Qualification: 
Ph.D, M. Pharm.
lekshmirnath@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Lekshmi R. Nath joined as Assistant Professor in the Department of Pharmacognosy at Amrita School of Pharmacy in January 2018. She received her PhD from Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Trivandrum, Kerala. The title of her PhD thesis was “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the anticancer effect of active principles from Solanum nigrum Linn and Chromolaena odorata". During her PhD, she has evaluated the anticancer potential and pharmacological safety of Uttroside B and kaempferide using both in vitro and in vivo models. She completed her M.Pharm. from KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Karnataka (Formerly known as KLES college of Pharmacy) and B.Pharm from Dept of Pharmaceutical Sciences, MG University, Kottayam. She has also served as a faculty at the Dale View College of Pharmacy, Trivandrum during 2008-2009. She has 9 years research experience in the area of anticancer compounds at RGCB. She received ICMR and CICS travel grant to present a scientific paper in Euro Biotechnology Congress -2015 held at Frankfurt Main, Germany in August 2015.

Faculty Research Interest

  • Bioprospecting of anticancer compounds
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemoprevention
  • Cell death mechanism

Research Grant

Ongoing Project

  • KSCSTE Project
    Principal Investigator
    Duration : January, 2020 - January 2021
    Comparative evaluation of Kaempferol and its semisynthetic derivative as mTORC1 inhibitor against hepatocellular carcinoma: An in-vitro approach.
  • Amrita Vishwa Vidya Peetham Seed Grant 2018-19
    Principal Investigator
    Duration : April 2018 - May 2019
    Chemo sensitizing property of phytochemicals in improving the efficacy of marketed drugs for liver cancer.

Achievements and  Awards

  • Recipient of Bharat Vikas Award 2018 from Institute of Self Reliance (ISR), the Press Club of Odisha, Bhubaneswar-1 on December 1, 2018, for the outstanding performance in the field of Cancer Chemoprevention.
  • WCP-NP Best Poster Presentation 2019 at 5th IUPHAR World Conference on the Pharmacology of Natural products & 51st Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological society held at ICMR, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India on 5-7 December 2019.
  • Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) from Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in February 2011
  • OMICS International Best Poster Award at the 8th Eurobiotechnology congress, Frankfurt Main, Germany, August 2015
  • Best paper Award under Biotechnology category for oral presentation at 28th Kerala Science Congres, University of Calicut Campus, Thenhipalam, Malappuram District, India, January 2016
  • Best Oral Presentation award in the “International Conference on Neutraceuticals in Chronic Disease-2016 held at Kochi, Kerala, India, September 2016
  • Dr M.R. Das Career Award in recognition of the Professional achievement during PhD tenure in RGCB, December 2016
  • Kerala State Council For Science, Technology And Environment (KSCTEC) Best Paper Award for Project “Mechanistic evaluation of the anti-tumour effect of SN2, the active principle of Solanum nigrum Linn in hepatocellular carcinoma, 2016 July-December 2017.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

, Nair, B., S, A., and Lekshmi R Nath, “The Plausible role of Indian Traditional Medicine in combating Corona Virus (SARS-CoV 2): a mini-review.”, Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2020.[Abstract]


SARS-CoV 2 is a novel virus strain of Coronavirus, reported in China in late December 2019. Its highly contagious nature in humans has prompted WHO to designate the ongoing pandemic as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. At this moment, there is no specific treatment and the therapeutic strategies to deal with the infection are only supportive, and prevention aimed at reducing community transmission. A permanent solution for the pandemic, which has brought the world economy to the edge of collapse, is the need of the hour. This situation has brought intense research in traditional systems of medicine. Indian Traditional System, Ayurveda has a clear concept of the cause and treatment of pandemics. Through this review, information on the potential antiviral traditional medicines along with their immunomodulatory pathways is discussed. We have covered the seven most important Indian traditional plants with antiviral properties :Withaniasomnifera (L.) Dunal(family: Solanaceae),Tinosporacordifolia(Thunb.)Miers (family:Menispermaceae),Phyllanthusemblica L.(family:Euphorbiaceae),Asparagus racemosus L.(family:Liliaceae), Glycyrrhizaglabra L.(family:Fabaceae), Ocimum sanctum L.(family:Lamiaceae) and Azadirachta indica A.Juss(family:Meliaceae)in this review. An attempt is also made to bring into limelight the importance of dietary polyphenol, Quercetin which is a potential drug candidate in the making against the SARS-CoV2 virus.

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2020

B. Baby, Devan, A. R., Nair, B., and Lekshmi R Nath, “The Impetus of COVID -19 in Multiple Organ Affliction Apart from Respiratory Infection: Pathogenesis, Diagnostic Measures and Current Treatment Strategy”, Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders), vol. 20, pp. 1-13, 2020.[Abstract]


The pandemic spread of COVID 19 caused by the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV- 2) produced a tremendous effect on the life of humanity across the globe. The epidemiological studies revealed the drastic spectrum of SARS-CoV 2 infection ranging from mere flu-like symptoms to the severe respiratory suppression within a short period. Initially, cases have confined in the emerging point, Wuhan, China. But, within a few months, it has spread all over 212 countries around the globe and presently has become a severe threat to human life. Even though it is a severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, recent reports came with multiple organ effects of SARS-CoV 2, suggesting the virulence potential of this novel Virus to sweep the planet in the absence of a proper vaccine or therapy. In this review, we discuss the multi-organ pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection together with the treatment methods adopted and innovative diagnostic methods used.

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2020

A. J, Nair, B., S, A., and Lekshmi R Nath, “The Plausible role of Indian Traditional Medicine in combating Corona Virus (SARS-CoV 2): a mini-review”, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2020.[Abstract]


SARS-CoV 2 is a novel virus strain of Coronavirus, reported in China in late December 2019. Its highly contagious nature in humans has prompted WHO to designate the ongoing pandemic as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. At this moment, there is no specific treatment and the therapeutic strategies to deal with the infection are only supportive, and prevention aimed at reducing community transmission. A permanent solution for the pandemic, whichhas brought the world economy to the edge of collapse, is the need of the hour. This situation has brought intense research intraditional systems of medicine. Indian Traditional System, Ayurveda has a clear concept of the cause and treatment of pandemics. Through this review, information on the potential antiviral traditional medicines along with their immunomodulatory pathways is discussed. We have covered the seven most important Indian traditional plants with antiviral properties:Withaniasomnifera (L.) Dunal(family: Solanaceae),Tinosporacordifolia(Thunb.)Miers (family:Menispermaceae),Phyllanthusemblica L.(family:Euphorbiaceae),Asparagus racemosus L.(family:Liliaceae), Glycyrrhizaglabra L.(family:Fabaceae), Ocimum sanctum L.(family:Lamiaceae) and Azadirachta indicaA.Juss(family:Meliaceae)in this review. An attempt is also made to bring into limelight the importance of dietary polyphenol, Quercetin which is a potential drug candidate in the making against the SARS-CoV2 virus.

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2020

P. Siniprasad, Nair, B., Balasubramaniam, V., Sadanandan, P., Namboori, P. Krishnan K., and Lekshmi R Nath, “Evaluation of Kaempferol as AKT Dependent mTOR Regulator via Targeting FKBP-12 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: an In silico Approach”, Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 2020.[Abstract]


Background: Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are inherently chemotherapy-resistant tumors with about 30-50% activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and this pathway is not aberrant in normal cells. Therefore, targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has become a promising strategy in drug designing to combat liver cancer. Recently, many studies with phytochemicals suggest few classes of compounds, especially flavonoids to be useful in down-regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway corresponding to HCC. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore flavonoids, from which the best mTORC1 inhibitor against hepatocellular carcinoma is selected using computational molecular modeling.

Methods: In the present study, we performed a virtual screening method with phytochemicals of flavonoid category. To ensure proper bioavailability and druggability, pharmacokinetic and interaction parameters have been used to screen the molecules. The target protein molecules have been selected from the RCSB. The interaction studies have been conducted using Biovia Discovery Studios client version 17.2.0.1.16347 and the pharmacokinetic predictions have been made through ADMET SAR. The responsiveness towards regulation of the mTOR pathway varies from person to person, demanding a pharmacogenomic approach in the analysis. The genetic variants (Single Nucleotide Variants-SNVs) corresponding to the mutations have been identified.

Result: The study identified phytoconstituents with better interaction with receptor FKBP12, a Rapamycin binding domain which is the target of Rapamycin and its analogues for mTORC1 inhibition in HCC. Another protein, ‘AKT serine/threonine-protein kinase’ has been identified, which is associated with activation of mTORC1. The molecular interaction studies (docking studies) and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) analysis were used to identify the affinity between selected phytoconstituents as mTORC1 inhibitor against Hepatocellular carcinoma. The docking studies support Kaempferol to be a potential ligand with docking score values of 33.4 (3CQU-3D structure of AKT1)] and 27.3 (2FAP-3D structure of FRB domain of mTOR) respectively as compared to that of standard drug Everolimus with 24.4 (3CQU-3D structure of AKT1) and 20.1 (2FAP-3D structure of FRB domain of mTOR) respectively. Docking studies along with ADMET results shows that Kaempferol has favorable drug likeliness properties and bind to the same active site (site1) of the targeted proteins (3CQU-3D structure of AKT1) and (2FAP-3D structure of FRB domain of mTOR) where the standard drug Everolimus is known to bind.

Conclusion: The study exhibited that Kaempferol was having a better binding affinity towards the receptor FKBP12, a Rapamycin Binding Domain and AKT serine/threonine-protein kinase resulting in its better efficacy in the mTORC1 inhibition as when compared with standard drug Everolimus against HCC. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been reported on Kaempferol as an mTORC1 inhibitor against Hepatocellular carcinoma.

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2020

A. J. Kammath, Nair, B., P, S., and Lekshmi R Nath, “Curry Versus Cancer: Potential of Some Selected Culinary Spices Against Cancer with in vitro, in Vivo, and Human Trials Evidences”, Journal of Food Biochemistry Special issue – Pharma Food, p. e13285, 2020.[Abstract]


Abstract Spices are dietary agents with immense potential for cancer chemo-prevention. A wide variety of spices are extensively used as food flavoring agents which possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties due to the presence of certain bio-active compounds in them. In vitro, in vivo studies and clinical trials of selected spices against various types of cancer are being specified in this review. Effect of certain putative dietary spices namely turmeric, clove, garlic, ginger, fennel, black cumin, cinnamon, pepper, saffron, rosemary, and chilli along with its role in cancer are being discussed. Literature search was conducted through PubMed, Google scholar, Science direct, and Scopus using the keywords “spice,” “cancer,” “natural medicine,” “herbal compound,” “bioactive compounds.” About 4,000 published articles and 127 research papers were considered to grab the brief knowledge on spices and their anticancer potential on a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Practical application Historically, spices and herbs are known for its traditional flavor, odor, and medicinal properties. Intensified risk of chronic and pervasive clinical conditions and increased cost of advanced drug treatments have developed a keen interest among researchers to explore the miscellaneous properties of herbal spices. Cancer is one of the deleterious causes of mortality affecting a huge number of populations worldwide. Arrays of cancer treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are used to compromise the disease but effective only when the size of the tumor is small. So, an effective treatment need to be developed that produces less side effects and herbal spices are found to be the promising agents. In this review, we illustrate about different in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies of wide range of culinary spices having antineoplastic potential.

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2020

B. Nair, Anto, R. John, Dr. Sabitha M., and Lekshmi R Nath, “Kaempferol-Mediated Sensitization Enhances Chemotherapeutic Efficacy of Sorafenib Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An in Silico and in Vitro Approach”, Adv Pharm Bull, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 472-476, 2020.[Abstract]


Sorafenib is the sole FDA approved drug conventionally used for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite of the beneficial use of sorafenib in the treatment of HCC, multidrug resistance still remains a challenge. HCC is inherently known as chemotherapy resistant tumor due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance. <strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: We studied the interaction energy of kaempferol with human multidrug resistance protein-1 (RCSB PDB ID: 2CBZ) using <em>in silico</em> method with the help of BIOVIA Discovery Studio. HepG2 and N1S1 liver cancer cell lines were treated in suitable cell culture media to evaluate the efficacy of kaempferol in chemo-sensitizing liver cancer cells towards the effect of sorafenib. Cell viability study was performed by MTT assay. <strong><em>Results</em></strong>: <em>In silico</em> analysis of kaempferol showed best docking score of 23.14 with Human Multi Drug Resistant Protein-1 (RCSB PDB ID: 2CBZ) compared with positive control verapamil. In<em> in-vitro</em> condition, combination of sub-toxic concentrations of both kaempferol and sorafenib produced 50% cytotoxicity with concentration of 2.5 µM each which indicates that kaempferol has the ability to reverse the MDR by decreasing the over-expression of P-gp. <strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Kaempferol is able to sensitize the HepG2 and N1S1 against the sub-toxic concentration of sorafenib. Hence, we consider that the efficacy of sorafenib chemotherapy can be enhanced by the significant approach of combining the sub-toxic concentrations of sorafenib with kaempferol. Thus, kaempferol can be used as a better candidate molecule along with sorafenib for enhancing its efficacy, if validated through preclinical studies.

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2020

B. Nair and Lekshmi R Nath, “Inevitable Role of TGF-β1 in Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease”, Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 195-200, 2020.[Abstract]


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern and the most commonly diagnosed chronic liver manifestation among 25% worldwide population. Obesity, insulin resistance, accumulation of toxic lipid free radicals, generation of oxidative stress, overconsumption of fat containing dietary meals and lack of exercise are the paramount factors accountable for the development of NAFLD. During NAFLD, increased oxidative stress and production of enormous number of toxic free radicals activates a number of pro-inflammatory and inflammatory pathways. TGF-β signaling mechanisms play a central role in maintaining the normal homeostasis of liver. TGF-β1, one of the three isoforms of TGF-β family has significant role in different stages of chronic liver conditions. TGF-β1 promotes HSC activation and extracellular matrix production (ECM), which further contributes in the progression of NAFLD. In this review, we outline the role of TGF-β1 in different phases of progressive NAFLD along with the signaling mechanism.

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2016

Lekshmi R Nath, Kumar, S. N., Das, A. A., Nambisan, B., Shabna, C. Mohandas, and Anto, R. J., “In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant, 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-Ethyl-Trans-Stilbene (DETS) Isolated from Bacillus Cereus as a Potent Candidate Against Malignant Melanoma”, Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 452, 2016.[Abstract]


3,5-dihydroxy Q1 -4-ethyl-trans-stilbene (DETS) is a natural stilbene, which was first identified as bioactive bacterial secondary metabolite isolated from Bacillus cereus associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode. The present study was intended to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of this compound in vitro. Antioxidant activity was investigated by assaying DPPH free radical scavenging, superoxide radical-(O2..) scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, which proved that the compound is a powerful antioxidant. The metal chelating activity of DETS was higher than butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) and gallic acid, two well-known antioxidants. As the molecule exhibited strong antioxidant potential, it was further evaluated for cytotoxic activity toward five cancer cells of various origins. Since the compound has a strong structural similarity with resveratrol (trans- 3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene), a well-studied chemopreventive polyphenolic antioxidant, its anticancer activity was compared with that of resveratrol. Among the five cancer cells studied, the compound showed maximum cytotoxicity toward the human melanoma cell line, [A375, IC50: 24.01 μM] followed by cervical [HeLa-46.17 μM], colon [SW480- 47.28 μM], liver [HepG2- 69.56 μM] and breast [MCF-7- 84.31 μM] cancer cells. A375 was much more sensitive to DETS compared to the non-melanoma cell line, A431, in which the IC50 of the compound was more than double (49.60 μM). In the present study, the anticancer activity of DETS against melanoma was confirmed by various apoptosis assays. We also observed that DETS, like resveratrol, down-regulates the expression status of major molecules contributing to melanoma progression, such as BRAF, β-catenin and Brn-2, all of which converge in MITF-M, the master regulator of melanoma signaling. The regulatory role of MITF-M in DETS-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma cells was confirmed by comparing the cytotoxicity of DETS in A375 cells (IC50-24.01 μM), with that in SK-MEL-2 (IC50-67.6 μM), another melanoma cells which highly over-express MITF-M. The compound arrests the cells at S-G2 transition state of the cell cycle, as resveratrol. Our results indicate that DETS is a powerful antioxidant, having anticancer efficacy comparable with that of resveratrol, and is a potential candidate to be explored by in vivo studies and in-depth mechanistic evaluation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer properties of DETS.

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2016

Lekshmi R Nath, Gorantla, J. N., Thulasidasan, A. T., Vijayakurup, V., Shah, S., Anwer, S., Joseph, S. M., Antony, J., Veena, K. Suresh, Sundaram, S., Marelli, U. K., Lankalapalli, R. S., and Anto, R. John, “Evaluation of Uttroside B, a Saponin from Solanum Nigrum Linn, as a Promising Chemotherapeutic Agent Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma”, Sci. Rep. 2016, vol. 6, 2016.[Abstract]


We report, for the first time, the remarkable efficacy of uttroside B, a potent saponin from Solanum nigrum Linn, against liver cancer. The compound has been isolated and characterized from the leaves of Solanum nigrum Linn, a plant widely used in traditional medicine and is a rich resource of several anticancer molecules. Uttroside B, that comprises of β-D-glucopyranosyl unit at C-26 of the furostanol and β-lycotetraosyl unit at C-3, is ten times more cytotoxic to the liver cancer cell line, HepG2 (IC50: 0.5 μM) than sorafenib (IC50: 5.8 μM), the only FDA-approved drug for liver cancer. Moreover, it induces cytotoxicity in all liver cancer cell lines, irrespective of their HBV status, while being non-toxic to normal immortalized hepatocytes. It induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by down-regulating mainly the activation of MAPK and mTOR pathways. The drastic reduction in HepG2-xenograft tumor size achieved by uttroside B in NOD-SCID mice and substantiation of its biological safety through both acute and chronic toxicity studies in Swiss albino mice warrants clinical validation of the molecule against hepatic cancer, for which, the chemotherapeutic armamentarium currently has limited weapons.

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2015

J. Antony, Saikia, M., .V, V., Lekshmi R Nath, Katiki, M. Rao, Murty, M. S. R., Paul, A., A, S., Chandran, H., Joseph, S. Margaret, S, N. Kumar., Panakkal, E. Jayex, I.V, S., I.V, S., Ran, S., S, S., Rajan, E., and Anto, R. John, “DW-F5: A Novel Formulation Against Malignant Melanoma from Wrightia Tinctoria”, Scientific Reports, 2015.[Abstract]


Wrightia tinctoria is a constituent of several ayurvedic preparations against skin disorders including psoriasis and herpes, though not yet has been explored for anticancer potential. Herein, for the first time, we report the significant anticancer properties of a semi-purified fraction, DW-F5, from the dichloromethane extract of W. tinctoria leaves against malignant melanoma. DW-F5 exhibited anti-melanoma activities, preventing metastasis and angiogenesis in NOD-SCID mice, while being non-toxic in vivo. The major pathways in melanoma signaling mediated through BRAF, WNT/β-catenin and Akt-NF-κB converging in MITF-M, the master regulator of melanomagenesis, were inhibited by DW-F5, leading to complete abolition of MITF-M. Purification of DW-F5 led to the isolation of two cytotoxic components, one being tryptanthrin and the other being an unidentified aliphatic fraction. The overall study predicts Wrightia tinctoria as a candidate plant to be further explored for anticancer properties and DW-F5 as a forthcoming drug formulation to be evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent against malignant melanoma.

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2015

Lekshmi R Nath, Gorantla, J. N., Joseph, S. Margaret, Antony, J., Thankachan, S., Menon, D. B., S. Sankar, Lankalapalli, R. S., and Anto, R. John, “Kaempferide, the Most Active Among the Four Flavonoids Isolated and Characterized from Chromolaena Odorata, Induces Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells While Being Pharmacologically Safe”, RSC Advances, vol. 5, pp. 100912-100922, 2015.[Abstract]


Chromolaena odorata, commonly known as Siam weed, is popular as a traditional medicine. We report the isolation and characterization of four compounds from a cytotoxic fraction, F-17, isolated from the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. odorata by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The organic extracts were screened in five cancer cell lines of various origins for their cytotoxic effect. The DCM extract exhibited maximum cytotoxicity and was purified by silica gel column chromatography to obtain four major compounds. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HR-MS methods and were found to be acacetin (1), dihydrokaempferide (2), isosakuranetin (3), and kaempferide (4). MTT assay was used for preliminary evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Among the cancer cell lines that were screened, HeLa was the most sensitive to kaempferide (IC50: 16 μM) followed by acacetin (174 μM), dihydrokaempferide (>200 μM) and isosakuranetin (>200 μM). Kaempferide (4) induced morphological characteristics of apoptosis in HeLa cells and was non-toxic to rapidly dividing normal human fibroblasts up to 100μM. Annexin V staining, characteristic of early stage of apoptosis was further confirmed by FACS analysis. Induction of apoptosis was illustrated by its potential to induce the cleavage of caspases and PARP. FACS analysis demonstrated that kaempferide (4)-induced cytotoxicity is independent of cell cycle arrest. Acute and chronic toxicity studies conducted in vivo proved that the compound is pharmacologically safe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the anticancer potential and pharmacological safety of kaempferide (4).

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2014

R. E. K, Bava, S. V., Narayanan, S. Shyam, Lekshmi R Nath, Thulasidasan, A. Kumar, V, S. E., and Anto, R. John, “[6]-Gingerol Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents PMA-Induced Proliferation in Colon Cancer Cells by Inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 Signaling”, PLOS ONE, vol. 9, no. 8, 2014.[Abstract]


We report mechanism-based evidence for the anticancer and chemopreventive efficacy of [6]-gingerol, the major active principle of the medicinal plant, Ginger (Zingiber officinale), in colon cancer cells. The compound was evaluated in two human colon cancer cell lines for its cytotoxic effect and the most sensitive cell line, SW-480, was selected for the mechanistic evaluation of its anticancer and chemopreventive efficacy. The non-toxic nature of [6]-gingerol was confirmed by viability assays on rapidly dividing normal mouse colon cells. [6]-gingerol inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidyl serine in SW-480, while the normal colon cells were unaffected. Sensitivity to [6]-gingerol in SW-480 cells was associated with activation of caspases 8, 9, 3 &7 and cleavage of PARP, which attests induction of apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, [6]-gingerol down-regulated Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA) induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAP kinases and activation of AP-1 transcription factor, but had only little effects on phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and activation of NF-kappa B. Additionally, it complemented the inhibitors of either ERK1/2 or JNK MAP kinase in bringing down the PMA-induced cell proliferation in SW-480 cells. We report the inhibition of ERK1/2/JNK/AP-1 pathway as a possible mechanism behind the anticancer as well as chemopreventive efficacy of [6]-gingerol against colon cancer

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2010

Lekshmi R Nath, KP, M., RV, S., and KS, A., “Anti-inflammatory activity of Mirabilis jalapa linn. Leaves”, J Basic Clin Pharm, vol. 1, no. 2, 2010.[Abstract]


Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent.

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2009

Lekshmi R Nath, KP, M., RV, S., and K.S, A., “Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves”, Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111 - 115, 2009.[Abstract]


The Mirabilis jalapa stem were collected, dried and studied to determine the various parameters of pharmacognostical standards such as ash and extractive values,
microscopical characters of stem powder phytochemical tests. The shade dried powder and different types of extracts (viz., aqueous, benzene, chloroform, dichloromethane, methanol) have been analyzed for their preliminary phytochemical tests.

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Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Title

2016

Lekshmi R Nath and Anto, R. John, “Uttroside B and Derivatives Thereof as Therapeutics for Hepatocellular Carcinoma”, U.S. Patent 2016410184012016.