Qualification: 
Ph.D
pk_viswanathan@asb.kochi.amrita.edu

P. K. Viswanathan serves as Professor (Economics) with specialised interests in the Economics of Natural Resources Management and Sustainability. He has a PhD in Economics from the Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore (Mysore University). His research and teaching interests relate to Economics of Natural Resources Management; Agrarian Transformation and Rural livelihoods; Aspects of Technology, Institutions, Policies and Governance; Climate Change impacts on natural resources, environment and agriculture; Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystems; Sustainable energy policy; Globalisation and its impacts on Agriculture and Trade; Welfare Impacts of Trade Certifications in India’s Plantation Sector, etc.

Qualifications

  • PhD (Economics), Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bangalore [Mysore University] (2003)
  • Postdoc (Environment, Resources and Development), Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok (2005)
  • Postdoc (Demographic and Socio-Economic Surveillance System, Thailand), Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR), Mahidol University, Thailand (2006) 

Professional Experience

Period

Position

Institutional Affiliation

From

To

31 October 2016 Continue Professor (Economics and Sustainability) Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Department of Management, Kochi, Kerala
14 May 2007 30 October 2016 Associate Professor Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
15 July 2013 14 September 2013 International Consultant Agricultural Census Studies, FAO of the United Nations, Vientiane, Lao PDR

1 February 2010

30 November 2010

Research Scientist Regional & Rural Development Planning, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand
1 May 2006 30 April 2007 Visiting Fellow Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Thailand
1 March 2006 30 April 2006 Lee Hysan Visiting Scholar Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
1 January 2005  31 January 2006 Post-Doctoral Fellow School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand
1 November 1994 31 December 2006 Scientist (Economics) & Economist Rubber Research Institute of India (Government of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry), Kottayam, Kerala
20 October 1992 31 October 1994 Doctoral Fellow Institute for Social & Economic Change, Bangalore, Karnataka
1 March 1991 19 October 1992 Research Assistant Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala

TEACHING

  • Environmental Management and Sustainable Development (Core)

Current Research & Writing Projects

  • “Fair Trade certified Tea in the Hired Labour Sector: An impact study and baseline data collection”, supported by Fairtrade International, in collaboration with International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Centre for Poverty Analysis (CEPA), Colombo; Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Trivandrum; and Gujarat Institute of Development Research (GIDR), Ahmedabad, March 2015 – December 2016.
  • Book under processing for publication by Springer, titled, “Employment Guarantee Programme and Dynamics of Rural Transformation in India: Challenges and Opportunities”, Edited by M. Bhattarai, P.K. Viswanathan, Rudra N. Mishra and Cynthia Bantilan (forthcoming, 2017).

Research projects undertaken during 2007-2016

No

Title of research project

Period

Supporting Agency

1

Farmers Adoption of Bt Cotton in India: A study in Maharashtra and Gujarat (with N. Lalitha, GIDR Ahmedabad as Principal Investigator)

2007-09

Oxfam, USA

2

Water Policy and Water Laws in India: A Critical Review of Structural and Institutional Impediments and Governance Systems and Outlook for Future (with R. Parthasarathy, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2009-10

International Water Management Institute (IWMI),  Colombo (through Hyderabad office)

3

Challenges, Opportunities and Imperatives for Techno-Economic-Institutional Reforms under Trade Liberalisation: Case Studies of Tea and Rubber Plantations (with Amita Shah, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2009-10

South Asia Network of Economic Research Institutes (SANEI), Bangladesh

4

Socio-Economic and Ecological Benefits of Mangrove Plantations: A Study of Community Based Mangrove Restoration Activities in Gujarat

2009-10

Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar

5

Impact of Industrialisation and its related activities on the Marine National Park, Jamnagar (with Jyoti Parikh, IRADe, New Delhi)

2010

Integrated Action for Research and Development (IRADe), New Delhi

6

Assessing the Poverty Impact of Social and Voluntary Standards under the Fair Trade: A study of Tea Plantations

2010

Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Greenwich University, UK

7

An Economic Evaluation of Revitalisation of Village Tanks in Gujarat

2011-12

Gujarat Land Development Corporation (GLDC), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar

8

Trends and Determinants of Agricultural Power Consumption and Distribution Losses: An analysis of agricultural feeders across power distribution companies in Gujarat

2012-13

Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission (GERC), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar

9

Regional Dimensions of Emerging Labour Shortage in Rubber Plantation Sector in Kerala: An Exploratory analysis

2013

National Research Programme on Plantation Development (NRPPD), CDS Trivandrum

10

Capacity Building Programme on Agricultural Water Demand Management (with M. Dinesh Kumar, IRAP, Hyderabad)

2013

Cap-Net/ UNDP

11

Socio-Economic Survey for Review Report on Impacts of Employment and Social Protection Policies (ie. NREGA) on Rural Livelihoods in India: Village Case studies in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh (with Rudra N Mishra, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2012-14

International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad

12

Techno-Economic and Social Impacts of Water Saving Technologies in Agriculture: A case study of PINS & MIS in Gujarat (with Chandrasekhar Bahinipati, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2014

Gujarat Water Resources Development Corporation (GWRDC), Gandhinagar

13

Compatibility of Institutional Architecture for Rubber Plantation Development in North East India from a comparative perspective of Kerala

2014

National Research Programme on Plantation Development (NRPPD), CDS Trivandrum

14

Public Investments for Water Sector Development in Kerala: A Post Facto Analysis of Major & Medium versus Minor Irrigation Projects in a comparative perspective

2013-14

State Planning Board (SPB), Government of Kerala

15

Economic Evaluation of Bt Cotton Adoption in Gujarat (with N. Lalitha, GIDR Ahmedabad as Principal Investigator)

2013-14

Directorate of Agriculture, Government of Gujarat

16

Social and Economic Impacts, Institutional and Policy Constraints in the Adoption of Water Saving Technologies in Agriculture: A Comparative Study of Micro Irrigation Systems in India (with Jharna Pathak and Chandrasekhar Bahinipati, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2013-15

Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi

17

Peasant Migration and Plantation Development in Kerala: Changes in the local economy, society and the agrarian landscape in the Erstwhile Malabar Region

2014

National Research Programme on Plantation Development (NRPPD), CDS Trivandrum

18

Enhancing Agriculture Livelihoods in Coastal Areas: A study of the climate change resilient agriculture and farm management interventions in Gujarat, Western India (with Jharna Pathak and Madhusudan Bandi, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2015-16

Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell Ahmedabad and Sir Ratan Tata Trust, Mumbai

19

Will Climate Change Adaptation Enhance Farm Productivity? A Study of Micro-Irrigation Systems (MIS) in Gujarat, India (with Chandrasekhar Bahinipati, GIDR Ahmedabad, as Principal Investigator)

2015-16

South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE), Kathmandu, Nepal

20

State of Social Science Research in India: An overview of International Collaborations and Research (with Parthasarathy and Madhusudan Bandi, GIDR Ahmedabad)

2016

Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi

NRPPD-CDS Discussion Papers

  • Viswanathan, P.K. Amita Shah (2012): ‘Gender Impact of Trade Reforms in Indian Plantation Sector: An Exploratory Analysis’, NRPPD Discussion Paper 17, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala, 69p. http://cds.edu/admin/homeFiles/nrppd%2017.pdf 
  • Viswanathan, P.K. (2013): Regional dimensions of emerging Labour shortage in rubber Plantation sector in Kerala: An exploratory analysis, NRPPD Discussion Paper 27, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, 86p. http://cds.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/NRPPD27.pdf
  • Viswanathan, P.K. and Indraneel Bhowmik (2014): ‘Compatibility of Institutional Architecture for Rubber Plantation Development in North East India from a Comparative Perspective of Kerala, NRPPD Discussion Paper 38, 71p. http://cds.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/NRPPD-38.pdf
  • Viswanathan, P.K. (2015): Farmer Migration and Agrarian Transformation in Kerala: Impacts on the Local Economy, Society and the Agrarian Landscape in the Erstwhile Malabar Region, NRPPD Discussion Paper 43, 38p. Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum http://cds.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/43_ViswanathanII.pdf
  • Indraneel Bhowmik and P.K. Viswanathan (2015): Emerging Labour Relations in The Small Rubber Plantations of Tripura, NRPPD Discussion Paper 47, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, 33p. http://cds.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/47_Indraneel.pdf

Invited Lectures (Since 2012)

  • Delivered a talk “Challenges of Agricultural Development in Kerala” at the Colloquia at the Amrita School of Business, Kochi, Kerala, on 28 February 2012.
  • Delivered a lecture, “Agriculture Transition in Asia: Challenges and Perspectives on Future Research” on 8 March 2012 at the Workshop on Methods of Research and Proposal Writing (March 5-10, 2012) Mizoram University, Aizawl, Jointly orgnaised by Department of Economics, Mizoram University, Aizawl & OKD Institute of Social Change and Development, Guwahati.
  • Delivered a lecture, “From Jhuming to Tapping: An analysis of rubber development  programme in NE States in India”, on 8 March 2012 at the Workshop on Methods of Research and Proposal Writing (March 5-10, 2012) Mizoram University, Aizawl, Jointly organised by Department of Economics, Mizoram University, Aizawl & OKD Institute of Social Change and Development, Guwahati.
  • Delivered 2 lectures, viz., “Inclusive Growth: understanding it”, and “Inclusive Growth and Agriculture  Development in India: Challenges and way forward” at the UGC Sponsored Two-Day National Seminar on “Inclusive Growth: Economic, Institutional and Rights Perspectives” March 8-9, 2013, at PSG College of Arts & Science College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
  • Delivered 2 lectures on “Longitudinal Data Analysis in Social Science Research: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations” at the ICSSR Research Methodology Workshop held on 23 March 2013, at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai.
  • Delivered a lecture on “Agriculture and Environment in the Indian Context: A Critical Assessment”, Refresher Course on Macro Economics with Special Reference to Indian Economic System, held on 17 May 2013, at the Sardar Patel Institute of Economic and Social Research, Ahmedabad.
  • Delivered lectures on: (a) “Agricultural Water Management: Socio-Economic and Policy Challenges”; (b) “Institutional and Policy Reforms in Indian Water Sector: A critical assessment”; and (c) “Climate Variability and Water Insecurity in India” at the Training Workshop on Agricultural Water Demand Management, held during 21-25 October 2013, at Ahmedabad, supported by Cap-Net and UNDP.
  • Delivered lectures on: (a) “Factor analysis and Principal Component Analysis; (b) Database on Indian Agriculture; (c) Database on Environment”, at the National Workshop on ‘Research Methodology for Social Sciences’ held at GIDR Ahmedabad during 25 February – 06 March 2014.
  • Delivered a lecture on “Investment Strategies and Technology Options for Sustainable Agriculture Development in India: Challenges and Way Forward”, at Christ College, Irinjalakuda, as part of the Alumni Lecture Series organised by the Research Department of Economics on 13th January 2015.
  • Regression and Multivariate Analysis”, Lecture delivered on 23rd September 2015, at the Building Capacity of the Technical Cadre of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics in Statistical Methods and Analysis, 23-25 September 2015, held at GIDR Ahmedabad, jointly organised by the Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Gujarat and the UNICEF, Gandhinagar.
  • “Land, Water and Coastal Resources and Livelihoods in Gujarat: Data and Analysis”, Lecture delivered on 24th September 2015, at the Building Capacity of the Technical Cadre of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics in Statistical Methods and Analysis, 23-25 September 2015, held at GIDR Ahmedabad, jointly organised by the Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Gujarat and the UNICEF, Gandhinagar.
  • Delivered four lectures on: “Analysis of Livelihoods” and a lecture on “Data Analysis” for Masters’ Students at the Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, on 23rd November 2015 and 27 November 2015.
  • Delivered two Lectures on: (a) ‘Data Collection Techniques and Sampling in Social Research’; and (b) ‘Selection of Research Sample and Sampling Techniques’, at the Research Methodology Workshop for Ph.D. Scholars In Social Sciences, Sponsored by Indian Council of Social Sciences Research, New Delhi, Organized by Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar,  11 March 2016.
  • Delivered four Lectures on: ‘Natural Resources Management and Conservation: Policies, interventions and Evaluation Methods’, at the Workshop on ‘Program Monitoring and Evaluation in NRM’, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, 7th – 8th April, 2016.
  • Delivered two lectures on: (a) Writing Research Proposals; and (b) Database on Indian Economy, at the Two Day National Workshop on Research in Economics, organised by the Kerala Economic Association at Kottayam, Kerala during 30-31 July 2016.
  • Delivered a lecture on: ‘Conventional and Non-conventional sources of Data’, at the Orientation Programme on Social Science Research for Research Scholars and Faculty Members, supported by ICSSR, 2-4 August 2016, GIDR Ahmedabad.

Referee (Journals)

  • Water Resources Bulletin Journal (American Water Resources Association)
  • Water Policy (International Water Association)
  • Agroforestry Systems (Springer)
  • Journal of Gender Studies (Taylor & Francis, UK)
  • Community Development Journal (Routledge)
  • European Journal of Development Research (Palgrave Macmillan)

Membership in Academic Societies/ Professional Bodies

  • Alumni, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore, India
  • Alumni, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok
  • Alumni, Institute for Population Research, Mahidol University, Thailand
  • Asian Society of Agricultural Economists
  • International Society for Development and Sustainability (ISDS), Japan
  • Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP), Switzerland
  • Life Member, Kerala Economic Association

Other Academic Credentials

  • External Expert, Research Advisory Committee, Department of Economics, Tripura University, Agartala
  • Member, Student Advisory Committee, CEPT University, Ahmedabad
  • External Examiner for PhD, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, Kerala
  • External Examiner for PhD, University of Calicut, Kerala
  • External Examiner for PhD, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
  • External Examiner for MPhil & PhD, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar
  • PhD Guide, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad
  • Member, Board of Studies of Economics, Christ College, Irinjalakuda, Kerala
  • Series Editor & Coordinator, Working Paper Series, GIDR, Ahmedabad (2008-2010 & 2011-2016)
  • Series Editor & Coordinator, Occasional Paper Series, GIDR, Ahmedabad (2011-2016).

Scholarships/ Awards

  • May 2006 – May 2007, Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Thailand.
  • March – April 2006: Lee Hysan Visiting Fellowship, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • January – December 2005, Post Doctoral Research Fellowship, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand.
  • October 1992 - September 1996: PhD Fellowship, Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bangalore, India
  • National Merit Scholarship from 1985 to 1988 for Graduate studies
  • Cultural Scholarship (1983 to 1988) for Literary Competitions in Sanskrit, Calicut Uty.

Publications

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2010

Book Chapter

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., Thapa, G. B., Routray, J. K., and Ahmad, M. M., “A Prelude to Agricultural Transition in Asia”, in Agricultural Transition in Asia: Trajectories and Challenges, Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology, 2010, pp. 1-8.

2010

Book Chapter

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., Thapa, G. B., Routray, J. K., and Ahmad, M. M., “Challenges facing Asian smallholder agriculture: A synthesis of five country studies”, in Agricultural Transition in Asia: Trajectories and Challenges, Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology, 2010, pp. 182-230.

Publication Type: Report

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2010

Report

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Parikh, J., “Impact of industrialisation and related Activities on marine protected areas: A Case Study of Marine National Park, Jamnagar District in Gujarat”, IRADe, New Delhi, 2010.

2009

Report

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Shah, A., “Challenges, Opportunities and Imperatives for Techno-Economic and Institutional Reforms under Trade Liberalisation: Case Studies of Tea and Rubber Plantation Sectors in India”, The South Asia Network of Economic Research Institutes (SANEI), 2009.

2009

Report

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Parthasarathy, R., “Water Policy and Water Laws in India: A Critical Review of Structural and Institutional Impediments and Governance Systems and outlook for future”, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Hyderabad, 2009.

2006

Report

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “A Comparative Study of Smallholder Rubber and Rubber integrated Farm Livelihood Systems in India and Thailand”, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, 2006.

2004

Report

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “Infrastructure Development for Utilisation of Water Resources in Kerala:Current status and perspective for future with special reference to long pending irrigation projects”, State Planning Board, Government of Kerala, 2004.

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Thongthai, V., “Gender Differences in Educational Attainments and Occupational Status in Thailand: A study based on Kanchanaburi DSS Data”, Journal of Population & Social Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 83-122, 2009.

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Shivakoti, G. P., “Adoption of Rubber Integrated Farm Livelihood Systems: Contrasting Empirical Evidences from the Indian Context ”, Journal of Forest Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-14, 2008.[Abstract]


This paper examines the influence of important socio-economic, institutional/policy level factors in determining the adoption/non-adoption of rubber-integrated farming systems in traditional and non-traditional rubber-growing regions in India. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of rubber growers in the traditional rubber regions of Kerala (south India) and the non-traditional rubber regions of Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura (north east India). In sharp contrast to Kerala, where smallholder responses toward adoption of rubber-integrated farming systems have been lukewarm, the emerging rubber economies (most of which are tribal communities) of north east (NE) India have shown interest in adopting rubber as an integrated farming system along with pre-existing land-use livelihood activities. The study clearly demonstrates contrasting empirical evidence of adoption of rubber-integrated farm-livelihood systems in the rubber-growing regions in Kerala and the NE states in India. The contrasting scenarios of adoption of rubber-integrated farming systems are mostly explained by region-specific factors dominated by socio-economic, institutional variables, and policy-level constraints, as also revealed by multivariate analysis. By and large, the findings of the study have significant bearing on the socio-economic outcomes and the existing institutional development paradigm underlying the rubber-development programmes introduced in India since independence. The study shows that the existing institutional arrangements and policies, which evolved historically to facilitate rubber area expansion in the traditional regions (including Kerala), have been highly instrumental in perpetuating rubber farming as a monoculture system. However, such an institutional mechanism proves to be highly redundant in the context of the NE states which are otherwise diverse in terms of integrated farm-livelihood systems and shifting cultivation. More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Shivakoti, G. P., “Integration of Tribal Economies in the Era of Globalisation: Perspectives on Rubber Based Farming Systems in North East India”, Asian Profile, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 281-298, 2008.

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “Sustainable Growth of China's Rubber Industry in the Era of Global Economic Integration: Resolving Contradictions of Resources Development and Industrial Expansion Strategies ”, China Report, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 251-279, 2008.[Abstract]


The article analyses the development and growth of the rubber industry in China since the reforms began. It reflects the contradictions arising from the mismatch between growing shortage of rubber vis-à-vis the dynamic and spatial growth of rubber-based industries. The article suggests some important policy options for sustaining the growth dynamism of the rubber industry in China, in the era of economic integration, which calls for a thorough revamping of state policies and evolving (virtually non-existent) institutional intervention strategies addressing a broad spectrum of activities, namely (a) demand and supply management; (b) redefining the status of natural rubber as a strategic commodity and potential industrial raw material; (c) strengthening property rights status of the rubber small producers; and (d) capital investment for research and development (R&D), facilitating the expansion of natural rubber (NR) cultivation to non-conventional areas. Given the fact that the global market integration would continue to stimulate the growth of the domestic rubber industry, the article highlights that the issues at the supply side management are to be tackled on a priority basis. However, addressing the supply side management issues would need China to make a rational choice between, or a combination of, at least four alternatives, namely (a) strengthening the domestic rubber production sector, particularly, NR; (b) continue to import NR and synthetic rubber (SR) from neighbouring countries; (c) invest in NR plantation development programmes in Laos, Vietnam or Myanmar with the involvement of foreign capital; and (d) exploring feasibility of enhanced substitution of NR with SR. The article also brings out the need for achieving synergy between development of natural rubber sector and rubber-based industrialisation processes in the country, so as to make the industry economically sustainable and globally competitive. More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “Global Market Integration and China’s Rubber Industry: Challenges and the Way Forward”, Asian Journal of Social Science, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 792-826, 2008.

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “Emerging Smallholder Rubber Farming Systems in India and Thailand: A Comparative Economic Analysis”, Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-19, 2008.[Abstract]


This paper provides a comparative perspective on the performance of smallholder rubber farm livelihood systems based on case studies of two regions in India and Thailand. The analysis of the emerging farming systems in the two countries’ rubber farms reveals that the rubber monocrop system is viable, provided prices remain remunerative and primary markets efficient. Findings further indicate the dominant contribution ofrubber production to the gross household income of the rubber growers in the integrated farming systems. Nevertheless, from a sustainable livelihoods perspective, the socioeconomic significance of the rubber integrated farming systems assumes greater prominence, given the fact that small producers are highly vulnerable to market uncertainties. It has been found that rubber integrated livelihood systems provide the smallholders with ample capability for resilience during crises and ensure a sustained flow of income. The two case studies demonstrate the need to promote and scale up rubber integrated farm livelihood systems in the smallholder-dominated rubber producing countries in the Asian region. The paper also recommends enhancing the capabilities of the smallholders by strengthening their access to the five forms of capital that sustain their livelihood. More »»

2007

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “Benefits of plant protection measures against abnormal leaf fall in rubber: an exploratory analysis in India”, Plant Protection Quarterly, vol. 22, pp. 67-71, 2007.[Abstract]


This paper assesses the extent of crop loss in rubber plantations in India, measured in terms of loss in latex and timber output and its economic value and examines the comparative economics of plant protection measures against the Phytophtora induced abnormal leaf fall (ALF). It also reflects upon the policy imperatives with respect to region-specific R&D interventions on plant protection measures in India. The study demonstrates significant clonal differences in loss of latex and timber output in the absence of prophylactic spraying against ALF. The study also highlighted the need for evolving R&D interventions and agro-management/ plant protection measures for minimizing the incidence of tree loss in rubber plantations, as it amounts to loss of potential income for the dominant smallholder sector in India. More »»

2007

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Shivakoti, G. P., “Conceptualising Sustainable Farm-livelihood Systems in the Era of Globalisation: A Study of Rubber Integrated Farm Livelihood Systems in North East India”, Social Change &Development, vol. 5, pp. 111-142, 2007.[Abstract]


The effectiveness of shifting cultivation in achieving sustainable livelihoods in the mountainous terrains in general and tribal societies in particular still continue to be a major source of debate among researchers and policy makers with mutually contrasting and balanced views. However, there are growing evidences demonstrating the agrarian transition taking place even in the traditional shifting cultivation societies in terms of emergence of dynamic land use systems in the context of globalisation. The evolution of new farming systems are considered as responses and coping mechanisms towards the nascent free trade regime, wherein, the traditional farm-livelihood systems have not been able to cope with the drastic changes taking place; hence they have become less resilient, less efficient and economically unsustainable as per se. It is with this macro perspective of the emerging dynamic farming systems throughout the mountainous regions of the world, that the paper is set out to examine the rationale, scope and the need for conceptualising sustainable cash crop based dynamic farm-livelihood systems in the shifting agriculture dominant tribal societies in the North Eastern region (NER) in India. In particular, the paper develops indicators for assessment of sustainable livelihoods of rubber smallholders based on the livelihood asset pentagon comprising the five livelihood capital assets, viz., natural capital, physical capital, human capital, financial capital and social capital. The paper is based on empirical data collected from about 300 rubber small growers in the three NE states of Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura in India. While examining the current scenario of expansion of smallholder rubber cultivation in the region followed by a comparative assessment of the rubber versus co-existing farm-livelihood systems, the paper also dwells upon the institutional contexts within which the sustainable rubber integrated farm livelihood systems can be scaled up in the NE region facilitating empowerment and capacity building for collective action and mobilisation of social capital among the tribal communities in the region. The fact that India’s NER is strategically located in close proximity to the S& SE Asian countries, like Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and the Tibetan Region of China, also underscores the economic rationale and need for evolving sustainable rubber based farm livelihood systems for the region, which in turn, would act as a source of dynamism for growth in the tribal economies as also for carrying forward the process of economic integration of the NE region with the dynamic S& SE Asia. More »»

2006

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K. and Shivakoti, G. P., “Economic Integration of Tribal Societies in the Era of Globalisation: Perspectives on Rubber Based Farming Systems in North East India”, North East India Studies, vol. 1, pp. 80-106, 2006.

2005

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., “Development Impasse in Kerala’s Agriculture: The Emerging Crisis and Conflicting Paradigms in the Post-reforms Era”, Indian Social Science Review, vol. 7, pp. 72-93, 2005.

2005

Journal Article

Dr. Viswanathan P. K., George, T., and Jacob, K. & C. Kuruv, “Crop Loss in Rubber Due to Abnormal Leaf Fall: An Analysis on the Economic Feasibility of Plant Protection Measures in India”, Journal of Plant Protection Research, vol. 45, pp. 235-248, 2005.