study. Improvement in the compressive strength of the mortar compared to control specimen were observed with the addition of superplasticizer in all levels of addition of fly-ash. A good correlation between the pore size and compressive strength were also observed in this study. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd.

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2018

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., and Sindu Menon M, “Temperature influence on rheology of superplasticized pozzolana cement and modeling using RKS algorithm”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 30, 2018.[Abstract]


Rheology deals with flow and deformation of matter under applied force. The study of rheological response of superplasticized portland pozzolana cement pastes subjected to a stepwise loading at three levels of temperature using Herschel-Bulkley and Bingham flow models is presented here. Rheological tests were done in a temperature-controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer (Brookfield DV-II). Cement pastes were prepared at a water-cement ratio of 0.37 using four types of portland pozzolana cement (PPC) and superplasticizers (SP) of four different families. Saturation dosages of the superplasticizers were obtained through Marsh cone and mini slump tests. Rheological tests were done on superplasticized cement paste mixes for three levels of dosages viz., lower than the saturation dosage, saturation dosage, and higher than the saturation dosage. Cement paste samples were subjected to shear rates ranging from 30 to 65 S-1 in the viscometer and the resultant shear stress was measured. Rheological parameters were obtained at three test temperatures (15, 27, and 35°C) by fitting the second cycle downward flow curves using Bingham model and Herschel-Bulkley model. These parameters were analyzed and used for modeling through random kitchen sink algorithm. The variation of predicted and measured values of the rheological parameters were compared and validated. It was observed that the model could effectively predict the rheological parameters within the experimental domain. © 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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2018

M. Ananthkumar, Dhanya Sathyan, and Prabha, B., “Study on Effectiveness of Processed and Unprocessed Black Liquor pulps in improving the properties of PPC mortar, Concrete and SCC”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 310, 2018.[Abstract]


The cost of construction materials is increasing day by day because of high demand, scarcity of raw materials and high price of energy. From the view point of energy saving and over consumption of resources, the use of alternative constituents in construction materials is now a global concern. From this, the extensive research and development works towards exploring new ingredients are required for producing sustainable and environment friendly construction materials. Bagasse pulp liquor is one such material that can be used as a chemical admixture which is obtained as a by-product of paper manufacturing process. Around 5 million tons of bagasse pulp is obtained throughout the world each year. since the material is a waste product from paper industry, this can be changed as a admixture by its effective use in concrete. In the present investigation black pulp liquor is added to fresh concrete in different dosages, the concrete is then tested for workability, compressive strength, flexural, split tensile strength and setting time. From results it is shown that 1% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the fresh properties of the concrete, 2% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the mechanical properties of the concrete and acts as a set retarder. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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2018

A. J. Prakash, Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., and Aravind, N. R., “Comparison of ANN and RKS approaches to model SCC strength”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 310, p. 012037, 2018.[Abstract]


Self compacting concrete (SCC) is a high performance concrete that has high flowability and can be used in heavily reinforced concrete members with minimal compaction segregation and bleeding. The mix proportioning of SCC is highly complex and large number of trials are required to get the mix with the desired properties resulting in the wastage of materials and time. The research on SCC has been highly empirical and no theoretical relationships have been developed between the mixture proportioning and engineering properties of SCC. In this work effectiveness of artificial neural network (ANN) and random kitchen sink algorithm(RKS) with regularized least square algorithm(RLS) in predicting the split tensile strength of the SCC is analysed. Random kitchen sink algorithm is used for mapping data to higher dimension and classification of this data is done using Regularized least square algorithm. The training and testing data for the algorithm was obtained experimentally using standard test procedures and materials available. Total of 40 trials were done which were used as the training and testing data. Trials were performed by varying the amount of fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, dosage and type of super plasticizer and water. Prediction accuracy of the ANN and RKS model is checked by comparing the RMSE value of both ANN and RKS. Analysis shows that eventhough the RKS model is good for large data set, its prediction accuracy is as good as conventional prediction method like ANN so the split tensile strength model developed by RKS can be used in industries for the proportioning of SCC with tailor made property.

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2018

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., Jose, C., and Aravind, N. R., “Modelling the minislump spread of superplasticized PPC paste using RLS with the application of Random Kitchen sink”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 310, 2018.[Abstract]


Super plasticizers(SPs) are added to the concrete to improve its workability with out changing the water cement ratio. Property of fresh concrete is mainly governed by the cement paste which depends on the dispersion of cement particle. Cement dispersive properties of the SP depends up on its dosage and the family. Mini slump spread diameter with different dosages and families of SP is taken as the measure of workability characteristic of cement paste chosen for measuring the rheological properties of cement paste. The main purpose of this study includes measure the dispersive ability of different families of SP by conducting minislump test and model the minislump spread diameter of the super plasticized Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC)paste using regularized least square (RLS) approach along with the application of Random kitchen sink (RKS) algorithm. For preparing test and training data for the model 287 different mixes were prepared in the laboratory at a water cement ratio of 0.37 using four locally available brand of Portland Pozzolona cement (PPC) and SP belonging to four different families. Water content, cement weight and amount of SP (by considering it as seven separate input based on their family and brand) were the input parameters and mini slump spread diameter was the output parameter for the model. The variation of predicted and measured values of spread diameters were compared and validated. From this study it was observed that, the model could effectively predict the minislump spread of cement paste. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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2018

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., Mini, K. M., and Aparna, S., “Optimization of superplasticizer in portland pozzolana cement mortar and concrete”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 310, p. 012036, 2018.[Abstract]


Chemical Admixtures are added to concrete at the time of mixing of its constituents to impart workability. The requirement of right workability is the essence of good concrete. It has been found that the use of optimum use of admixtures is very important since low dosage may result in loss of fluidity and over dosage could lead to segregation, bleeding, excessive air entrainment etc in concrete. Hence it is essential to find optimum dosage of superplasticizer for getting good strength and workability. But large number of trial tests are required in the field to find the saturation dosage of superplasticizer in concrete which requires more materials and consume more time. The paper deals with developing a co-relation between the quantity requirements of superplasticiser in mortar to that of cement concrete to get good workability. In this work for preparing mortar and concrete 4 brands of locally available Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) and superplasticizer (SP) belonging to 4 different families namely Polycarboxylate Ether (PCE), Lignosulphate (LS), Sulfonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde (SNF) and Sulfonated Melamine Formaldehyde (SMF) are used. Two different brands of SP's are taken from each family. Workability study on the superplasticized mortar with cement to sand ratio 1:1.5 and water cement ratio of 0.4 was performed using marsh cone and flow table test and workability study on the concrete with same cement/sand ratio and water cement ratio was done using slump cone and flow table test. Saturation dosage of superplasticizer in mortar and concrete determined experimentally was compared to study the correlation between two. Compressive strength study on concrete cubes were done on concrete mixes with a superplasticizer dosage corresponding to the saturation dosage and a comparative study were done to analyse the improvement in the compressive strength with addition of superplasticizer from different family.

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2018

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., Aravind J. Prakash, and B. Premjith, “Modeling the Fresh and Hardened Stage Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete using Random Kitchen Sink Algorithm”, International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, vol. 12, 2018.[Abstract]


High performance concrete especially self compacting concrete (SCC) has got wide popularity in construction industry because of its ability to flow through congested reinforcement without segregation and bleeding. Even though European Federation of National Associations Representing for Concrete (EFNARC) guidelines are available for the mix design of SCC, large number of trials are required for obtaining an SCC mix with the desired engineering properties. The material and time requirement is more to conduct such large number of trials. The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to demonstrate use of regularized least square algorithm (RLS) along with random kitchen sink algorithm (RKS) to effectively predict the fresh and hardened stage properties of SCC. The database for testing and training the algorithm was prepared by conducting tests on 40 SCC mixes. Parametric variation in the SCC mixes were the quantities of fine and coarse aggregates, superplasticizer dosage, its family and water content. Out of 40 test results, 32 results were used for training and 8 set results were used for testing the algorithm. Modelling of both fresh state properties viz., flowing ability (Slump Flow), passing ability (J Ring), segregation resistance (V funnel at 5 min) as well as hardened stage property (compressive strength) of the SCC mix was carried out using RLS and RKS algorithm. Accuracy of the model was checked by comparing the predicted and measured values. The model could accurately predict the properties of the SCC within the experimental domain. © 2018, The Author(s).

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2017

Sindu Menon M, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Anand K. B., “Studies on Rheological Properties of Superplasticised PPC Paste”, International Journal of civil engineering and Technology, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 939-947, 2017.[Abstract]


Rheology is the science which deals with flow and deformation of matter under applied force. The study of rheological response of superplasticised PPC pastes subjected to a stepwise loading at a constant temperature using different flow models is presented here. Rheological tests are done in temperature controlled Coaxial Cylinder Viscometer (Brookfield DV-II) to determine the parameters which in turn describe the flow behaviour. Mix prepared at water-binder ratio of 0.37 using two brands Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) and Superplasticisers (SP) of four different families namely Polycarboxylate Ether, Sulphonated Melamine Formaldehyde, Sulphonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde and Lignosulphates were used for the study. The tests were done on 5 mixes in each superplasticiser, one on the optimum dosage obtained and the remaining were on the dosage values lower and higher than the optimum dosage. Optimum dosage of the superplasticiser was obtained from the empirical tests like mini slump test and marsh cone tests. Cement pastes were placed in the sample chamber of coaxial cylinder viscometer and shear stress produced when a known shear rate applied to the fluid through spindle is measured at a constant temperature of 27°C. Two loading and unloading cycles were imposed by increasing, and later decreasing the shear rate. The response of downward curve of the second cycle is used for determining the rheological parameters. Rheological parameters obtained at constant test temperature by fitting the second cycle downward flow curves using Bingham model and Herschel Bulkley model are compared.

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2017

A. J. Prakash, Dhanya Sathyan, Anand, K. B., and B, P., “Prediction of rheological properties of self compacting concrete: Regularized least square approach”, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 2017.

2016

S. Menon.M, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Anand K. B., “Rheological properties of superplasticized portland pozzolana cement paste”, ESTIS 2016, 2016.

2016

C. Jose, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Anand K. B., “Modelling Marsh cone flow time of superplasticized PPC paste –using RLS with the application of RKS”, ESTIS 2016, 2016.

2016

K. Praveen, Dhanya Sathyan, and Dr. Mini K. M., “Study on performance of concrete with over-burnt bricks aggregates and micro-silica admixture”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 149, p. 012061, 2016.[Abstract]


Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, aggregates and water in required proportion, where aggregates occupy the major volume. Addition of aggregates in concrete improves properties of concrete. With the natural resources depleting rapidly, limiting the use of natural resources and enhancing the use of waste materials is very important for sustainable development. Over-burnt bricks are a waste material which cannot be used in construction directly because of their irregular shape and dark colour. Use of over-burnt bricks helps to preserve natural aggregate source. The present study focuses on the effects of microsilica at various percentages as a partial cement replacement in concrete with over-burnt bricks as coarse aggregates. The mechanical properties of hardened concrete such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive strength are studied and analyzed. More »»

2016

Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., and Dr. Mini K. M., “Experimental Study on Portland Pozzolana Cement-Superplasticiser Compatibility in Mortar”, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, vol. 09, no. 02, pp. 539-544, 2016.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Conference Title

2018

F. G. Kottukappalli, Ramkrishnan R., Dhanya Sathyan, Mini, K. M., S., B., and S.R., N., “Strength Properties of Concrete Blocks with Sand Manufacture Sludge as Partial Replacement to Fine Aggregate”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 23733-23742.[Abstract]


The proper disposal of Sand Manufacture Sludge(SMS) from the site is a major problem faced by most of the stone crushing units. SMS when dried is in the form of a fine powder. Due to its sticky nature and time taken to dry, transporting this material is very tedious. Hence it necessitates for finding a solution for the usage at the site itself, in the form of a construction material. This study focuses on replacing M Sand with SMS for the development of concrete building blocks. The study evaluates the effectiveness of use of this waste SMS in manufacturing concrete building blocks and estimating its strength properties, keeping a constant workability throughout. The strength, impact and abrasion properties of the concrete blocks are studied and compared with the conventional blocks and shows good agreement.

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2018

M. Suganya, Dhanya Sathyan, and Mini, K. M., “Performance of Concrete Using Waste Fiber Reinforced Polymer Powder as a Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregate”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 24114-24123.[Abstract]


Proper disposal of fiber waste products is a major problem faced by the FRP industries and hence needs a sustainable solution for its reuse and recycling. The present paper deals with the performance of concrete using waste fiber reinforced polymer powder (FRP), as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in the concrete. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis along with energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) is carried out to find out the elements present in the FRP powder used in the present study. Partial replacement of 5%, 10% and 15% are carried out in the fine aggregate content of control mixture of M30 grade. The workability, compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, impact and abrasion resistance are measured to observe the effect of waste FRP powder on the concrete. From the study it is observed that workability decreased with increase in percentage of FRP substitution with a considerable increase in strength properties for 10% replacement of fine aggregate content by waste fiber reinforced polymer powder. Also better performance is observed for impact and abrasion resistance. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd.

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2016

Praveen, Dhanya Sathyan, and Mini, K. M., “Study on performance of concrete with over-burnt bricks aggregates and micro-silica admixture”, in Proceedings of International conference on Emerging and Sustainable Technologies for infra structure systems, 2016.

2016

C. Jose and Dhanya Sathyan, “Modelling marsh cone flow time of Super Plasticized Portland Pozzolana Cement paste using RLS with the application of RKS”, in Proceedings of International conference on Emerging and Sustainable Technologies for infra structure systems , 2016.

2016

and Dhanya Sathyan, “Prediction of passing ability of SCC: Regularized least squares approach”, in Proceedings of International conference on Emerging and Sustainable Technologies for infra structure systems , 2016.

2016

S. M and Dhanya Sathyan, “Rheological properties of superplasticized portland pozzolana cement paste”, in Proceedings of International conference on Emerging and Sustainable Technologies for infra structure systems , Coimbatore, 2016.

2016

A. .J.Prakash, Dhanya Sathyan, Dr. Anand K. B., and .B, P., “Prediction of passing ability of self compacting concrete: Regularized least square approach”, in International conference on Emerging and Sustainable Technologies for Infrastructure System, Coimbatore, 2016.

2014

Dhanya Sathyan, Yashna Chandran, Akshara Asok, Abhay H, Vikram S, Suraj Shinde, and Akshaya, “Study on the effect of superplasticisers on workability of portland pozzolana cement mortar”, in International Conference on Innovations and Advances in Civil Engineering Towards Green and Sustainable Systems, Coimbatore, 2014.

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Conference Title

2014

Dhanya Sathyan, Yashna Chandran, Akshara Asok, Abhay H, Vikram S, Suraj Shinde, and Akshaya, “Study on the effect of superplasticisers on workability of portland pozzolana cement mortar”, Int. Conference on Innovations and Advances in Civil Engineering Towards Green and Sustainable Systems, April 2014, at CIT Coimbatore, 28-30 April, 2014. 2014.