Qualification: 
Ph.D, MBA, MCA
raghu@amrita.edu

Dr. Raghu Raman is  Director for Global Rankings & Accreditation at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham. 
His main research focus is in the areas of Diffusion of ICT Innovations in socio-technical systems, eGovernance, Big Data Analytics in Education and Health, Social Network Analysis and Virtual Interactive learning environments.

Dr. Raman established the Center for Research in Analytics & Technologies for Education (CREATE), an affordable and accessible educational technology initiative pioneered by Amrita, with over $4.6m in research funding and over 45 publications. As an Entrepreneur-in-Residence at NEC Research Labs, he raised over $16.5m in VC funding for an Intelligent Video surveillance startup. As Executive Director at Informix/IBM, he provided leadership for product development group in the area of Massively Parallel Database systems.

For over five years, as CEO of Amrita Technologies, a high technology healthcare start up, Dr. Raman provided leadership that lead to a patented and CCHIT certified Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system with a global customer base.

Qualifications

  • 2014 Ph.D in Management, Amrita School of Business, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
  • 2003 MBA, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley.
  • 1989 Masters in Computer Applications, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
  • 1986 Bachelors degree in Statistics (Honours)University of Delhi, India (Recipient of President of India Gold Medal, 1986)

Profile

2002 - 2005 Entrepreneur-in-Residence, NEC Research Labs, USA

  • Intelligent Video Surveillance system using Machine vision algorithms and Neural Network for homeland security
  • Raised over $13m venture capital and eventually spun off a new venture

2000 - 2002 Vice President of Engineering, Promptu Systems, USA

  • Responsible for architecting and building a J2EE based scalable, portal based content infrastructure for Sales and Marketing Automation
  • Raised over $26m venture capital funding

1989 - 2000 Executive Director, Informix/IBM, USA  

  • Led the development group for Parallel Database Systems Architecture for Symmetric Multiprocessor Machines (SMP) and Massively Parallel Machines (MPM)

Affiliations

  • Member, Standing Committee, National Mission on Education through ICT (NME ICT), Govt. of India
  • Board of Directors, Amrita Technology Business Incubator (sponsored by Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India)
  • Advisory Editor, Journal of Educational Technology & Society
  • 2011 - 13, ChairIEEE Education Society Chapter, IEEE India Council
  • 2011, General ChairIEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education
  • Senior Member, IEEE
Year of Publication
Title

2020

M. Haridas, Dr. Nirmala Vasudevan, Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Comparing English and Malayalam Spelling Errors of Children using a Bilingual Screening Tool”, in Fourth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology, Singapore, 2020.[Abstract]

Despite the high prevalence of reading disabilities among Indian children, many school teachers are not adept at identifying and assessing these difficulties. Screening tools for reading disabilities are available in English but are unavailable in many Indian languages. Reading disabilities manifest differently depending on the characteristics of the language being studied. This paper compares reading difficulties that arise when studying English and Malayalam. In a previous study, we designed a bilingual screening test in English and Malayalam and tested it with 135 school children in Kerala. In the current study, the screening test was modified in light of the findings from our previous study. We administered our updated bilingual screening test to 25 second grade children, ages 7–8, who were studying at two other schools in Kerala. Student errors were classified into multiple categories. Similarities and differences between errors in English and Malayalam were identified, and the errors that were specific to Malayalam were analyzed in further detail. More »»

2020

P. Chandrashekhar, Prabhakaran, M., Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Teacher Perception of OLabs Pedagogy”, in Fourth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology, Singapore, 2020.[Abstract]

Online Labs (OLabs) is a major Digital India initiative with over 135 online experiments mapped to high school curriculum. For each experiment, OLabs provides background on the theory, animations, simulations, videos, viva voce questions, and links to additional resources. OLabs has been translated to multiple Indian languages. As part of scaling OLabs to the nation, over 16,000 teachers in all Indian states have been trained across India. The current manuscript presents a survey of 112 teachers who attended OLabs workshops and uses OLabs in the classroom. The study's purpose is to understand the effective implementation of teacher training, to understand how OLabs is used in school laboratory experiments, and to understand how OLabs can supplement or replace real laboratories. A majority of teachers agree that repetition of OLabs experiments helps improve understanding of the concepts. There exists a strong correlation between the teachers' perception of the quality of videos and animations and the teachers' attitude on the usefulness of virtual laboratory software. Whether or not teachers feel that virtual laboratory software is useful to students is strongly associated with whether or not teachers feel that software is sufficiently fast and responsive. With regard to the workshops, teachers place high emphasis on the importance of establishing a clear agenda during the workshops. Finally, almost all teachers agree that OLabs can be an effective supplement to real laboratories. More »»

2020

M. Haridas, Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, Ramaraju, R., and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Predicting school performance and early risk of failure from an intelligent tutoring system”, Education and Information Technologies, 2020.[Abstract]

In many rural Indian schools, English is a second language for teachers and students. Intelligent tutoring systems have good potential because they enable students to learn at their own pace, in an exploratory manner. This paper describes a 3-year longitudinal study of 2123 Indian students who used the intelligent tutoring system, AmritaITS. The aim of the study was to use the students’ interaction logs with AmritaITS to: (1) predict student performance, in English and Mathematics subjects, via summative and formative assessments, (2) predict students who may be at risk of failing the final examination and (3) screen students who may have reading difficulties. The prediction models for summative assessments were significantly improved by formative assessments scores, along with AmritaITS logs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that students at risk of failing a class could be identified early, with high sensitivity and specificity. The models also provide recommendations for the amount of time required for students to use the system, and reach the appropriate grade level. Finally, the models demonstrated promise in identifying students who might be at risk of suffering from reading difficulties. More »»

2020

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Kolil, V. Kani, Dr. Shyam Diwakar, and Raghu Raman, “Innovation Adoption and Diffusion of Virtual Laboratories”, International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (IJOE), vol. 16, no. 9, 2020.[Abstract]

Educational technology such as Virtual laboratories (VLs) are being perceived as sustainable solutions to growing concerns related to laboratory skill training i.e. delivering quality laboratory education to a large number of students due to shortage of infrastructure and access especially in developing nations. With these VLs being an innovation for engineering education, the study of its diffusion in higher educational institutions is critical for gauging its impact. This study examines the five variables of Rogers Diffusion of Innovations theory in determining how VLs have changed or modified users through its adoption. The involvement of early adopters participating through a program called Nodal centers and their innovation decision stages are addressed. The study also analyzed the change agents as the nodal centers for diffusing the innovation in teaching and learning processes. Virtual laboratory adoption by users (n=43600) over 30 months was surveyed and factors of diffusion were reported. Similar scoring in assessment factors suggested relative advantage, technology acceptance, intention of use and relevance of trialability were pertinent in users' perception of VLs. Social hubs among higher education institutions promoted early adoption through better engagement of students.

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2019

A. Demba, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, and Raghu Raman, “OLabs of Digital India, Its Adaptation for Schools in Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa”, in Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent Systems, vol. 1, 2019, pp. 351-361.

2019

Dr. Suresh M., S, G., and Raghu Raman, “Modelling the Factors of Agility of Humanitarian Operations”, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management (Accepted)., 2019.

2019

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Mohan, A., Jinachandran, R., and Raghu Raman, “Rural Health in Digital India: Interactive Simulations for Community Health Workers”, in 2019 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E), 2019.[Abstract]

SwastyaSIM is a simulation-based, multilingual, interactive learning environment designed to supplement the training of community health workers. It includes medical training and diagnostic tests relevant to common village ailments that are designed to be sensitive to socio-cultural perspectives. This platform supports training, reporting and assessing health workers. Findings from a pilot study with health workers are discussed. More »»

2019

M. Haridas, Dr. Nirmala Vasudevan, Gayathry, S., Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Feature-Aware Knowledge Tracing for Generation of Concept-Knowledge Reports in an Intelligent Tutoring System”, in 2019 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E), 2019.[Abstract]

In many Indian schools, a high student-teacher ratio makes it an uphill struggle for teachers to assess the knowledge of individual students and deficiencies in the students' understanding. Teachers should have a clear picture on what concepts each student has mastered, and which concepts the teacher needs to review in greater detail. This paper investigates the students' concept knowledge, based on the interaction of the students with an intelligent tutoring system. The Feature-Aware Student knowledge Tracing (FAST) algorithm was used, since the algorithm facilitates the separation of lesson-specific skills from concept knowledge. Data from 2400 first-grade students from 28 schools were used for the analysis. Findings include a moderate fit model and an easy interpretation of the model parameters.

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2019

M. Haridas, Dr. Nirmala Vasudevan, Sasikumar, L., Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Inter-Rater Reliability of a Dyslexia Screening Test”, in 2019 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E), 2019.[Abstract]

A standardized dyslexia screening test can help in identifying the vast number of undiagnosed dyslexics in Indian schools; needless to say, such a test should produce consistent and reproducible results. This study investigated reliability and consistency among raters of a Malayalam-English dyslexia screening in India. Paper-based tests were administered to groups of students, and four raters evaluated the answer sheets of 208 second-grade students (ages 6-7). Inter-rater agreement, intraclass agreement, and internal consistency were calculated. Our findings include good agreement among raters' appraisals for most error types and tasks. Internal consistency for a few tasks was low, possibly because these tasks evaluated more than one skill. A few error types need to be redefined and a few tasks need to be more skill-specific to enable unambiguous and fruitful interpretation by different raters in the future. More »»

2018

Raghu Raman, Vachharajani, H., and K. Achuthan, “Students motivation for adopting programming contests: Innovation-diffusion perspective”, Education and Information Technologies, pp. 1-14, 2018.[Abstract]

Within the context of Rogers theory of perceived attributes, authors propose a framework that can predict students’ motivation to adopt programming contest like ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) International Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC). In this paper we investigate the attributes for adoption of programming contest in a social group comprising of (N = 1245) undergraduate engineering students from the regional finals of the contest held in India over a period of 3 years. The results revealed that student motivations are strongly associated with attributes like relative advantage, compatibility, ease of use, peer influence, perceived enjoyment and perceived usefulness. Overall, students expressed positive attitude towards adopting programming contests as it helped improve their problem solving and programming skills and overall employability. Both gender was in agreement that joining and winning programming contests is a status symbol. © 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

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2018

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Menon, R., Gutjahr, G., Erickson, L., and Raghu Raman, “Towards an Inclusive Digital Literacy Framework for Digital India”, Education and Training, 2018.[Abstract]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an Inclusive Digital Literacy Framework for vulnerable populations in rural areas under the Digital India program. Key challenges include addressing multiple literacies such as health literacy, financial literacy and eSafety for low-literate learners in low-resource settings with low internet bandwidth, lack of ICT facilities and intermittent electricity. Design/methodology/approach: This research implemented an educational model based on the proposed framework to train over 1,000 indigenous people using an integrated curriculum for digital literacies at remote settlements. The model uses mobile technology adapted for remote areas, context enabled curriculum, along with flexible learning schedules. Findings: The education model exemplifies a viable strategy to overcome persistent challenges by taking tablet-based digital literacies directly to communities. It engages different actors such as existing civil societies, schools and government organizations to provide digital literacy and awareness thereby improving both digital and life skills. It demonstrates the potential value of a comprehensive Digital Literacy framework as a powerful lever for Digital Inclusion. Practical Implications: Policy makers can use this transformational model to extend the reach and effectiveness of Digital Inclusion through the last mile enhancing existing training and service centers that offer the traditional model of Digital Literacy Education. Originality/value: This innovative mobile learning model based on the proposed Digital Framework for Inclusion instilled motivation, interest and confidence while providing effective digital training and conducting exams directly in the tribal settlements for low-literate learners in remote settings. Through incorporating multiple literacies, this model serves to empower learners, enhance potential, improve well-being and reduce the risk of exploitation. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

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2018

M. Haridas, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, and Raghu Raman, “Incorporating CTML Principles in Tablet-based Learning”, in Proceedings of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy: Exploring Energy Solutions for an Intelligent Power Grid, TAP Energy 2017, Kollam, India, 2018.[Abstract]

The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) offers insights on creating, organizing and presenting multimedia content in a way that can enhance the effectiveness of learners. While several studies have been conducted to verify these principles, not many have been done using content presented on low cost tablets. In this paper, we present our experimental study on the retention and understanding by children when learning content a) adheres to CTML and b) offered on low cost tablets. In our study we used Online Labs theory and videos and incorporated CTML principles into it. According to CTML principle it will maximize learning without causing cognitive overload. The study sample was 58 students from an English medium secondary education school from south India. The experiment involves a control and experiment group where the control group is tested on content which does not adhere to CTML and the experimental group is tested on content designed based on CTML. A pre-test is conducted to assess the level of pre-knowledge in the subject and a post-test is conducted to assess the retention and understanding by students. This suggests that tablet content incorporated with CTML principle can lead to a deeper understanding of the subject.

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2018

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, Pradeep, P., and Raghu Raman, “Pedagogical Support for Collaborative Development of Virtual and Remote Labs: Amrita VLCAP”, in Cyber-Physical Laboratories in Engineering and Science Education, M. E. Auer, Azad, A. K. M., Edwards, A., and de Jong, T., Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 219–240.[Abstract]

There is an explosive growth in e-Learning platforms, jointly developed by multiple institutions, which provide for virtual learning content. However, many are inadequate to support the complex requirements for collaborative development of distributed learning such as accommodation of wide-ranging technologies, servers, and remote equipment controlled by diverse software. Our solution is a multi-tier architecture that supports collaborative development, publishing in various online and print formats, security, audit, and access controls. Our design considerations include a highly scalable platform, use of open technologies, templates that provide pedagogical structure, multilingual functionality, and shared virtual availability of lab equipment from multiple geographic locations, along with secure access to remote equipment.

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2018

P. Chandrashekhar, Prabhakaran, M., Georg, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Effectiveness of Online Labs Teacher Training Workshop”, in IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2018.[Abstract]

Online Labs or OLabs refers to a virtual learning system for the conduct/management of practicals in a laboratory. OLabs can be configured to handle practical experiments from various subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology Mathematics and English, etc. Besides the theory on which it is based, each experiment may involve one or more procedure, simulator, animation, videos, viva voce questions, and links to other relevant resources. A teacher training workshop was conducted using OLabs, where teachers were instructed on the planning and setup of Lab experiments for secondary (9th & 10th grade) and senior secondary (11th & 12th grade) classes. The aim of this study was to comprehend the effectiveness of deployment of the OLabs tool for teacher training. Likert-analysis of the ensuing workshop-survey revealed that a majority of teachers were in favor of, and even repeat the OLabs experiments. Majority of the respondents were convinced that OLabs systems offer an improved understanding of theoretical concepts. Albeit they may not entirely replace the real physical labs, OLabs can provide numerous opportunities for enhanced learning of basic concepts. More »»

2018

Mithun Haridas, Vasudevan, N., G Nair, J., Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Spelling Errors by Normal and Poor Readers in a Bilingual Malayalam-English Dyslexia Screening Test”, in IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2018.[Abstract]

Dyslexia is a complex learning disorder that impairs the acquisition of reading and writing skills. The manifestation of dyslexia in an individual depends not only upon individual cognitive differences, but also on the language used. We are engaged in a long-term study on the early assessment and remediation of dyslexia in children in Kerala State, South India, where Malayalam is spoken at home and English and Malayalam are taught in school. We have designed bilingual MalayalamEnglish dyslexia screening tests and have administered them in schools in Kerala. This paper reports on a study where our screening test was administered to 39 second-grade students in three Government schools, and spelling errors in dictation and text-copying tasks were classified as phonological and orthographic errors. Despite the transparent orthography of Malayalam, poor readers made more spelling errors in Malayalam than English, possibly due to the large number of intricate letters and letter combinations in the Malayalam alphabet. We therefore suggest that a dyslexic child be drilled in the use of a few frequently occurring letters, especially in the initial stages of learning to read Malayalam.

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2018

M. Haridas, Vasudevan, N., Gutjahr, G., Raghu Raman, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Comparing English and Malayalam Reading Difficulties in Children with a Bilingual Screening Tool”, in 3rd Int. Conf. on Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent Systems, 2018.

2017

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, Menon, R., and Mulki, K., “AmritaRITE: A Holistic Model for Inclusive Education in Rural India”, in Children and Sustainable Development: Ecological Education in a Globalized World, A. M. Battro, Léna, P., Sorondo, M. Sánchez, and von Braun, J., Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 171–184.[Abstract]

India has made good progress in many of the Millennium Development Goals but a dismal number of children in remote and rural India continue to drop out of school or perform poorly in reading, arithmetic and sciences. Our model for Inclusive Education, called Amrita Rural India Tablet enhanced Education (AmritaRITE, 2016) is inspired and guided by the principle of providing both ‘Education for a Living’ and ‘Education for Life’ skills. AmritaRITE integrates traditional school educational goals with awareness regarding moral, scientific, technological, ecological, and social issues. The curriculum includes such topics as health and nutrition, moral values, technology skills, gender equality, child labor and trafficking awareness as well as respect for each other and for Mother Nature to ensure the holistic growth of the child. To achieve these goals, our program utilizes sophisticated multilingual mobile learning aids that are adapted for rural areas to work with low-bandwidth Internet. The methodology evolved through our experiences working in 41 remote villages in 21 diverse states of India over a period of two years; thus, the AmritaRITE program was designed for adaptability to individual community circumstances. School systems and NGOs can incorporate key elements of AmritaRITE’s holistic curriculum, models for community involvement, teacher training and e-learning technology to achieve quality and inclusive education in both village and urban environments. More »»

2017

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Mulki, K., and Raghu Raman, “Improving educational outcomes & reducing absenteeism at remote villages with mobile technology and WhatsAPP: Findings from rural India”, Education and Information Technologies, pp. 1–15, 2017.[Abstract]

Reduction of teacher and student absenteeism, together with consistent teacher support and training, are critical factors in improving the quality of education in rural India. As part of an ongoing project involving schools and educational centers in rural areas spread across 21 Indian states, this study investigated how implementation of two simple, accessible technologies could not only reduce absenteeism but also increase teachers' effectiveness and improve student performance. In addition to students and teachers, key stakeholders included educational coordinators who provided support and monitoring regarding use of WhatsApp and two additional apps designed specifically to support simple educational improvements. In our study we coded and analyzed nine months of messages (nþinspace}=þinspace}8968), both photographs and texts, posted by 26 participants. The number of text messages related to attendance was strongly positively correlated with frequency of interactions between coordinators and teachers. Our approach resulted in increased teacher and student attendance, as well as improvements in lessons and other planned educational activities. This model functions well in rural settings where there is poor internet connectivity and lack of supporting infrastructure. Remote schools can easily adopt this tablet-based model to reduce teacher absenteeism, improve teaching techniques, improve educational resources, and increase student performance.

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2017

Dr. Radhika N and Raghu Raman, “Investigation on Mechanical Properties and Analysis of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Al LM13/AlN Metal Matrix Composite Based on Taguchi's Technique”, ASME Journal of Tribology, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 1-10, 2017.[Abstract]

LM13/AlN (10 wt. %) metal matrix composites (MMC) and unreinforced aluminum alloy were produced under stir casting route. Microstructural characteristics were examined on the developed composite using optical microscope. The hardness and tensile test were carried out on both unreinforced aluminum alloy and composite using Vickers hardness tester and universal testing machine (UTM), respectively. Dry sliding wear behavior of the composite and unreinforced aluminum alloy was evaluated using pin-on-disk tribometer based on the design of experiments approach. Experimental parameters such as applied load (10, 20, and 30 N), velocity (1, 2, and 3 m/s), and sliding distance (500, 1000, and 1500 m) were varied for three levels. Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis, analysis of variance, and regression analysis were also performed. The characterization results showed that reinforcement particles were uniformly distributed in the composite. The hardness and tensile test revealed greater improvement of property in composite compared to that of unreinforced alloy. Wear plot showed that wear was increased with increase in load and decreased with increase in velocity and sliding distance. S/N ratio analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that load has greater significance over the wear rate followed by velocity and sliding distance. Regression analysis revealed greater adequacy with the constructed model in predicting the wear behavior of composite and unreinforced aluminum alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis is evident that the transition of wear from mild to severe occurred on increase of the load in the composite. Copyright © 2017 by ASME.

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2017

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Jayakumar, A., and Raghu Raman, “Personalized Health Monitoring System for Managing Well-Being in Rural Areas.”, J Med Syst, vol. 42, no. 1, p. 22, 2017.[Abstract]

Rural India lacks easy access to health practitioners and medical centers, depending instead on community health workers. In these areas, common ailments that are easy to manage with medicines, often lead to medical escalations and even fatalities due to lack of awareness and delayed diagnosis. The introduction of wearable health devices has made it easier to monitor health conditions and to connect doctors and patients in urban areas. However, existing initiatives have not succeeded in providing adequate health monitoring to rural and low-literate patients, as current methods are expensive, require consistent connectivity and expect literate users. Our design considerations address these concerns by providing low-cost medical devices connected to a low-cost health platform, along with personalized guidance based on patient physiological parameters in local languages, and alerts to medical practitioners in case of emergencies. This patient-centric integrated healthcare system is designed to manage the overall health of villagers with real-time health monitoring of patients, to offer guidance on preventive care, and to increase health awareness and self-monitoring at an affordable price. This personalized health monitoring system addresses the health-related needs in remote and rural areas by (1) empowering health workers in monitoring of basic health conditions for rural patients in order to prevent escalations, (2) personalized feedback regarding nutrition, exercise, diet, preventive Ayurveda care and yoga postures based on vital parameters and (3) reporting of patient data to the patient's health center with emergency alerts to doctor and patient. The system supports community health workers in the diagnostic procedure, management, and reporting of rural patients, and functions well even with only intermittent access to Internet.

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2017

R. Menon, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, and Raghu Raman, “Technology Enabled Teacher Training for Lowliterate, Remote and Rural Multi-grade Education Centers”, in 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2017, 2017.[Abstract]

In remote rural areas, the availability of trained and qualified teachers is poor. Rural teaching is teachercentric instead of student-centric. A systematic monitoring system to ensure that teachers practice the methods they learn at pre- or in-service trainings is not yet in place. Plagued by such deficiencies, present day rural education in India lacks quality, and children read, write, and compute several levels below grade level. Our intervention comes from the premise that reform approach in rural education should be at the grassroots level, involving comprehensive change in teaching and learning attitudes, teaching methodology and subject matter expertise. Amrita Rural India Tablet Education Teacher Training Program is a technology-enabled training program for teachers that train them to be change-agents and influence both children and communities to bring about sustainable change in attitudes as well as education and learning outcomes. AmritaRITE utilizes cutting edge mobile learning technology in both teaching and monitoring, to improve quality and accountability, even in low-electricity and intermittent-connectivity areas. The comprehensive program trains teachers in tablet-supported teaching methodologies, multi-age classrooms, classroom management styles suited to specific environment, addressing different learning modalities, developing student critical thinking, identifying learning disabilities and overcoming social barriers such as educating girls and low literacy communities.

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2017

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Prabhakaran, M., and Raghu Raman, “Benefits of Activity Based Learning Pedagogy with Online Labs (OLabs)”, in 5th IEEE International Conference on MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2017.

2017

Prof. Prema Nedungadi and Raghu Raman, “The Medical Virtual Patient Simulator (MedSIM) – an initiative under eHealth Digital India”, in CSI Communications, 2017, pp. 7-11.[Abstract]

Medical Virtual Patient Simulator (MedSIM) is a cutting-edge E-learning innovation for medical and other health professionals. It consists of a framework that supports various patient cases, tailored by interdisciplinary medical teams. Each virtual patient case follows the critical path to be followed for a specific patient in a hospital. MedSIM takes the student on a journey that enables the student to interview, examine, conduct physical, systematic and ultimately reach a diagnosis based on the path that is chosen.

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2016

Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Dhanush Kumar, Rakhi Radhamani, Hemalatha Sasidharakurup, Nijin Nizar, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Complementing Education via Virtual Labs: Implementation and Deployment of Remote Laboratories and Usage Analysis in South Indian Villages”, International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE), vol. 12, no. 03, 2016.[Abstract]

ICT-enabled virtual and remote labs have become a platform augmenting user engagement in blended education scenarios enhancing University education in rural India.
A novel trend is the use of remote laboratories as learning and teaching tools in classrooms and elsewhere. This paper reports case studies based on our deployment of 20 web-based
virtual labs with more than 170+ online experiments in Biotechnology and Biomedical engineering discipline with content for undergraduate and postgraduate education.

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2016

A. Jayakumar, Babu, G. S., Raghu Raman, and Prema Nedungadi, “Integrating Writing Direction and Handwriting Letter Recognition in Touch-Enabled Devices”, in Integrating Writing Direction and Handwriting Letter Recognition in Touch-Enabled Devices, vol. 380, New Delhi: Springer India, 2016, pp. 393–400.[Abstract]

Optical character recognition (OCR) transforms printed text to editable format and digital writing on smart devices. Learning to write programs has made learners trace an alphabet to learn the flow of writing and OCR by itself is less effective as it ignores the directional flow of writing and only focuses on the final image. Our research designed a unique android-based multilingual game-like writing app that enhances the writing experience. A key focus of the research was to compare and identify character recognition algorithms that are effective on low-cost android tablets with limited processing capabilities. We integrate a quadrant-based direction checking system with artificial neural networks and compare it to the existing systems. Our solution has the dual advantage of evaluating the writing direction and significantly increasing the accuracy compared to the existing systems. This program is used as the literacy tool in many villages in rural India.

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2015

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Malini, P., and Raghu Raman, “Inquiry based learning pedagogy for chemistry practical experiments using OLabs”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 320, pp. 633-642, 2015.[Abstract]

Our paper proposes a new pedagogical approach for learning chemistry practical experiments based on three modes of inquiry-based learning namely; structured, guided and open. Online Labs (OLabs) is a web-based learning environment for science practical experiments that include simulations, animations, tutorials and assessments. Inquiry-based learning is a pedagogy that supports student-centered learning and encourages them to think scientifically. It develops evidence based reasoning and creative problem solving skills that result in knowledge creation and higher recall. We discuss the methodology and tools that OLabs provides to enable educators to design three types of inquiry-based learning for Chemistry experiments. The integration of inquiry-based learning into OLabs is aligned with the Indian Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) goal of nurturing higher order inquiry skills for student centered and active learning. Inquiry-based OLabs pedagogy also empowers the teachers to provide differentiated instruction to the students while enhancing student interest and motivation. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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2015

Raghu Raman, Mithun Haridas, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Blending Concept Maps with Online Labs for STEM Learning”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2015, vol. 320, pp. 133-141.[Abstract]

In this paper we describe the architecture of an e-learning environment that blends concept maps with Online Labs (OLabs) to enhance student performance in biology. In the Indian context, a secondary school student’s conceptual understanding of hard topics in biology is at risk because of a lack of qualified teachers and necessary equipments in labs to conduct experiments. Concept map provides a visual framework which allows students to get an overview of a concept, its various sub concepts and their relationships and linkages. OLabs with its animations, videos and simulations is an interactive, immersive approach for practicing science experiments. The blended e-learning environment was tested by systematically developing a concept map for the concept “Photosynthesis” and by successfully integrating it into the OLabs environment. Our blended approach to concept understanding has interesting implications for the teacher who is engaged in training programs.

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2015

Raghu Raman, Prema Nedungadi, V Smrithi Rekha, and Krishnasree Achuthan, “Computer Science (CS) Education in Indian Schools: Situation Analysis using Darmstadt Model”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (IN PRESS), 2015.[Abstract]

Computer science (CS) and its enabling technologies are at the heart of this information age, yet its adoption as a core subject by senior secondary students in Indian schools is low and has not reached critical mass. Though there have been efforts to create core curriculum standards for subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Math, CS seems to have been kept outside the purview of such efforts leading to its marginalization. As a first step, using the Darmstadt model from the ITiCSE working group that provides a systematic categorization approach to CS education in schools, we coded and analyzed the CS situation for the Indian schools. Next, we focused on the motivation category of the Darmstadt model and investigated behavioral intentions of secondary school students and teachers from 332 schools in India. Considering the CS subject as an educational innovation, using Rogers’ Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, we propose a pedagogical framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict-adoption of the CS subject among potential-adopter students and teachers. Data was analyzed to answer research questions about student and teacher intentions, influence of gender, school management, and school location in adopting CS. Interestingly, girls, urban students, teachers, and private schools were seen favoring the adoption of CS. An important issue that needed to be addressed, however, was the interchangeable use of terms like CS, Informatics, ICT, and digital literacy. Through our article, we offer a promising picture of the educational policy directives and the academic environment in India that is rapidly growing and embracing CS as a core subject of study in schools. We also analyze the factors that influence the adoption of CS by school students and teachers and conclude that there is a very positive response for CS among educators and students in India.

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PDF iconcomputer-science-cs-education-in-indian-schools-situation-analysis-using-darmstadt-model.pdf

2015

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Haridas, M., and Raghu Raman, “Blending concept maps with online labs (OLabs): Case study with biological science”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Kochi, India , 2015, vol. 10-13-August-2015, pp. 186-190.[Abstract]

Experimental learning combined with theoretical learning enhances the conceptual understanding of a subject. Therefore, the Online Labs (OLabs) that hosts science experiments was developed. OLabs uses interactive simulations with theory, procedure, animations, videos, assessments and reference material. Our study blended OLabs with concept maps to examine if it enhances students' learning in Biology. Concept mapping is a framework that provides a deeper knowledge of a subject by understanding the relationships among concepts. The study was quasi-experimental; pre-test, post-test and a satisfaction survey was used as measurement instruments. The study sample was 54 students from a school in Haripad, Kerala, India. The students were randomly grouped into a control and an experimental group. The experimental group that used concept maps as a learning aid scored slightly higher, suggesting blending concept maps can lead to a deeper understanding of the subject. Gender difference did not significantly affect the scores. © 2015 ACM.

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PDF iconblending-concept-maps-with-online-labs-olabs-case-study-with-biological-science.pdf

2015

Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prema Nedungadi, Dr. Shyam Diwakar, and Bose, R., “The VLAB OER Experience: Modeling Potential-Adopter Students' Acceptance”, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 57, pp. 235–241, 2015.[Abstract]

Virtual Labs (VLAB) is a multi-institutional Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative, exclusively focused on lab experiments for engineering education. This project envisages building a large OER repository, containing over 1650 virtual experiments mapped to the engineering curriculum. The introduction of VLAB is a paradigm shift in an educational system that is slow to change. Treating VLAB OER as an educational technology innovation, its adoption by potential-adopter engineering students (N=131) is modeled based on Roger's theory of perceived attributes. Regression and factor analysis were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that the attributes of Compatibility, Ease of Use, Relative Advantage, and Trialability significantly influence potential-adopter students' intention to adopt an innovation like VLAB. The study also observed that using OER (such as VLAB) on desktops and low-cost tablets had similar effects in student performance to using physical labs. This has interesting implications for education policy-makers who are looking to reduce the digital divide.

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PDF iconvlab-oer-experience-modeling-potential-adopter-students-acceptance.pdf

2015

Raghu Raman, “Flipped labs as a smart ICT innovation: Modeling its diffusion among interinfluencing potential adopters”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 320, pp. 621-631, 2015.[Abstract]

Smart ICT innovation like flipped classroom pedagogy is freeing up face-to-face in-class teaching system for additional problem based learning activities in the class. But the focus of flipped classrooms is more on the theory side with related lab work in science subjects further getting marginalized. In this paper we are proposing Flipped Labs - a method of pedagogy premeditated as a comprehensive online lab learning environment outside the class room by means of tutorials, theory, procedure, animations and videos. Flipped labs have the potential to transform the traditional methods of lab teaching by providing more lab time to students. An ICT educational innovation like flipped labs will not occur in isolation in an environment where two interrelated potential adopters namely teachers and students influence each other and both have to adopt for the innovation to be successful. In this paper we provide the theoretical framework for the diffusion and the adoption patterns for flipped labs using theory of perceived attributes and take into account the important intergroup influence between teachers and students. The results of this analysis indicated that Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Teacher Influence and Student Influence were found to be positively related to acceptance of flipped labs. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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PDF iconflipped-labs-as-a-smart-ict-innovation-modeling-its-diffusion-among interinfluencing-potential-adopters.pdf

2015

Prema Nedungadi, Malini, P., and Raghu Raman, “Inquiry Based Learning Pedagogy for Chemistry Practical Experiments Using OLabs”, in Advances in Intelligent Informatics, Springer, 2015, pp. 633–642.[Abstract]

Our paper proposes a new pedagogical approach for learning chemistry practical experiments based on three modes of inquiry-based learning namely; structured, guided and open. Online Labs (OLabs) is a web-based learning environment for science practical experiments that include simulations, animations, tutorials and assessments. Inquiry-based learning is a pedagogy that supports student-centered learning and encourages them to think scientifically. It develops evidence based reasoning and creative problem solving skills that result in knowledge creation and higher recall. We discuss the methodology and tools that OLabs provides to enable educators to design three types of inquiry-based learning for Chemistry experiments. The integration of inquiry-based learning into OLabs is aligned with the Indian Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) goal of nurturing higher order inquiry skills for student centered and active learning. Inquiry-based OLabs pedagogy also empowers the teachers to provide differentiated instruction to the students while enhancing student interest and motivation.

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PDF iconinquiry-based-learning-pedagogy-for-chemistry-practical-experiments-using-olabs.pdf

2015

Raghu Raman, Haridas, M., and Prema Nedungadi, “Blending Concept Maps with Online Labs for STEM Learning”, in Advances in Intelligent Informatics, Springer, 2015, pp. 133-141.[Abstract]

In this paper we describe the architecture of an e-learning environment that blends concept maps with Online Labs (OLabs) to enhance student performance in biology. In the Indian context, a secondary school student’s conceptual understanding of hard topics in biology is at risk because of a lack of qualified teachers and necessary equipments in labs to conduct experiments. Concept map provides a visual framework which allows students to get an overview of a concept, its various sub concepts and their relationships and linkages. OLabs with its animations, videos and simulations is an interactive, immersive approach for practicing science experiments. The blended e-learning environment was tested by systematically developing a concept map for the concept “Photosynthesis” and by successfully integrating it into the OLabs environment. Our blended approach to concept understanding has interesting implications for the teacher who is engaged in training programs.

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PDF iconblending-concept-maps-with-online-labs-for-stem-learning.pdf

2015

Manoj P., Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Jayaraman, Bd, “Preparing global engineers: USA-India academia & industry led approach”, in Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, 2015, vol. 2015-February.[Abstract]

A major challenge in engineering education today in India is preparing students with the skill set needed for a global industry. This paper describes an innovative partnership between two institutions of higher education in India and USA and a multinational corporation to address this challenge. The collaborative manner in which the industry and institutions internationalized the curriculum is a key feature of this program. This unique approach has resulted in the employees of a multinational company in India being able to get two high quality Masters-level degrees in engineering, customized to their current and future requirements at a very affordable price point. This paper looks at cost savings, collaborative course development between industry and international academia, using technology to deliver courses and on-the-job professional development program for employees while keeping the employees motivated. But there are also interesting lessons learnt regarding teaching in English, adjusting to the local cultural context and the overall integration into the Indian academic setting. The process innovation described here would be of great interest to academia, industry and education policy makers and has the potential to be replicated in the entire field of non-engineering and interdisciplinary academic programs. © 2014 IEEE.

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PDF iconpreparing-global-engineers-usa-india-academia-industry-led-approach-1.pdf

2015

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Prabhakaran, M., and Raghu Raman, “Inquiry Based Learning Pedagogy for Chemistry Practical Experiments Using OLabs”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 320, pp. 633-642, 2015.[Abstract]

Our paper proposes a new pedagogical approach for learning chemistry practical experiments based on three modes of inquiry-based learning namely; structured, guided and open. Online Labs (OLabs) is a web-based learning environment for science practical experiments that include simulations, animations, tutorials and assessments. Inquiry-based learning is a pedagogy that supports student-centered learning and encourages them to think scientifically. It develops evidence based reasoning and creative problem solving skills that result in knowledge creation and higher recall. We discuss the methodology and tools that OLabs provides to enable educators to design three types of inquiry-based learning for Chemistry experiments. The integration of inquiry-based learning into OLabs is aligned with the Indian Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) goal of nurturing higher order inquiry skills for student centered and active learning. Inquiry-based OLabs pedagogy also empowers the teachers to provide differentiated instruction to the students while enhancing student interest and motivation.

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2014

A. K, R, K., ,, and Raghu Raman, “Security Vulnerabilities in Open Source Projects: An India Perspective”, in 2nd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2014, 2014.

2014

Prema Nedungadi, L, J., and Raghu Raman, “Considering Misconceptions in Automatic Essay Scoring with A-TEST - Amrita Test Evaluation & Scoring Tool”, in AFRICOMM 2013, Springer Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (LNICST) , 2014.[Abstract]

<p>In large classrooms with limited teacher time, there is a need for automatic evaluation of text answers and real-time personalized feedback during the learning process. In this paper, we discuss Amrita Test Evaluation &amp; Scoring Tool (A-TEST), a text evaluation and scoring tool that learns from course materials and from human-rater scored text answers and also directly from teacher input. We use latent semantic analysis (LSA) to identify the key concepts. While most AES systems use LSA to compare students’ responses with a set of ideal essays, this ignores learning the common misconceptions that students may have about a topic. A-TEST also uses LSA to learn misconceptions from the lowest scoring essays using this as a factor for scoring. ‘A-TEST’ was evaluated using two datasets of 1400 and 1800 pre-scored text answers that were manually scored by two teachers. The scoring accuracy and kappa scores between the derived ‘A-TEST’ model and the human raters were comparable to those between the human raters.</p>

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PDF iconconsidering-misconceptions-in-automatic-essay-scoring-with-a-test-amrita-test-evaluation-scoring-tool.pdf

2014

Manoj P., Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Raghu Raman, “Preparing Global Engineers, Academia-Industry led approach: Indian experience”, in 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, 2014.[Abstract]

A major challenge in engineering education today in India is preparing students with the skill set needed for a global industry. This paper describes an innovative partnership between two institutions of higher education in India and USA and a multinational corporation to address this challenge. The collaborative manner in which the industry and institutions internationalized the curriculum is a key feature of this program. This unique approach has resulted in the employees of a multinational company in India being able to get two high quality Masters-level degrees in engineering, customized to their current and future requirements at a very affordable price point. This paper looks at cost savings, collaborative course development between industry and international academia, using technology to deliver courses and on-the-job professional development program for employees while keeping the employees motivated. But there are also interesting lessons learnt regarding teaching in English, adjusting to the local cultural context and the overall integration into the Indian academic setting. The process innovation described here would be of great interest to academia, industry and education policy makers and has the potential to be replicated in the entire field of non-engineering and interdisciplinary academic programs.

More »»
PDF iconpreparing-global-engineers-usa-india-academia-industry-led-approach-1.pdf

2014

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Raghu Raman, Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, and P, S., “Internationalizing Engineering Education With Phased Study Programs: India-European Experience”, in 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (IEEE Xplore), 2014.[Abstract]

Most of the critical challenges seen in the past decades have impacted citizens in a global way. Given shrinking resources, educationists find preparing students for the global market place a formidable challenge. Hence exposing students to multi-lateral educational initiatives are critical to their growth, understanding and future contributions. This paper focuses on European Union’s Erasmus Mundus programs, involving academic cooperation amongst international universities in engineering programs. A phased undergraduate engineering program with multiple specializations is analyzed within this context. Based on their performance at the end of first phase, selected students were provided opportunities using scholarship to pursue completion of their degree requirements at various European universities. This paper will elaborate the impact of differing pedagogical interventions, language and cultural differences amongst these countries on students in diverse engineering disciplines. The data presented is based on on the feedback analysis from Eramus Mundus students (N=121) that underwent the mobility programs. The findings have given important insights into the structure of the initiative and implications for academia and education policy makers for internationalizing engineering education. These included considering digital interventions such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and Virtual Laboratory (VL) initiatives for systemic reorganization of engineering education.

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PDF iconInternationalizing-Engineering-Education-With-Phased-Study-Programs-India-European-Experience.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, and Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, “Modeling Diffusion of Blended Labs for Science Experiments Among Undergraduate Engineering Students”, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol. 135 LNICST, pp. 234-247, 2014.[Abstract]

While there is large body of work examining efficacy of Virtual Labs in engineering education, studies to date have lacked modeling Blended Labs (BL) - mix of Virtual Labs (VL) and Physical Labs (PL) for science experimentation at the university engineering level. Using Rogers theory of perceived attributes, this paper provides a research framework that identifies the attributes for BL adoption in a social group comprising of (N=246) potential adopter undergraduate engineering students. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the interinfluence of related group of potential adopter faculties who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that acceptance of BL as an innovation and its learning outcomes are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Department and Faculty support. Learning outcomes are very positive under BL when compared to PL, though within BL, ordering of PL and VL was not significant. For certain innovation attributes gender differences were significant. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt BL model for learning than using only PL. © Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2014.

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PDF iconmodeling-diffusion-of-blended-labs-for -science-experiments-among-undergraduate-engineering-students.pdf

2014

Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Hemalatha Sasidharakurup, Rakhi Radhamani, Gopika Sujatha, Akhila Shekhar, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, and Raghu Raman, “Usage and Diffusion of Biotechnology Virtual Labs for Enhancing University education in India’s Urban and Rural Areas”, E-Learning as a Socio-Cultural System: A Multidimensional Analysis, pp. 63-83, 2014.[Abstract]

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-enabled virtual laboratories provide an online learning experience with the aid of computer-based instructional materials (animation, simulation, and remote-trigger experiments) for improving the active learning process. The project reported on in this chapter was set up in order to enhance university and college education, which is now becoming an advanced training environment for solving the geographical, social, and economic challenges faced in the interdisciplinary field of science education, especially in India. In order to study the role of biotechnology virtual laboratories in the current education system, a pedagogical survey, via workshops and online feedback, was carried out among several student and teacher groups of different Indian universities. This chapter reports how virtual labs in biotechnology can be used to improve teaching and learning experiences in an easy and understandable way with user interaction and how such tools serve to effectively reduce the problems of laboratory education especially in remote areas. The results obtained from user-feedback analysis suggest the use of virtual labs as a recommended component in blended education in large classroom scenarios for enhancing autonomous learning process and as an alternative to enhance lab education in geographically remote and economically challenged institutes.

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PDF iconusage-and-diffusion-of-biotechnology-virtual-labs-for-enhancing-university-education-in-india-s-urban-and-rural-areas.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, KV, U., S. V, R., and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Using WebGL to implement a glass lens in Online Labs”, in 2014 Seventh International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3), Noida, India, 2014, pp. 50-55.[Abstract]

Online Labs are revolutionizing education by offering access to content anytime and from any place. The OLabs project has had a deep impact on learning capabilities of students by providing an integrated environment that includes videos, animations, simulations and textual content. It has also helped to substitute teachers wherever there have been gaps. OLabs offers an excellent platform for the improvement of Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) education which has been the focus of several countries in recent times. The current content in OLabs is 2 dimensional. 2D content comes with its own limitations of low accuracy and low realism and hence moving to browser based 3D representations is important to offer an enriching experience to the learner. WebGL offers the powerful capability of rendering 2D as well as 3D content in any browser without the need to install additional applications or components. With the advent of WebGL, writing 3D applications have become simpler since most details are abstracted from the programmer. New features are added almost every week in WebGL by the community making it rich and powerful. In this paper we present our work on implementing, in 3D, a convex lens experiment in OLabs Physics using WebGL and dynamic cube mapping. We propose to extend this work to more experiments in Physics and Chemistry, demonstrate it to students and measure their learning.

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PDF iconusing-webgl-to-implement-a-glass-lens-in-online-labs.pdf

2014

K. Achuthan, Sivan, S., and Raghu Raman, “Teacher receptivity in creative use of virtual laboratories”, in Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), 2014 IEEE Region 10, 2014.[Abstract]

Technology has helped advance science education in its delivery of content to students. These advancements have led to improved conceptual understanding of physical phenomena in students. In most educational systems, teachers play a crucial role in the introduction of innovative pedagogic interventions. In this paper, the perceived impact on use of virtual laboratories and simulations as a teaching aide in science education by teachers is characterized. Significant improvements on teaching time, teaching methodology, and communication of concepts over traditional teaching techniques are reported. The value of virtual laboratories in individualized learning as opposed to group centric learning as in a conventional laboratory is further explored. Key challenges to complete adoption of these technologies include infrastructural lacunae and depth of teacher knowledge. Hence the individual teacher commitment along with the necessary ICT support can impact the knowledge environment. With functionality to simulate real environments, create assessments, monitor individual student performances, added to the scalability of the virtual laboratory platforms to encompass multiple thematic disciplines and cater to millions of users makes it a sustainable and a need-to-have teaching tool.

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PDF iconteacher-receptivity-in-creative-use-of-virtual-laboratories.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, Vachhrajani, H., Dr. Avinash Shivdas, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Low cost tablets as disruptive educational innovation: modeling its diffusion within Indian K12 system”, in 2014 IEEE Innovations in Technology Conference, 2014.[Abstract]

The world of today is not looking for innovations that are mere incremental but those that are disruptive. Aakash, the Low Cost Tablet (LCT) initiative by Indian govt. was launched in 2011 amidst dominance by the likes of Apple, Amazon, and Samsung etc. Single most objective of this initiative was affordable ICT learning tool for the 220+ million students. LCT like Aakash can be seen as a disruptive innovation from the as they are simple to use, cheap, low performing, targeted at low portion of mainstream market and focused on social sectors like education, health to increase access and equity. Within Rogers theory of Diffusion of Innovation, we propose a framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict student and teacher behavior intentions and motivations towards LCT for use in classrooms. Authors investigate the innovation attributes for adoption of LCT in a social group comprising of (N=121) potential-adopter students and teachers from India. The results revealed that motivations for adopting LCT are strongly associated with innovation attributes like relative advantage, compatibility, ease of use, peer influence, perceived enjoyment and perceived usefulness. Overall, both teachers and students expressed positive attitude towards using LCT as it enhanced their digital literacy skills. Bigger question is to identify what kind of new teacher training program, models and approaches and learning environment are required for successful adoption of educational innovation like LCT. Findings contribute to the design of new pedagogical models that maximizes learning potential of LCTs for K12 education. More »»
PDF iconLow Cost Tablets as disruptive educational innovation- Modeling its diffusion within Indian K12 system.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, Lal, A., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Serious games based approach to cyber security concept learning: Indian context”, in International Conference on Green Computing Communication and Electrical Engineering (ICGCCEE), 2014.[Abstract]

In the world of computer based gaming most of them are purely for entertainment but recently serious games are also emerging. Our research study focused primarily on a type of serious game with multiple scenarios designed specifically to support cyber security concept learning. We studied the impact of game based learning on cyber security graduate engineering students (N=20). Existing game scenarios were enhanced with summative assessments. A control group (EG1=10) was given the summative test without playing the game and a different group (EG2=10) was given the same test after playing the game. Results indicate that EG2 had better learning outcomes though there was learning curve with the game itself.

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PDF iconserious-games-based-approach-to-cyber-security-concept-learning-indian-context.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, Sunny, S., Pavithran, V., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Framework for evaluating Capture the Flag (CTF) security competitions”, in International Conference for Convergence of Technology (I2CT), 2014.[Abstract]

A large number of ethical hacking competitions are organized worldwide as Capture The Flag (CTF) events. But there does not exist a framework to evaluate and rank CTFs that will guide participants as to which CTF's to participate. In a CTF event, the participants are required to either solve a set of challenges to gain points or they are required to defend their system by eliminating the vulnerabilities while attacking other's system vulnerabilities. We are proposing a framework that would evaluate and rank CTFs according to factors like similarity of the tasks to the common critical vulnerabilities, solvability of tasks, periodicity, training given prior to CTF, geographical reach, problem solving skills etc. In the next step these factors are systematically assigned weights using Analytic Hierarchy Process. As part of frame work creation and validation, ten CTFs have been analysed. Our analysis indicates that: All CTFs fall in to one of the three categories (jeopardy, attack-defence and mixed); CTFs often adopt popular software vulnerabilities and threats as tasks to be solved; Only few CTFs give formal training prior to the event; Complexity of the tasks to be solved varies from CTF to CTF. Five CTFs were ranked using the newly developed framework.

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PDF iconframework-for-evaluating-capture-the-flag-ctf-security-competitions.pdf

2014

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, S., F., Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, l., B., Dr. Sreekala C. O., and Sreelatha, K. S., “Improving Perception of Invisible Phenomena in UG Physics Education Using ICT”, in International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (IEEE Xplore), 2014.[Abstract]

Experimental learning plays paramount role in Physics education. Experimental physics requires phenomenological investigations in several cases and this includes understanding visible and invisible heuristic procedures to discern underlying concepts. This study investigates the invisible yet evident occurrences of physical phenomena that are difficult to grasp from a learner's perspective. In this work the contribution of compounded effects of using computational techniques, multimedia enhanced simulations and interactive animations to draw the learner's attention to those physically undiscernable aspects of physics experiments is presented. The study has investigated three physics experiments by engineering students (N= 42) and the methodology focused on differentiating the learning outcomes between classroom teaching, laboratory experimentation and virtual laboratories. The students were divided into two batches. Visual and conceptual understanding was quantified by assessments that included their visual and conceptual understanding. Our study not only revealed severe limitations in learning invisible phenomena based on traditional classroom methods but also empirically validated the positive impact on learning outcomes when the classroom method is combined with Virtual Labs approach.

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PDF iconimproving-perception-of-invisible-phenomena-in-ug-physics-education-using-ict.pdf

2014

Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Harilal Parasuram, Chaitanya Medini, Raghu Raman, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Wiertelak, E., Sanjeeva Srivastava, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Complementing neurophysiology education for developing countries via cost-effective virtual labs: case studies and classroom scenarios”, Journal of undergraduate neuroscience education, 2014.[Abstract]

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. More »»
PDF iconcomplementing-neurophysiology-education-for-developing-countries-via-cost-effective-virtual-labs-case-studies-&-classroom-scenarios.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, Prema Nedungadi, and Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, “Modeling diffusion of tabletop for collaborative learning using interactive science lab simulations”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8337 LNCS, pp. 333-340, 2014.[Abstract]

Within the context of Roger's Diffusion of Innovation theory we propose a pedagogical framework for attributes that can significantly affect student adoption of collaborative learning environment like multi-user, multi-touch tabletop. We investigated the learning outcomes of secondary school students in India collaboratively using OLabs on a tabletop (EG1 = 30) vs. individually using at desktops (EG2 = 92). We analyzed the nature of communication, touch and non-touch gesture actions, position around the tabletop, focus group interviews, and pre and post test scores. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the inter influence of related group of potential adopter teachers who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that learning outcomes on tabletop are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Perceived Enjoyment, Perceived usefulness and Teachers support. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt tabletop technology for learning vs. desktop. We find that the mean group performance gain is significant with collaboration using tabletop and significantly greater than the group using desktops. We also find that the group interactions with the tabletop area significant factor that contributes to the group's average performance gain. However, the total time spent in while using the tabletop is surprisingly not a significant factor in the performance gain. Our findings contribute to the design of new pedagogical models for science learning that maximizes the collaborative learning potential of tabletops. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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PDF iconmodeling-diffusion-tabletop-collaborative-learning-using-interactive-science-lab-simulations.pdf

2014

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Jayakumar, A., and Raghu Raman, “Low cost tablet enhanced pedagogy for early grade reading: Indian context”, in 2014 IEEE Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10 HTC), 2014.[Abstract]

In our research we have designed pedagogy for Low Cost Tablets (LCT) to enhance early grade reading in multi-grade classrooms in rural areas of India. The use of LCT helps meet the challenge of education in areas where there is a lack of qualified tutors and shortage of computing resources. The program has been implemented with (N=38) students in tribal areas of Kerala. Reading was the most common problem with the primary children, while mathematics and reading comprehension was a major challenge for children who were in middle school. Our pilot study students were able to learn faster on their own without requiring formal training due to the ease of use and the touch based interface of LCT, and they liked the idea of repeating lessons as many times as they wished. Teachers were trained in the use of LCT for assessment and early intervention and effective ways to bring up the reading skills of the students. Our findings confirm that LCT is powerful motivator in education and has a huge potential to address the issue of school dropouts. Our proposed pedagogy for LCT and findings will be of interest to educational policy makers who are looking at LCT options such as Aakash tablets to improve literacy levels among early grade learners.

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PDF iconlow-cost-tablet-enhanced-pedagogy-for-early-grade-reading-indian-context.pdf

2014

Raghu Raman, Achuthan, K., Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Dr. Shyam Diwakar, and Bose, R., “Modeling Potential-Adopter Student Acceptance”, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 57, pp. 235-241, 2014.[Abstract]

Virtual Labs (VLAB) is a multi-institutional Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative, exclusively focused on lab experiments for engineering education. This project envisages building a large OER repository, containing over 1650 virtual experiments mapped to the engineering curriculum. The introduction of VLAB is a paradigm shift in an educational system that is slow to change. Treating VLAB OER as an educational technology innovation, its adoption by potential-adopter engineering students (N=131) is modeled based on Roger's theory of perceived attributes. Regression and factor analysis were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that the attributes of Compatibility, Ease of Use, Relative Advantage, and Trialability significantly influence potential-adopter students' intention to adopt an innovation like VLAB. The study also observed that using OER (such as VLAB) on desktops and low-cost tablets had similar effects in student performance to using physical labs. This has interesting implications for education policy-makers who are looking to reduce the digital divide. More »»
PDF iconmodeling-potential-adopter-student-acceptance.pdf

2014

Prema Nedungadi, L, J., and Raghu Raman, “Considering Misconceptions in Automatic Essay Scoring with A-TEST - Amrita Test Evaluation and Scoring Tool”, in e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 5th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2013, Blantyre, Malawi, November 25-27, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 271–281.[Abstract]

In large classrooms with limited teacher time, there is a need for automatic evaluation of text answers and real-time personalized feedback during the learning process. In this paper, we discuss Amrita Test Evaluation & Scoring Tool (A-TEST), a text evaluation and scoring tool that learns from course materials and from human-rater scored text answers and also directly from teacher input. We use latent semantic analysis (LSA) to identify the key concepts. While most AES systems use LSA to compare students’ responses with a set of ideal essays, this ignores learning the common misconceptions that students may have about a topic. A-TEST also uses LSA to learn misconceptions from the lowest scoring essays using this as a factor for scoring. ‘A-TEST’ was evaluated using two datasets of 1400 and 1800 pre-scored text answers that were manually scored by two teachers. The scoring accuracy and kappa scores between the derived ‘A-TEST’ model and the human raters were comparable to those between the human raters.

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2014

T. Ramesh, Siegel, H. Jay, Khemka, B., Pasricha, S., Friese, R., Maciejewski, A. A., Koenigz, G. A., Powersz, S., Hiltonx, M., Rambharosx, R., Okonskix, G., Poolezx, S., Henson, M., Gupta, S., Goel, S., Arora, R., Mittal, R. K., Baidya, E., Padhariya, N., Raichura, K., Raghu Raman, Unnikrishnan, K. V., V Smrithi Rekha, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Adinarayanan, V., Prasad, S., Kumar, P., Sinha, K. Priyanka, Kumar, S., Kumar, A., Sharma, V. Kumar, Sharma, H., Chawla, S., and Agarwal, S., “2014 Seventh International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3). 7-9 August, Noida, India [Copyright notice]”, in 2014 Seventh International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3), Noida, India, 2014.[Abstract]

Copyright and Reprint Permission: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limit of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons those articles in this volume that carry a code at the bottom of the first page, provided the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For reprint or republication permission, email to IEEE Copyrights Manager at pubs-permissions@ieee.org. All rights reserved. Copyright 9c)2014 by IEEE. IEEE Part Number: CFPI48IU-ART. ISBN: 978-1-4799-5173-4. More »»

2014

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Prabhakaran, M., and Raghu Raman, “Inquiry Based Learning Pedagogy for Chemistry Practical Experiments Using OLabs”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2014.[Abstract]

Our paper proposes a new pedagogical approach for learning chemistry practical experiments based on three modes of inquiry-based learning namely; structured, guided and open. Online Labs (OLabs) is a web-based learning environment for science practical experiments that include simulations, animations, tutorials and assessments. Inquiry-based learning is a pedagogy that supports student-centered learning and encourages them to think scientifically. It develops evidence based reasoning and creative problem solving skills that result in knowledge creation and higher recall. We discuss the methodology and tools that OLabs provides to enable educators to design three types of inquiry-based learning for Chemistry experiments. The integration of inquiry-based learning into OLabs is aligned with the Indian Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) goal of nurturing higher order inquiry skills for student centered and active learning. Inquiry-based OLabs pedagogy also empowers the teachers to provide differentiated instruction to the students while enhancing student interest and motivation. More »»

2013

Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Virtual labs in engineering education: Modeling perceived critical mass of potential adopter teachers”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8095 LNCS, pp. 288-300, 2013.[Abstract]

Virtual labs for science experiments are a multimedia technology innovation. A possible growth pattern of the perceived critical mass for virtual labs adoption is modeled using (N=240) potential-adopter teachers based on Roger's theory of diffusion and of perceived attributes. Results indicate that perceived critical mass influences behavior intention to adopt a technology innovation like Virtual Labs and is affected by innovation characteristics like relative advantage, ease of use and compatibility. The work presented here models the potential-adopter teacher's perceptions and identifies the relative importance of specific factors that influence critical mass attainment for an innovation such as Virtual Labs.

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2013

Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, and Ramesh, M., “Modeling Diffusion of Blended Labs for Science Experiments among Undergraduate Engineering Student”, in AFRICOMM 2013, Springer Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (LNICST), 2013.[Abstract]

While there is large body of work examining efficacy of Virtual Labs in engineering education, studies to date have lacked modeling Blended Labs (BL) – mix of Virtual Labs (VL) and Physical Labs (PL) for science experimentation at the university engineering level. Using Rogers theory of perceived attributes, this paper provides a research framework that identifies the attributes for BL adoption in a social group comprising of (N=246) potential adopter undergraduate engineering students. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the interinfluence of related group of potential adopter faculties who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that acceptance of BL as an innovation and its learning outcomes are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Department and Faculty support. Learning outcomes are very positive under BL when compared to PL, though within BL, ordering of PL and VL was not significant. For certain innovation attributes gender differences were significant. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt BL model for learning than using only PL.

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2013

Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, and McGregor, M., “Enhanced STEM learning with Online Labs: Empirical study comparing physical labs, tablets and desktops”, in Frontiers in Education Conference, 2013 IEEE, 2013.[Abstract]

<p>India's educational challenge includes a large school going population, shortage of science teachers and lack of science labs in many schools. To counter this challenge, the Online Labs (OLabs) pedagogy is designed as a complete learning environment with tutorials, theory, procedure, animations, videos and simulations while the assessment includes conceptual, experimental, procedural and reporting skills. We discuss two separate empirical studies using OLabs to study the performance gains, student attitudes and preferences while using physical labs, desktops and tablets. The first study was at a school that compared students who learnt individually with OLabs on desktops, to students who learnt with the traditional teacher led physical labs. The second study was at a science camp and compared OLabs on desktops to OLabs that were context adapted for android tablets. There were significant differences between the physical labs and the self study mode using OLabs on desktops, but no significant differences between OLabs on desktops compared to OLabs on tablets.</p>

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2012

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, and Karmeshu, “Modelling diffusion of a personalized learning framework”, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 585-600, 2012.[Abstract]

A new modelling approach for diffusion of personalized learning as an educational process innovation in social group comprising adopter-teachers is proposed. An empirical analysis regarding the perception of 261 adopter-teachers from 18 schools in India about a particular personalized learning framework has been made. Based on this analysis, teacher training (TT) has been identified as one of the dominant factor which can significantly influence decision by teachers to adopt the educational innovation. Different situations corresponding to fixed and time dependent dynamic carrying capacity of potential adopter-teachers at any time have been developed. New generalized models capturing the growth dynamics of the innovation diffusion process in conjunction with the evolutionary carrying capacity of potential adopters are investigated. The coupled dynamics allows forecasting the likelihood of success or failure of new educational innovation in a given context. Different scenarios for TT are considered based on—constant growth rate model; proportional growth rate model; stratified growth rate model. The proposed modelling framework would be of great interest to education policy makers as it has the potential to predict the likelihood of success or failure of new educational innovation. More »»
PDF iconmodelling-diffusion-of-a-personalized-learning-framework.pdf

2012

Prof. Prema Nedungadi and Raghu Raman, “A new approach to personalization: integrating e-learning and m-learning”, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 659-678, 2012.[Abstract]

Most personalized learning systems are designed for either personal computers (e-learning) or mobile devices (m-learning). Our research has resulted in a cloud-based adaptive learning system that incorporates mobile devices into a classroom setting. This system is fully integrated into the formative assessment process and, most importantly, coexists with the present e-learning environment. Unlike many mobile learning systems, this system provides teachers with real-time feedback about individual and group learners. Its scalable and extendable architectural framework includes the server-side pedagogical recommendation of content adaptation based on the users’ knowledge-levels and preferences. Content is also automatically adapted to the end device that is being used. This context-aware delivery allows users to switch between e-learning and m-learning, and between devices, without any loss in personalized content. Our work builds on a web-based Adaptive Learning and Assessment System (ALAS) that is built on the Knowledge Space Theory model. At present, this system is used at school computer labs and our goal was to widen this user-base by enhancing this system to support personalized learning on mobile devices. This study describes our process of developing this technology, and contains an empirical analysis of students’ performance, perceptions, and achievements when using ALAS on both personal computers and mobile devices. More »»
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2012

V. Kumar and Raghu Raman, “Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012: Foreword”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012, Kerala, 2012.

2012

M. Saravanan, Prasad, G., Jagadeesan, M., Raghu Raman, and V Smrithi Rekha, “Group Recommender Model for Boosting and Optimizing Customer Purchases”, in Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM), 2012 IEEE/ACM International Conference on, 2012.[Abstract]

Group recommender systems generate a set of recommendations that will satisfy a group of customers with potentially competing purchase interests. This paper proposes a research and operational model which effectively enhances Group Recommender Model to boost the customer purchases. For this purpose, it uses the communication and collaboration of two major sources namely Mobile Money Operator and Outlet. MMO proactively monitors the spending pattern of the customers who make purchases using their mobile money. Outlet performs customer segmentation based on RFM (Recency, Frequency and Monetary) score after which a Recursive Cluster Elimination is performed that eliminates customers within the targeted segment. Recursive Frequent Item set Mining and Recursive Market Basket Analysis are performed for the rest of customers in the targeted segment. From the obtained results, the product preferences of the remaining customers in the segment are identified based on which offers are formulated and recommended for the entire segment. It is then communicated to the MMO that intimates these offers to the potential customers among the segment. This model results in boosting customer purchases, expanding customer base and effects in the profitability of the combined source. More »»
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2011

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, K.S. Sreelatha, S. Surendran, Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, S. Humphreys, Dr. Sreekala C. O., Dr. Zeena S. Pillai, Raghu Raman, A. Deepthi, Rathish Gangadharan, Dr. Saritha A., Jyothi Ranganatha, Sreedha Sambhudevan, and Suma Mahesh, “The VALUE @ Amrita Virtual Labs Project: Using Web Technology to Provide Virtual Laboratory Access to Students”, in Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2011 IEEE, 2011, pp. 117-121.[Abstract]

In response to the Indian Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) Initiative, the Virtual and Accessible Laboratories Universalizing Education (VALUE @ Amrita) Virtual Labs Project was initiated to provide laboratory-learning experiences to college and university students across India who may not have access to adequate laboratory facilities or equipment. These virtual laboratories require only a broadband Internet connection and standard web browser. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University is part of a consortium of twelve institutions building over two hundred virtual labs covering nine key disciplines in science and engineering. This National Mission project hopes to reach out to India's millions of engineering and science students at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Virtual Labs Project is providing virtual laboratory experiments that directly support the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the University Grants Commission (UGC) model curricula for engineering and sciences undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

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2011

Raghu Raman, Prema Nedungadi, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Integrating Collaboration and Accessibility for Deploying Virtual Labs using VLCAP”, International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies , 2011.[Abstract]

The Virtual Labs Collaboration and Accessibility Platform (VLCAP) provides tools to further India’s National Mission project: the building of over 150 Virtual Labs (VL) for over 1450 multi-disciplinary undergraduate- and postgraduate-level experiments. VLCAP optimizes VL development and deployment costs and ensures a rich, consistent learning experience. Its multi-tier, scalable architecture allows VL builders to focus on their experiments. Its modules (VL workbench, collaborative content management, repositories) have axiomatically-designed interfaces that bring speed and efficiency to design. Its integration of user-management tasks (single sign-on, role-based access control, etc.) enhances flexibility without compromising security. The key accomplishments include its application of simulation VL and its provision of easily usable authoring tools, pre-configured templates, and management and assessment modules for instructors. VLCAP’s support of multiple deployment models, including the cloud, hosted, and mixed models, ensures scalable and reliable usage in hosted environments, and secure access for learners in remote locations.

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2011

Prof. Prema Nedungadi and Raghu Raman, “Learning-Enabled Computer Assessment of Science Labs with Scaffolds Methodology”, The Technology Interface International Journal | , vol. Volume 11, Number 2 , no. Fall/Winter 2011, 2011.[Abstract]

The crucial role of hands-on science experiments in the school science curriculum is universally accepted. However, a formal assessment of practical skills is lacking, with most schools employing traditional theory-based or multiplechoice questions (MCQs) to evaluate students. In this paper, the authors present a framework for learning-enabled assessment of practical skills, which gives due consideration to both the structure of the practical assignments and the feedback that promotes learning. This approach opens up many new possibilities that require constructivist learning and higher-order thinking skills. Judgment of skills based on performance reports may decrease students’ confidence, whereas scaffolds used during the assessment process can improve students’ proficiency. The design of various online scaffolds—used during assessment that help students focus and redirect their efforts to the appropriate task needed for mastery of a skill—are discussed here. Early studies have shown that students prefer these types of assessment to more traditional ones, where intervention includes appropriate hands-on simulation or interactive animation or a given concept.

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PDF iconlearning-enabled-computer-assessment-of-science-labs-with-scaffolds-methodology.pdf

2011

Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Virtual Labs Collaborative & Accessibility Platform (VLCAP)”, in Proceedings of The 2011 IAJC-ASEE International Conference , 2011.[Abstract]

India has embarked on a National Mission project to build over 150 Virtual Labs (VL) targeting over 1450 experiments mapped to the under graduate and postgraduate curriculum. Due to the lack of user centric tools and mechanisms for VL authors, it became crucial to architect a Virtual Labs Collaborative and Accessibility Platform (VLCAP) for use by the large scientific community building multi-disciplinary VL.With multi-tier, scalable architecture at its core, the technology platform allows VL builders to focus on particular logic of their experiments. The axiomatic design of the user interfaces built into the various modules including VL workbench, collaborative content management, repositories and so on assists in functional use of the elements while reducing the overall development time of VL by individual users. Integration of common tasks in user management, such as single sign-on, role based access control etc. enhances flexibility without compromising on security.

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PDF iconvirtual-labs-collaborative-accessibility-platform-vlcap.pdf

2010

Na Sharma and Raghu Raman, “Opinion maps for tracking and visualizing feedback on digital video content”, in ICDLE 2010 - 2010 4th International Conference on Distance Learning and Education, Proceedings, San Juan, PR, 2010, pp. 20-27.[Abstract]

An increasingly large amount of digital video content continues to become available on the Internet. This content ranges from short entertainment clips by amateurs lasting a few minutes to full-fledged, significantly longer, serious course lectures and presentations by subject matter experts. As these video bits of content continue to get pushed out one-way, to the learner, the content authors have no quick or easy way of getting an objective, machine-processable opinion on arbitrary subsections of their content. In this paper, we explore the design and implementation of an innovative software visualization system that uses 'Opinion Maps' and a WYSIWYG (When You See Is When You Give) approach to bring a much needed real-time focus to the feedback aspect of the video mode of instruction. In addition to using routine graphical charting to visualize server-side tabular data, an Opinion Map employs a combination of (i) a Tukey Box+ plot - a simple but powerful extension to the Tukey Box plot - to present N-point ordinal opinion scores, collected from learners potentially for every single second of the video content, (ii) a per-second opinion score histogram, and (iii) overall 'best' and 'worst' opinion score visualizations. The system is nonintrusive; it requires no special content authoring processes and bolts on to prerecorded digital video content.

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2010

Raghu Raman and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Performance improvements in schools with Adaptive Learning and Assessment”, in ICDLE 2010 - 2010 4th International Conference on Distance Learning and Education, Proceedings, San Juan, PR, 2010, pp. 10-14.[Abstract]

This paper presents Amrita Learning, a web-based, multimedia-enabled, Adaptive Assessment and Learning System for schools. Computer-based adaptive assessments aim to use an optimal and individualized assessment path to determine the knowledge level of students. The new goal for adaptive assessment is based on educational outcomes, which describe what learners must be able to do as a result of items studied. Assessment based on outcomes creates the initial roadmap for the educational model, ensuring that students are not learning items that are already mastered. Learners and instructors can accurately determine their areas of strengths and weaknesses, and use this to determine future instruction. This paper explains the underlying principles used in the initial adaptive assessment followed by evaluation that is closely interwoven with learning. An expert module continuously adjusts the content and method of presentation based on the sequence of learner's recent responses and prior knowledge. The system maintains and updates both the individual learner profile and group profiles. Amrita Learning, targeted to school students, is built upon the principles of spiral learning with mixed presentation from multiple skill areas, thus providing continuous reinforcement in all skill-areas. The proposed competency model has been pilot tested in both city and rural area schools. In the majority of cases where students used it consistently, there were quantifiable improvements in learning levels and performance in schools. Summaries of the results and recommendations are included in this paper.

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2010

Raghu Raman and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Adaptive learning methodologies to support reforms in Continuous formative Evaluation”, in ICEIT 2010 - 2010 International Conference on Educational and Information Technology, Proceedings, Chongqing, 2010, vol. 2, pp. V2429-V2433.[Abstract]

This paper presents the extensions of Amrita Learning, a web-based, multimedia-enabled, Adaptive Assessment and Learning System for schools to facilitate Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE). Continuous Evaluation refers to the formative assessment from the beginning of instruction and periodically during instruction and is closely interwoven with learning. Amrita Learning's CCE extension supports adaptive assessments directly mapped to CBSE curriculum, monitors proper implementation of CCE and automates, enforces, and gathers usage and performance statistics. Being an adaptive system, it already supports self-paced learning, constructivist, mixed presentation, mastery, and spiral learning. The proposed competency model has been developed and is being pilot tested at schools in India. Initial results of the study are discussed in this paper. © 2010 IEEE.

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2010

Prof. Prema Nedungadi and Raghu Raman, “Effectiveness of adaptive learning with interactive animations and simulations”, in 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering(ICACTE), 2010, vol. 6, pp. V640-V644.[Abstract]

We present the adaptive simulations of Amrita Learning, a web-based, interactive eLearning program that aims to create a realistic mathematics and science laboratory environment for school students to study equipments, perform simulation experiments interactively, measure or analyze results, and understand their application, It teaches abstract concepts, such as flow of electrons and magnetic fields, using highly sophisticated and interactive simulations. The adaptive simulations follow the time tested principles of Amrita Learning, a previously discussed adaptive learning system, including adaptive sequencing, presentation and feedback. This novel system enables students to work at their own pace with learning level, content and presentation individualized based on a dynamically updated student profile. While individualized simulations, animations, tutorials, and assessments enrich learning experience, simultaneous access to the content by thousands of students makes the return on investment very high. Student feedback and assessments are used to compare the adaptive simulations and animations with the traditional laboratory. Results show that while the majority of the students preferred the ease of use, adaptive feedback and additional learning options of the adaptive simulations, they missed the group discussions and extra attention from the teacher at the traditional lab. More »»
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TITLE AGENCY DETAILS
Online Labs (OLabs) for School Lab Experiments – Interactive Simulations DeitY, Government of India The Online Labs is an educational initiative pioneered by Amrita CREATE, the Center for Research in Analytics & Technologies for Education at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in partnership with CDAC, Mumbai; under a research grant from the Department of Information Technology, Government of India... »» 
Computer based Medical Simulation (MEDSIM) DietY, Government of India In collaboration with the Medical Informatics Group, CDAC Trivandrum, the MEDSIM project will design and develop Computer based Medical Simulations that will allow students pursuing medical sciences to visualize, learn, practise and experience a variety of medical skills and procedures in order to provide a simulated patient experience... »» 
eGovernance Big Data Analytics Platform The World Bank Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DEITY) Amrita CREATE is funded under the World Bank funded initiative 'India: e-Delivery of Public Services DPL', for its eGovernance Analytics Platform in collaboration with CDAC and Amrita School of Business. eGAP will provide (G2C) services for the 14,300+ schools covering lakhs of students, teachers and parents... »» 
Amrita Collaborative Assessment Platform for Virtual Labs CAP-VL NMEICT An initiative of the Ministry of Human Resources Department under the National Mission on Education through ICT, Amrita's Collaborative Accessibility Platform for Virtual Labs (Amrita CAP-VL) provides a framework for the development and deployment of distributed virtual labs that use diverse software and interfacing technology... »» 
Intelligent Tutoring and Adaptive Assessment   Amrita has pioneered and developed the large-scale deployment of intelligent tutoring and adaptive assessment systems to allow students with diverse backgrounds in rural and city areas to benefit from individualised learning and to provide specific information to educators to allow for appropriate intervention... »» 
Measuring Learning HP Global Social Innovation The crucial role of hands on experiments in the STEM curriculum to motivate and deepen understanding is universally accepted. In India, many schools lack equipment in science labs and in rural areas there is a lack of teachers depriving students of STEM education...»» 
National Faculty Expertise System NMEICT NFES is a nationwide, web-based, searchable electronic repository that acquires, maintains, and provides information about the research and publications of the faculty of educational institutions under MHRD. New interdisciplinary research programs that require the synergy of faculty members with expertise in diverse areas ... »» 
Tabletop Technology for Collaborative Learning Amrita Tabletop technologies can promote group learning and interaction using multi-touch and multi-user systems to support collaborative activities. Our research focus is on how tabletop technologies can facilitate students to work on group projects and allow students to explore various scientific and mathematical concepts... »»