Qualification: 
Ph.D, PG
Email: 
bhavani@am.amrita.edu
bhavani@ammachilabs.org
Phone: 
+91 944 749 8825

Dr. Bhavani Rao is the Head for the UNESCO Chair on Gender Equality and Director of AMMACHI Labs, the human-computer interaction research and development center, as well as the Director of the Center for Women Empowerment and Gender Equality (CWEGE), at Amrita Vishwa Vidyaeetham, Kerala, India.

As the Director of AMMACHI Labs, Bhavani Rao heads the R&D that focuses on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), Robotics and Automation technologies for education, skill development, disaster response, medical assistance and rehabilitation. Bhavani Rao is the Principal Investigator for several projects at Amrita, funded by organizations such as the United Nations Democracy Fund, the Ministry of Skill Development And Entrepreneurship (MSDE) and the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), Government of India. A central focus on her work has been the use of skill-development as the baseline strategy, and women's empowerment as the underlying vision.

Academic Qualification 

  • 2019: Ph. D. Interdisciplinary Studies(Disaster Relief, Recovery and Rehabilitation)
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India
  • 1996: M. S. Radiation Oncology Physics
    Wayne State University, Detroit, USA
  • 1993: M. S. Physics
    University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • 1991: B. Sc. Physics
    Sri Satya Sai Institute of Higher learning,Andhra Pradesh, India

Ph. D. Thesis Details

  • Title: A Case Study Based Investigation into Effective Humanitarian Operations in Natural Disasters: Implications for Theory and Practice.
    A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy under the faculty of interdisciplinary studies by Bhavani Rao. R.
    Supervisors: Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, Dr. Santosh Mahapatra

Positions Held

S.No. Positions held Name of the Institute From To
1. Principal Investigator, Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS), Andhra Pradesh, Meghalaya and Odisha Under the Mata Amritanandamayi Charitable Trust (MACT)   2021 till date
2. Principal Investigator, WADI Project, Odisha   2021 till date
3. Principal Investigator, “Greening the Mobile Technology Lifecycle”   2021 till date
4. Principal Investigator, “SMART SHGs”   2021 till date
5. Principal Investigator, “Women In Sustaining Environment” (WISE Project)   2020 till date
6. Principal Investigator, “CRPF Gender Conversations Workshop Series”   2020 2021
7. Principal Investigator -Women in Sustaining Environment, a joint project with Consulate of Israel, Bengaluru and Tel Aviv Israel   2019 2020
8. Principal Investigator - Jivamritam-Installation of NUF filters in flood-affected areas of Kerala, joint project with Consulate of Israel, Bengaluru and Tel Aviv Israel Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2018 2019
9. Chair Person - Graduate Program-Master of Social Work Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2017 till date
10. Principal Investigator, UNDEF-Women Empowerment-Community Sanitation through Democratic Participation Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2017 2019
11. Pilot training of Optical Fiber Splicer course for Common Service Centers (CSC Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2017 2018
12. UNESCO Chair in Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India October - 2016 till date
13. Director – the Center for Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, Kerala, India August - 2016 till date
14. Principal investigator - Research in Humanitarian Robotics Technology for Rural Applications Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2016 2017
15 “Reaching the Unreached: Skills Development Policies and the Promise of ICT – A Scoping Study from India and South Africa.” Funded by NORRAG, Switzerland Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2016 2017
16. Principal Investigator -Simulator development for Larsen & Tubro (L&T) Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2016 till date
17. Principal Investigator - National Instructional Media Institute (NIMI) - Develop Pilot course on Fitter Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2016 2017
18. Principal Investigator, Technological Innovations for a Scientific Tomorrow. Research on Industrial and Humanitarian robotics for the Indian Context Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2015 2016
19. Chair Person - Graduate Program in Robotics and Automation Engineering Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2014 2017
20. Principal Investigator, Women Empowerment Project Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2012 2014
21. Project lead, Mobile Vocational Education Project Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2011 2014
22. Director- Ammachi Labs Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, Kerala, India 2009 till date
23. Principal Investigator, Sakshat Amrita Vocational Education Project Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2009 2012
24. Director, Amrita Multimedia and Multimedia Productions Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 2001 2009
25. Creative Director, Multimedia Productions Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India 1996 2004
26. Product Analyst Learning Ways, Cambridge MA USA 1995 1996

 

S.No. Name of Award Awarding Agency Year
1 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD): WADI Project   2021
2 DST Empowering Rural Childrenin 21st century skills with Personalized learning   2020
3 UNICEF Mentalities   2020
4 NSDC research and development of interactive e-Learning for hospital health Workers   2019
5 ARM-TALC funding-Micro-bits to teach robotics for rural girls   2019
6 IEOM Woman in Industry and Academia Award 2019   2019
7 WISE - Women in Sustaining the Environment.   2019-20
8 Women Empowerment Forum   2019
9 50 Education Innovative Leaders   2019
10 Bhoomika Award for her invaluable contribution to society   2019
11 NUF Water filtration systems in rural villages in Kerala.   2018-19
12 NSDC-Aarogya Mitra Project.   2018-19
13 Featured in IEEE Spectrum wrt Water carrying Robots in Rural Areas   2018
14 Martha Farrell Foundation Finalist   2018
15 PMKVY Special Projects: Non-Government. NSDC Govt of India   2018-20
16 Martha Farrell Foundation Finalist   2017
17 Best Paper Award ICICICT 2017   2017
18 UNDEF Community Sanitation through Democratic Sanitation.   2017-19
19 Reaching the Unreached: Skills Development Policies and the Promise of ICT – A Scoping Study from India and South Africa. Funded by NORRAG, Switzerland Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (PI),   2016-18
20 ASPIRE: 7 workshops TTT for APSSDC trainers and more. Govt. Of Andhra Pradesh, India   2016-19
21 Redesigning educational pathways using technology and innovative pedagogical constructs For Scalable Quality Education and Lifelong Learning (Pilot), Govt. Of Andhra Pradesh, India.   2016
22 Best Poster Award, RAHA 2016   2016
23 Featured in NITI Aayog Newsletter   2016
24 Bar Bending Simulators to L & T and training   2015-20
25 Best Paper Award ICSD 2015   2015
26 Facebook Internet.org innovations award   2015
27 Facebook award money for development of platforms and courses for skill training through tablet for women in Rural I   2015
28 Infusion Nurse Society for e-content development computerized vocational education and training modules that can be easily customized to suit the needs of diverse populations   2014
29 IT Excellence Appreciation Award Computer Society of India 2013
30 Power to Empower Award CII& National Skills Development Corporation, Award for the best idea on Skill Development in the southern region of India. NSDC 2013
31 Women Empowerment Project funded by UN Democracy Fund (UNDEF)   2012-14
32 Top 10 Young Social Innovators of India Action for India Forum Invited speaker at the Action India Forum 2012 held at IIT, Delhi.   2012
33 E-India Award E-India, Govt. of India Recipient of an award in the digital literacy category for the SAVE project being titled as a most innovative project in the country   2010
34 Sakshat project under NMEICT mission, MHRD, Govt. of India.   2009-12
Year of Publication Title
2020 Rao R. Bhavani, “Automated Drone for Harvesting Produce”, U.S. Patent US Patent 10,5554602020.
2019 Madhumati Anand, Gayathri Manikutty, Sunitha Kanthimathi, Rao R. Bhavani“ Protective Packaging and Delivery”.India 202041018365. USA 16/917,354
2018 Akshay Nagarajan, Rao R. Bhavani, Deepu D. Sasi, Gayathri Manikutty, Anirudh Muraleedharan,Balu M. Menon, Aswathi Padmavilochanan, Nidhin Sugunan.“A Virtual Reality Based System for Training Rebar Bending Skills”Indian Application # 201841025899
2015 Rao R. Bhavani, “A Drone Aircraft for Harvesting Coconuts”, U.S. Patent 5319/CHE/20152015.
2014 D. Ravi Sankaran, Radhakrishnan, U., Nagarajan, A., Thettemmel, H. Mohan, and Rao R. Bhavani, Balance Monitoring and Training System”, U.S. Patent 4724/CHE/20142014.
2014 Rao R. Bhavani, Sankar, S., Radhakrishnan, U., and Sangiorgio, M., A Progressive Computer Simulated Haptic Training System for Bar Bending Skills, U.S. Patent 4548/CHE/20142014.
2013 Rao R. Bhavani, “Robotic Machine for Climbing Coconut Trees and Harvesting Coconuts”, 2013.
2013 Rao R. Bhavani, Freeman, J., Nagarajan, A., and Milan, S., “Progressive Training Assistance Device and System for Advanced Vocational Skill Training and Assessment”, U.S. Patent 5106/CHE/20132013.
2013 R. Kannan and Rao R. Bhavani, “Coconut Tree Clumber”, U.S. Patent 4794/CHE/20132013.
2013 Rao R. Bhavani, Otelsberg, J. Sara, and Venkataraman, R., “Vocational Education Portal”, U.S. Patent 61/838,034-provisional, 14/283,587-NP2013.
2013 Rao R. Bhavani, “System and method for delivering haptic force feedback with cable and moving capstan drive mechanism”, U.S. Patent US 13/465,6462013.
2010 Shanmugam Murugappan, Akshay Nagarajan, Bhavani Bijlani, Rao R. Bhavani, "A system and method for delivering haptic force feedback with cable and moving cap- Stan mechanism", Number 3082/CHE/2010, India (2010)

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2020

Journal Article

C. M. Gressel, Rashed T., Maciuika, L. Aswati, Sheshadri, S., Coley, C., Kongeseri, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Vulnerability mapping: A conceptual framework towards a context-based approach to women’s empowerment”, World Development Perspectives, 100245., 2020.[Abstract]


•Women's empowerment interventions are not as effective as hoped or intended.•Could be an issue with intervention design and implementation.•Research reveals that there are several limitations to existing women's empowerment approaches.•These include disregard of context, a non-holistic approach, difficulty measuring variables, etc.•Vulnerability mapping may be able to address these limitations; we present an adapted framework.

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2020

Journal Article

S. Sheshadri, Coley, C., Devanathan, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Towards synergistic women’s empowerment-transformative learning framework for TVET in rural India”, Journal of Vocational Education & Training 1-23., 2020.[Abstract]


In this paper, a novel education framework for a gender-inclusive, development oriented approach is investigated within the context of a non-formal vocational education and training programme implemented in rural India. Analysis of the two-year intervention that delivered vocational and life skills education to women in rural India has led to a framework that combines theories of women's empowerment and transformative learning. The results from this analysis indicate that by fusing women's empowerment with transformative learning, the objectives of VET can more effectively be achieved, while also making such programmes more accessible and supportive of marginal groups. Insights from this study hold potential for informing a scalable education intervention design geared towards women's empowerment and development. ARTICLE HISTORY

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2019

Journal Article

J. James, Rao R. Bhavani, and Neamtu, G., “Design of a bi-manual haptic interface for skill acquisition in surface mount device soldering”, Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, 2019.[Abstract]


Purpose
Offering unskilled people training in engineering and vocational skills helps to decrease unemployment rate. The purpose of this paper is to augment actual hands-on conventional vocational training methods with virtual haptic simulations as part of computer-based vocational education and training.

Design/methodology/approach
This paper discusses the design of a bi-manual virtual multi-modal training interface for learning basic skills in surface mount device hand soldering. This research aims to analyze human hand dexterity of novices and experts at micro level skill knowledge capture by simulating and tracking the users’ actions in the manual soldering process through a multi-modal user interface.

Findings
Haptic feedback can enhance the experience of a virtual training environment for the end user and can provide a supplementary modality for imparting tangible principles to increase effectiveness. This will improve the teaching and learning of engineering and vocational skills with touch-based haptics technology, targeted toward teachers and students of various disciplines in engineering. Compared with the traditional training methods for learning soldering skills, the proposed method shows more efficiency in faster skill acquisition and skill learning.

Originality/value
In this study, the authors proposed a novel bi-manual virtual training simulator model for teaching soldering skills for surface mount technology and inspection. This research aims to investigate the acquisition of soldering skills through virtual environment, with and without haptic feedback. This acts as a basic-level training simulator that provides introductory training in soldering skills and can help initially unskilled people find educational opportunities and job offers in the electronics industry.

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2018

Journal Article

H. J., Kongeseri, S., .M.Menon, B., V, S. J., P, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Exploring Digital Tool for Participatory Rural Appraisal Activities”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 2787-2810, 2018.[Abstract]


The study mainly focuses on the application of a digital tool in mapping the assets of MGR Colony (also known as Nandhikovil) in Pichanoor Panchayath in South Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu. The main objective of the study is to find whether a digital tool like an android application can be an alternative to the conventional mapping method like a sketch mapping on a chart paper. The Android Application is the digital tool developed by the ‘AMMACHI Labs’ exclusively for mapping the assets in and around the rural community using GPS coordinates. The study attempts to find how the digital tool helps in participatory asset mapping among the villagers rather than the memory, the only driving factor of the conventional mapping method. The sample size of the study is six respondents who qualify the functional literacy assessment. The functional literacy assessment in this study focuses on English and is able to understand and handle the features in the android application. Semi structured interviews were conducted to understand the experience of the respondents after the participatory asset mapping exercise. The study is exploratory in nature as it attempts to find whether a digital tool can do simultaneously mapping as well as transect walk. A feature which has not yet offered by any of the PRA tools. This pilot study proposes the further developments in the area of digital mapping with more additional features, user friendly in nature to identify and tap the possibilities in the era of digital world.

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2018

Journal Article

V. R. Rajeev, Nisanth M. Pillai, Radhakrishnan, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Evaluating Digital India through National Digital Literacy Mission in Kalliyur Panchayath”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 119, no. 15, pp. 1943-1954, 2018.[Abstract]


Digital India is an ambitious program of the Government of India with a vision to transform India in to a digitally empowered society. Digitalskill refers to somebody's ability to provide clear data through writing and alternativetypes of communication on numerous digital platforms Digitalskill showcases somebody'ssynchronic linguistics, computer, writing, and writing skills on platforms, such as, social media sites and blog-like sites, such as, Medium. Digital skillconjointly includes alternative devices, such as, smartphones, tablets, laptops and desktop PCs. According to United Nations agency, "Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and body authority within the management of a country's affairs, as well as citizens' articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations‘‘.The objective of study is to analyze whether NDLM course is beneficial to pass out students and to find out whether all Non-IT literates are digitally empowered from kalliyoor panchayath in Thiruvananthapuram district.

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2018

Journal Article

S. Kongeseri, Sheshadri, S., Coley, C., Muir, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Games for Community Development and Problem Solving: A Multi-Site Case Study”, Advanced Science Letters 24 (4), 2358-2361, 2018.[Abstract]


We present a game concept that serves multiple purposes within a larger project to promote empowerment and community development. The game is called Abhi Ya Kabhi (AYK, pronounced aBee yaah kaBee), a Hindi phrase that means, “If not now, then when?” It was designed in a highly participatory process and was tested with eighty-one participants in eight rural village sites across five states in India. It’s original purpose was to teach life skills in a more informal setting accessible to people without any game literacy; however, in practice we found that it was also a successful means of building trust with the community and with project staff, and promoted a healthy dialogue around addressing community problems. The discussion activities around the game also support the participants in identifying and defining the real life problems they face, and reflecting constructively upon them as a starting point for developing solutions. As it occurs as part of a game, the feeling of ‘play’ enables more freedom for discussion than the often rigid social norms village life typically allows; bringing people together across caste, gender, age and economic divides and building trust with project staff. Our participatory model using AYK is designed to be contextually sensitive and maximally productive for the target communities. We put forth this model of community engagement as a best practice for empowerment interventions.

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2018

Journal Article

J. James, Davis, D., Gokulnath, K., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Bilateral human-in-the-loop tele-haptic interface for controlling a robotic manipulator”, International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation , vol. 6, no. 2-3, pp. 104-119, 2018.[Abstract]


Effective human-robot interaction is a factor deemed necessary for control of industrial robots and manipulators. Fine manual control and calibration tasks for an industrial manipulator can be daunting for human operators. In this paper, the authors proposed a bilateral haptic interface for controlling a robotic manipulator using a haptic device. This allows the human operator to intuitively jog and fell the manipulator from a remote station. The proposed system consists of slave robot manipulators controlled by the master haptic devices that can give haptic feedback to the user when the slave robot touches rigid and deformable surfaces. Such a human-in-the-loop approach to control a remote robotic system offers a pragmatic solution when the robotic system is operating under dynamically changing environments and dexterous tasks. The inclusion of haptic feedback offers the potential to augment the operators' control task and overcome the limitations of visual perception within the robots operating environment. More »»

2018

Journal Article

A. Radhakrishnan, Pillai, N. M., Rao R. Bhavani, G., G., and Prof. Prema Nedungadi, “Awareness and Effectiveness of Educational Schemes for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes in Coimbatore District”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 119, pp. 1933-1941, 2018.[Abstract]


Educational schemes for marginalized communities such as SC/ST were introduced by the Government of India with the aim of providing equal opportunity for scheduled tribe and scheduled caste to empower them with free educational facilities. For such programs to be effective, SC/ST members need to be aware of them and need to have a positive attitude towards them. However, due to the practice of untouchability and the remoteness of their dwellings, SCs and STs have suffered isolation from mainstream population for several centuries. As a consequence, they continue to suffer from a high degree of educational exclusion. Upliftment of SCs and STs, both economically and socially, will be only possible through inclusive education efforts. This study focus on the role ofawareness on educational schemes in attaining primary and secondary education among SC/ST communities in two rural villages in Coimbatore. The major findings of the study reveals that most of marginalized communities continue to remain unaware of the educational schemes and are unable to utilize all the provisions of the schemes.

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2017

Journal Article

W. Switzerlan Arber, Allende, J., Rao R. Bhavani, Prof. Prema Nedungadi, Archer, M. U. K., Arancibia, L. Colombia, Basu, K., Blamont, J. France, Coppens, Y. France, Hillis, D. W., Holman, J. U. K., Hugonnier, B. France, Koizumi, H. Japan, Lee, Y. Cheong Mal, Léna, M. France, Palmeyro, E. Argentina, Pasquinelli, E. France, Léna, P. France, Lu, M. China, Ramanathan, V., Ross, C., Sachs, J., Samroo, M. Pakistan, Sánchez-Sorondo, M. Vatican, Terán, G. Spain Sán, Singer, W., Strauss, S. Israel, Suñol, I. Colombia, Tobechi, A. Nigeria, Tomlinson, S. U. K., and Turkson, P. K. A., “Annex 3. Attendance of the Workshop (Speakers and Observers)”, Children and Sustainable Development, p. 429, 2017.[Abstract]


Annex 3. Attendance of the Workshop (Speakers and Observers) Participants and Speakers Allende, Jorge (Chile) Arber, Werner (Switzerland) Archer, Margaret (UK) Arancibia, Luis (Colombia) Bhavani, Rao R.(India) Basu, Kaushik (USA) Blamont, Jacques (France) Coppens, Yves (France) Hillis, Daniel W.(USA) Holman, John (UK) Hugonnier, Bernard (France) Koizumi, Hideaki (Japan) Lee, Yee Cheong (Malaysia) Léna, Marguerite (France) Léna, Pierre (France) Lu, Mai (China) Palmeyro, Enrique (Argentina) Pasquinelli, Elena (France) Prema, Nedungadi (Amrita University, India) Ramanathan, Veerhabhadran (USA) Ross, Courtney (USA) Sachs, Jeffrey (USA) Samroo, Manzoor (Pakistan) Sánchez-Sorondo, Marcelo (Vatican) Sánchez Terán, Gonzalo (Spain) Singer, Wolf (PAS, Germany) Strauss, Sydney (Israel) Suñol, Ignacio (Colombia) Tobechi, Anyadike … Von Braun, Joachim More »»

2016

Journal Article

A. V, ES, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Comparative Study of Potential Field and Sampling Algorithms for Manipulator Obstacle Avoidance In Robot Work Space”, International Journal of Control Theory and Applications (IJCTA), vol. 9, no. 33, pp. 71-78, 2016.[Abstract]


Industrial robots should be implemented with proper path planning to generate a trajectory which ensures obstacle avoidance and collision free movement. Selection of a path planning techniques need to be done only after detailed studies. This paper deals with the study and implementation of a path planning technique using potential fi eld method for a 2R robot in a given workspace with obstacles. The results are compared with Open Motion Planning Library (OMPL)which uses sampling based path planning algorithms in a similar context. It is found that in higher dimensionality spaces sampling algorithms are more useful and potential fi eld methods are handy in real time applications.

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2016

Journal Article

S. Krishna, Rahul, E. S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “RFID based-human localization in robot-cells for a better shared workspace interaction”, CSI Transactions on ICT, vol. 4, pp. 37–43, 2016.[Abstract]


Industrial robots have become a vital part of automation in industries performing operations like stacking, casting, painting, sorting, welding etc. The basic sensory abilities in most cases needs operating these robots inside robot fences which separate the operator from the robot. But now this line of separation is becoming thin and work environments are being designed for collaborative tasks involving both human and robot participation. This transformation demands for systems that ensure the safety of the operator inside the work environment. We have designed and implemented a new localization method for the industrial robot environments using RFID technology. The entire system is implemented as a ROS based package to facilitate integration and experimentation in broad range of robot architectures. We have also developed a real time 3D visualization of the monitored work environment in RViz for displaying sensor data and state information from ROS. The system provides good real time response and proves to be a cost efficient and scalable method for human localization in robot-cells.

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2016

Journal Article

G. Seeja, Saisudha, V., Gayathri Manikutty, Rao R. Bhavani, and V. Pillay, R., “Speed analysis of DC motor under load and no load condition using CHR based PID and LQR optimal controller”, International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, vol. 9, pp. 7387-7394, 2016.[Abstract]


DC motors are having wide range of application from household appliances to large industrial machinery at various speed conditions. In this paper, speed control of a separately excited direct current (DC) motor under load conditions has been implemented using CHR tuning and LQR controllers. The Chien - Hrones - Reswick (CHR) is based on a Proportional Integral Derivative controller (PID) tuning and Linear Quadratic Regulator controller (LQR) is based on an optimal controller. Comparison of both the methods have been done based on transient response specifications. Simulations in MATLAB have shown that the performance of the DC motor has significantly improved quality response with the LQR method over the CHR method. It has also minimized deviation from the desired speed, with the LQR method. This can lead to significant improvement when implemented in applications viz. robotics, process control and cruise control.

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2016

Journal Article

V. Saisudha, Seeja, G., V. Pillay, R., Gayathri Manikutty, and Rao R. Bhavani, “Analysis of speed control of DC motor using LQR method”, International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, vol. 9, pp. 7377-7385, 2016.[Abstract]


DC motors are widely used in various industries because they cater to applications of high and low power and in both fixed and variable speed electric drives. This paper analyses the transient parameters of the speed of separately excited DC motors using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method. The speed of the DC motor is analyzed by measuring the output. The LQR method has been applied on three different motors of different specifications. The speed of the three motors is compared on the basis of the transient specifications using the LQR method. Simulation of a motor in MATLAB has shown that the performance of a motor with a low power application has a significant and improved quality response with the LQR method. Properties such as minimized deviation in speed, easy design and cost reduction make it efficient for use in controlled and balanced systems. These properties enhance speed control of a DC motor by achieving the desired performance for the systems where different power ratings occur.

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2016

Journal Article

S. Kongeseri, Sheshadri, S., Muir, A., Coley, C., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Participatory Game Design for Life Skills in Rural India: A Multisite Case Study”, 2016.[Abstract]


We present a game concept designed to teach life skills in rural India: Abhi Ya Kabhi (AYK, pronounced ah­BEE ya ka­BEE) meaning “If not now, then when?” This concept has been designed in a highly participatory process with forty participants in five rural village sites across five states in India. The concept includes a light strategy game for people with low to middle general literacy, as well as low game literacy. The rural Indian population is mostly at or below the poverty line, and wrestles with multiple “wicked problems.” Our participatory model is designed to be contextually sensitive and maximally productive for the target communities. In our series of exploratory case studies, AYK has shown itself to work at two levels. Firstly, the activities train the players in decision making relating to money management, happiness and well­being. Then, the discussion activities around the game support the participants in identifying and defining the real­life problems they face, and reflecting constructively upon them. As it occurs as part of a game, the feeling of ‘play’ enables more freedom for discussion than the often rigid social norms village life typically allows; bringing people together across caste, gender, age and economic divides. Indeed, our fieldwork team found AYK to be a surprisingly effective tool for creating a relaxed yet purposeful rapport with villagers — more so than the more formal development programs they also run. The participation model, described here in detail, goes beyond simple player feedback to actively engaging with the participating communities that spur significant conversations within the village on sensitive social matters. Our main finding is that encouraging participation in game design and play moves from a simple sense of getting players’ input, to supporting the community itself to come together around key social issues. We bridge the related concepts of participatory design, as in the Scandinavian approach to IT design and participatory development (from the field of social science and development work in the developing world). Based on our observations from field testing AYK, we suggest four facets of meaningfully engaging participants More »»

2013

Journal Article

O. Jamie, Nagarajan, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users”, International Journal of Social Science and Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 269–275, 2013.[Abstract]


This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches

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PDF iconissues-user-interface-design-content-rich-vocational-training-application-digitally.pdf

2013

Journal Article

Ra Sooraj, Akshay, Na, Jeevan, T. Gb, and Rao R. Bhavani, “Design and analysis of a parallel haptic orthosis for upper limb rehabilitation”, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 5, pp. 444-451, 2013.[Abstract]


The general design motivation for orthoses acting in parallel with a human limb is to improve human locomotion capability, develop joint strength, and increase endurance through physical rehabilitation exercises for the human limbs. The development of such rehabilitation devices improves the quality and frequency of physical rehabilitation exercises that a patient has to undergo during treatment. This paper describes the design of a grounded hand and arm rehabilitation orthosis. The orthosis provides bi-directional haptic feedback to the arm and joints of the fingers and the novel dynamic counterweight balancing mechanism prevents the effects of loading on the user's arm.

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PDF icondesign-and-analysis-parallel-haptic-orthosis-upper-limb-rehabilitation.pdf

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2019

Conference Paper

A. Deshmukh, ,, Unnikrishnan, R., Ramesh, S., Anitha, P., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Influencing hand-washing behaviour with a social robot: Hri study with school children in rural india.”, in 2019 28th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2019.

2018

Conference Paper

Rao R. Bhavani and Strauss, S., “Adult Women’s Empowerment: Learning through peer teaching in ICT enhanced courses around employment skills and social issues in Indian villages”, in Proceedings of INTED2018 Conference 5th-7th March 2018, Valencia, Spain, 2018.

2018

Conference Paper

P. Aswathi, Menon, B. M., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Performance categorization for personalized learning in vocational training simulators”, in Proceedings - IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2018, 2018.[Abstract]


Simulators have been increasingly used at many industries to provide skill training to its trainees or employees. A haptics based re-bar bending simulator is being used at leading construction training centers in India. The simulator collects the real-Time training data and uses it to generate accurate assessment reports similar to the manually generated reports. To enhance the learning environment, the simulator should learn to recognize the differences between the trainee performances and should be capable to model the successive stages of skill learning. In this paper, we discuss how the time-series segmentation technique can be applied to extract process relevant data from the training history collected by the re-bar bending simulator. We applied machine learning methods, on this transformed data to model the varying levels of expertise. In future, these models can be utilized to enhance the simulator to provide personalized feedback and learning experiences. © 2018 IEEE.

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2018

Conference Paper

R. Unnikrishnan and Rao R. Bhavani, “Tangible user interface for sanitation education in rural India : design and preliminary observations”, in Proceedings - IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2018, 2018.[Abstract]


Tangible user interfaces offer a new medium for education in rural India, helped by its low barrier for entry for the digitally illiterate. In this paper we discuss the design considerations & the pedagogical settings for a tangible environment to teach the skill of surveying optimal locations for toilets and soak pits. We also discuss findings from the pilot test of the technology with 10 women from rural India. This technology is intended as a pedagogical tool instead of being a full blown 'serious game' so as to bring the focus on the conversations and discussion prompted by the technology, than on the technology itself. © 2018 IEEE.

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2018

Conference Paper

V. Susmitha, Akshay, N., Vennila, V., Muraleedharan, A., Nair, R., Alekh, V., M. Yildiz, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “All aboard for the joy of making! teaching user centered design and tinkering to middle school children in India”, in Proceedings - IEEE 9th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2018, 2018.[Abstract]


The bid to transform education with the inclusion of 21st-century skills in the school system lays an emphasis on hands-on project-based learning and tinkering. Often such learning activities involve teaching children creation of artifacts that extend beyond lending personal meaning to themselves, as objects that are designed for use by others. It is imperative that making such objects is motivated by an empathetic understanding of the needs of the eventual users of these objects. This paper discusses the conduct of a workshop that teaches user-centered design principles to eighth graders by engaging in maker activities aiming to develop such an understanding of their users in children. The workshop engages the children in dialogue with users and teaches the children to create objects that fulfill the users' expressed needs. Furthermore, to engage them in collaborative-learning, the children were guided to create a boat by up-cycling waste plastic bottles. They then rowed it out in a pool to test it for its functionality. The workshop has led to an increased sense of general self-efficacy in the children that was measured by the conducted pre-workshop and post-workshop surveys. © 2018 IEEE.

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2018

Conference Paper

P. Anitha, Babu, S. K., R, U., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Scratching Out Problems: Exploring the Use of Computational Thinking for Social Work in Rural India”, in 2018 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E), Chennai, India, 2018.[Abstract]


Technologies for development have great potential in accelerating the socio-economic progress of disadvantaged communities. But these technologies are usually developed by people removed from the daily realities of fieldwork. This paper explores the need and the possibilities of educating rural populations and social workers on the use of technology to create their own digital artifacts. We discuss two workshops, one for villagers in the state of Telangana and the second one for graduate students of a university social work department exploring the use of MIT's Scratch software as a tool for assisting in social interventions. We also discuss the results of an acceptability study among the social work students to gauge the potential for such a tool to be used in the field.

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2018

Conference Paper

J. Nanda, Vishnu, R. S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Experimental Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of Ingeniously Developed Wearable Assistive Device”, in Technological innovations in ICT for agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR 2018), 2018.

2017

Conference Paper

S. K. Babu, McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Collaborative Game Based Learning of Post-Disaster Management: Serious Game on Incident Management Frameworks for Post Disaster Management”, in Proceedings - IEEE 8th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2016, 2017.[Abstract]


In the face of technological advancements, serious games are becoming more widely recognized as effective educational tools. This paper presents a serious game that teaches a complex subject in a simplified and easy to understand manner-Communication and collaboration during post-disaster operations. The game is multiplayer where each player works through a simulated disaster using an incident management systematic framework that highlights the importance of communication and collaboration. To achieve this, we introduce a unique live audio/video communication system where the players interact with each other to solve problems in a realistic scenario. The game also provides basic training for Rapid Damage Assessments and Incident Command System, two strategies used to carry out post disaster management. The game was piloted to a focus group consisting of students and faculty from Amrita University. Results from the surveys showed the game and proposed frameworks were very effective in providing the players with basic knowledge of post disaster management operations. The need of using such training methods is very much necessary since it will help the disaster response activities to be faster and easier. © 2016 IEEE.

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2017

Conference Paper

R. Krishnan, S. Vishnu Rajendran, Mohan, T. H., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Design and Fabrication of a Low-cost Rice Transplanting Machine”, in 2017 IEEE Technological Innovations in ICT for Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR), 2017.[Abstract]


One of the labor intensive processes in rice cultivation is transplantation, where laborers have to work in a slouching position in puddled fields. This leads to physical ailments like musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). This paper discusses the design and testing of an efficient, cost effective and easily reproducible semi-automatic rice transplanting machine to eliminate the drudgery involved in the task, improve efficiency and productivity of farmer while keeping the human-in-the-loop. The focus of the design was to build a prototype using locally available materials. The cost savings of the new prototype was over 80 percent of the commercially available machines. Studies conducted using this prototype have shown that the semi automation process reduces labor effort by 17 percent and additionally reduced the time for transplantation.

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2017

Conference Paper

K. P. Sachith, Gopal, A., Muir, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Contextualizing ICT Based Vocational Education for Rural Communities: Addressing Ethnographic Issues and Assessing Design Principles”, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries in Artificial Intelligence), 2017, vol. 10514 LNCS, pp. 3-12.[Abstract]


Recently, combining Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) with Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for a low literate population is gaining interest, as this can lead to more effective socio-economic development. This strategy can more easily provide employment and bring community wide change because of the improved quality and relevance of education materialQuery. Although TVET providers are present throughout India that uses some ICT, challenges remain for prospective students including illiteracy, language, resource limits and gender boundaries. Providing TVET that is accessible to low-literate people in rural village communities requires a shift in the design of ICT so that it is universally useable, even for communities like tribal India that has a largely oral culture. In this article, we detail the design and development of an ICT driven TVET model for a mostly illiterate audience in rural India and measure its efficacy. Through our ethnographic and usability study with 60 low-literate oral and novice village users, we present the issues faced and the solutions we incorporated into our new model. The results show that users performed better in the vocational course units with the solutions incorporated.

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2017

Conference Paper

B. M. Menon, Unnikrishnan, R., Muir, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Serious game on recognizing categories of waste, to support a zero waste recycling program”, in 2017 IEEE 5th International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health, SeGAH 2017, 2017.[Abstract]


Picking up and sorting garbage is a tedious task, and the health effects of garbage on the streets of India is grave. Recycling trash into categories (e.g. hard plastic, soft plastic, organic, paper) requires training to do correctly at speed. Major national clean up campaigns as well as neighbourhood level initiatives require trained trainees who can quickly place each piece into the appropriate place. For this reason, we investigated using a serious game to train people in how to recycle trash quickly. © 2017 IEEE.

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2017

Conference Paper

A. K. George, McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “A Novel Approach for Training Crane Operators: Serious Game on Crane Simulator”, in Proceedings - IEEE 8th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2016, 2017, pp. 116-119.[Abstract]


Any large scale construction related activity generally requires the use of cranes. A crane operator must be appropriately skilled to avoid any mishap at the construction site. This can be accomplished by training crane operators on all the safety procedures and methods of crane operation to be practiced. In this paper we explore a method whereby anyone who is being trained as a crane operator, must first learn all the operational procedures and safety norms by playing a simulation of operating a crane in a serious game. Once the user successfully completes the different levels of this serious game, he can then 'graduate' to operate an actual crane. Serious games are proven method of cost effective and risk free simulated environments where a player can learn all the nuances of any simulated activity, herein operating a crane. We implemented a learning methodology, Gagne's 9 Events of Learning, in order to ensure the player develops a high level of understanding. We used an actual crane as a reference model (Ace14XW) for this game. We surveyed several crane operators and found that this crane model game enhanced their knowledge of handling and precautionary measures. The users also reported an increased confidence level while operating a real crane.

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PDF iconnovel-approach-training-crane-operators-serious-game-crane-simulator.pdf

2016

Conference Paper

Maya Menon, Udupa, G., Nair, G. J., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Localization and Mapping Using Statistical Image Processing Methods”, in International Conference on Advancements in Automation Robotics and Sensing (ICAARS), India, 2016.

2016

Conference Paper

R. Unnikrishnan, Amrita, N., Muir, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Of elephants and nested loops: How to introduce computing to youth in rural india”, in Proceedings of the The 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2016.[Abstract]


We present Haathi Mera Saathi (My Elephant Friend), a game concept which serves as a tool for teaching programming and computational thinking to underprivileged children in rural India. It provides a metaphor and gameplay for embodied and tangible games, and creates a soft early ramp up into the conceptual and digital space of learning to code. We discuss the urgency of digital inclusion for Indian rural children, with reference to technology as an amplifier which they need to learn to direct. We contrast the grounded, embodied style of Haathi Mera Saathi with the current crop of mini-languages and coding games, with particular emphasis on the need for physicality and tangibility in the very early stages of learning to code. We further discuss our experience conducting workshops for students from the tribal and rural belts of India, where we see HMS as an effective approach for taking them from a state of having no background in computers or computing, to a state where they create interactive applications in a Java based environment. Recommendations are given for researchers interested in working with rural village children.

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2016

Conference Paper

S. J. Soumya, S. Vishnu Rajendran, Arjun, R. N., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Design and testing of a semi automatic rubber tree tapping machine (SART)”, in IEEE Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference 2016, R10-HTC 2016 - Proceedings, 2016.[Abstract]


Rubber tree tapping is considered to be a skill oriented job and the availability of such labors are getting worse day by day. This is considered to be the one of the reason which affected the natural rubber productivity from Indian plantations. Even though cheap unskilled labors are available, they cannot be used for tapping by using the traditional V groove knife or Jabong knife. So this paper discusses about a low semi automatic rubber tree tapping machine (SART) which can be used by an unskilled labor to perform tapping on the rubber tree by preserving the tree health. The proposed machine is fabricated and tested on the tree. Also a comparative study is made on the effort required to operate the machine with the traditional tapping knives used for the purpose. © 2016 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

S. Sheshadri, Coley, C., Jagadeesh, S., Kongeseri, S., Devanathan, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Community Centric Vocational Education: A Strategy for Implementation of Computerized TVET Delivery in Rural India”, in International Conference on Emerging Trends In TVET : Vision 2025, 2015.

2015

Conference Paper

C. Coley, Sheshadri, S., Karanayil, L., Bonin, S., Dr. Sriram Devanathan, and Rao R. Bhavani, “Ensuring training-transfer and personal performance after TVET: A strategy within the rural, Indian context for post-training engagement of TVET students for long-term success.”, in International Conference on Emerging Trends In TVET : Vision 2025, 2015.

2015

Conference Paper

R. Sreelakshmi, McLain, M., Rajeshwaran, A., Rao R. Bhavani, Jayakrishnan, R., and Kamal Bijlani, “Gamification to enhance Learning using Gagne's learning model”, in 2015 6th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2015.[Abstract]


Technology enhanced Learning has brought drastic changes in the field of education in the modern world. In this study we explore a novel way to improve how high school students learn by building a serious game that uses a pedagogical model developed by Robert Gagne. By integrating serious game with principles of Gagne's learning model can provide engaging and meaningful instructions to students. The game developed in this study is a waste sorting game that can easily and succinctly demonstrate the principles of this learning model. All the tasks in the game that the player has to accomplish correspond to Gagne's “Nine Events of Learning”. A quiz is incorporated in order to get data on the progress made by the player in understanding the concept and as well as to assess them. Additionally, an experimental study was conducted which demonstrates that game based learning using Gagne's event is more effective than a traditional classroom setup.

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PDF icongamification-enhance-learning-using-gagnes-learning-model.pdf

2015

Conference Paper

U. V. Archana, Rajeshwaran, A., McLain, M. L., Kamal Bijlani, Rao R. Bhavani, and Jayakrishnan, R., “Game based learning to reduce carbon footprint regarding food style”, in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, 2015.

2015

Conference Paper

C. Coley, Sheshadri, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Training India’s first female toilet builders: An argument for improving sanitation through women empowerment and social inclusion”, in 2015 International Conference on Sustainable Development (ICSD), 2015.[Abstract]


Basic sanitation facilities are inaccessible to 40 percent of the world’s population (World Health Organization 2014). The call to address the Sixth Sustainable Development Goal of “Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” has never been so imperative, particularly in a nation such as India where open defecation is most rampant (https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/focussdgs.html, accessed June 14, 2015; World Health Organization and UNICEF 2014). Girls and women in rural India are disproportionately affected by limited access to adequate sanitation (WSSCC et al. 2013). Despite countless attempts to counteract the practice of open defecation in India, the kind of attitudinal and behavioral change necessary to end open defecation on a large and sustainable scale have yet to bring about widespread toilet use (Coffrey et al. 2014). The limited extent to which sanitation projects have achieved social inclusivity among marginalized communities is recognized as a contributing factor to the persistence of poor sanitation in India (UN Water 2008; Coffrey et al. 2014). This paper will discuss early stages of an intervention that places a specific focus on engaging women in rural villages within India in the goal to end open defecation. The project, Women Empowerment: Sanitation (WE: Sanitation) is currently in implementation in seven states throughout India and proposes that the goal of improving sanitation may best be achieved by empowering women through vocational and life skill development. By training India’s most unskilled population to build, use and maintain toilets, the problems of poor sanitation, community buy-in, as well as unskilled labor may be simultaneously addressed. This paper will discuss findings from the early stages of the WE: Sanitation intervention in rural villages within the Indian states of: Karnataka, Gujarat and Goa, where previous sanitation efforts have failed to take hold. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

R. Ranjith, Akshay, N., Unnikrishnan, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Do It Yourself Educational Kits for Vocational Education and Training”, in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing, New York, NY, USA, 2014.[Abstract]


Human motor skill training forms a large portion of the curriculum for any vocational education and training course. Construction personnel such as carpenters, plumbers and masons require long hours of training in order to gain expertise and workmanship to perform complex tasks skillfully. Poor skill in the use of tools results in sub-optimal outcome; compromised work quality and consumes additional cost.

In this paper, we describe the design of a novel do-it-yourself educational tool that is built using low cost materials, open source software and hardware, the designs for which are freely downloadable. This educational toolkit uses haptic technology to augment the need for realism and is used to provide skill training in the use of vocational tools. The aim is to generate interest in vocational education and to provide greater accessibility for base level skill training.

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PDF icondo-it-yourself-educational-kits-vocational-education-and-training.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

J. Jose, Unnikrishnan, R., Marshall, D., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Haptic simulations for training plumbing skills”, in Haptic, Audio and Visual Environments and Games (HAVE), 2014 IEEE International Symposium on, 2014.[Abstract]


The objective of this work is to augment actual hands-on conventional vocational training workshop with simulated training using virtual haptic simulations as part of computer-based vocational education and training. We have developed a system to simulate various common tool exercises and procedures in virtual environments for vocational training programs targeted towards illiterate and semi-literate populations. In our previous work, we designed a cost-effective multi-tool haptic simulator that can train the use of 19 hand-held and powered tools. This simulator is designed to replace traditional training tools and materials in the primary stage of vocational skill training. This paper discusses the design and computational modelling of the virtual training interface that allow this simulator to be used for training in multiple vocational trades - with a special focus on plumbing-that bring the experience of a vocational workshop training environment to the end user. This approach of a virtual, computer-based vocational training environment holds the potential to offer vocational training to a diverse audience with varying skill sets.

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PDF iconhaptic-simulations-training-plumbing-skills.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

J. Jose, Akshay, N., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Learning Elementary Physics Though Haptic Simulations”, in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing, New York, NY, USA, 2014.[Abstract]


Because many concepts in physics are non-engaging and difficult to understand, instructors in physics are challenged to fully engage students in the study of physics. For even the best students, current practices are not fully engaging and do not provide a deep understanding of fundamental principles. While traditional laboratory exercises are a good way to support and reinforce learning, haptic simulations can be more effective. Haptic feedback can increase understanding within a virtual environment in certain instances and can provide an additional modality for imparting tangible principles. In this paper, we discuss the design of an educational simulation tool using audio, visual and haptic feedback for learning basic concepts in physics at the elementary school student level.

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PDF iconlearning-elementary-physics-though-haptic-simulations.pdf

2013

Conference Paper

M. Minsky, Akshay, N., Amritha, N., Anila, S., Nair, A. C., Gopalan, A., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Soft Circuits for Livelihood and Education in India”, in FabLearn 2013, USA, 2013.[Abstract]


A workshop on the design of soft circuits in the contexts of undergraduate engineering education and empowerment of rural, economically disadvantaged women in India was conducted at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in Kerala, India. We report that the soft-circuit workshop complemented existing undergraduate engineering education with increased expressivity, initiative, improvisational engineering skills, and integration of hardware and software skills. The workshop participants also explored the viability of the oftcircuit experience as a source of livelihood and technical education for rural women, and developed a Livelihood-Education plan that will be piloted with rural women who are in vocational training, over 60% of whom have dropped out of formal schooling before completing 9th grade. We highlight aspects of our workshop and the resulting economic and educational empowerment plan that are particular to cultural contexts of women in India, to vocational training of underserved populations in India, and to undergraduate engineering education in India

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PDF iconsoft-circuits-livelihood-and-education-india.pdf

2013

Conference Paper

R. Unnikrishnan, Moawad, K., and Rao R. Bhavani, “A Physiotherapy toolkit using motion tracking and haptic devices”, in IEEE Global Humanitarian Conference , 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

N. Akshay, Deepu, S., Rahul, E. S., Ranjith, R., Jose, J., Unnikrishnan, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Design and evaluation of a Haptic simulator for vocational skill Training and Assessment”, in Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE, 2013.[Abstract]


While mainstream haptics has been focusing on training elite skills, the haptic simulator described in this paper addresses a problem with a phenomenal social impact that addresses teaching of vocational skills to the growing unskilled and impoverished populations in India. This is an unconventional attempt at designing a multi-tool haptic trainer that could potentially replace traditional training tools and materials in the primary stages of vocational skill training. After an exhaustive analysis of all the tools used in the various vocational trades of the construction industry, we categorized and sorted the tools based on their properties and functions. Using this information, we designed Amrita Progressive Training Assistance using Haptic simulation (APTAH), a cost effective haptic simulator that can train the use of over nineteen hand-held and powered tools used in several vocations. The simulator provides audio, visual and haptic cues that can help the novice master the use of the tools in the absence of a human trainer. This paper also discusses the preliminary trials conducted to study training effectiveness of the haptic simulator proposed.

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PDF icondesign-and-evaluation-haptic-simulator-vocational-skill-training-and-assessment.pdf

2013

Conference Paper

J. Jose, Ramesh, S., Akshay, N., and Rao R. Bhavani, “TryStrokes: Learning on a digital canvas to paint in the real world”, in Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS), 2013 IEEE, 2013, pp. 68-73.[Abstract]


In rural and tribal communities, producing handicrafts act as a source of supplementary income and a means to preserve the uniqueness of their arts and craft forms. Developing skills requires practise and knowledge of native techniques. In activities such as painting, skill in application of pressure and tilt of the brush are very important parameters that contribute to creating beautiful artwork. Technology can play a vital role in aiding to preserve traditional techniques and skills. In this paper we discuss the design of a software application that contains a skill database that stores expert brush stroke techniques and help the novice learn to apply the brush strokes by providing feedback based on the expert stroke. This computerised training solution is scalable, portable and cost effective.

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PDF icontrystrokes-learning-digital-canvas-paint-real-world.pdf

2013

Conference Paper

R. Unnikrishnan, Moawad, K., and Rao R. Bhavani, “A physiotherapy toolkit using video games and motion tracking technologies”, in c2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite, GHTC-SAS 2013, Trivandrum, Kerala, 2013, pp. 90-95.[Abstract]


This paper proposes a software toolkit that Physiotherapists can use to integrate physical therapy exercises with a variety of video games. The toolkit will support a variety of motion tracking technologies and the data from these sensors will help the therapist monitor the performance of the patients and control parameters to advance the therapy appropriately. This technique will be especially useful for disabled patients in developing nations with little access to quality rehabilitation facilities but where computers and mobile phones have penetrated extensively. Using popular games for therapy helps the patient become motivated enough to perform therapy exercise steps repeatedly. © 2013 IEEE.

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PDF iconphysiotherapy-toolkit-using-video-games-and-motion-tracking-technologies.pdf

2012

Conference Paper

N. Akshay, Sreeram, K., Anand, A., Venkataraman, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “MoVE: Mobile vocational education for rural India”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012, Kerala, 2012.[Abstract]


The aim of this paper is to present the design of a project that involves deployment of computerized vocational training courses comprised of multimedia enhanced video lectures, virtual reality games and low cost haptic device based simulations built on mobile-learning platforms and delivered using automobile units. These mobile vocational education units are developed as a model to make vocational education and training more accessible to the rural and tribal populations of India. The paper gives an overview of the design of the mobile vocational education units and details the architecture and communication interface for the m-learning application. It further describes the software architecture of the vocational education application that is specifically designed to easily scale across various vocational trades and languages of delivery, provide flexibility and increase accessibility for vocational training. © 2012 IEEE.

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PDF iconmove-mobile-vocational-education-rural-india.pdf

2012

Conference Paper

N. Akshay, Deepu, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Augmented vocational tools using real time audiovisual feedback for psychomotor skill training”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012, Kerala, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper presents the concept design of SMART (Skill Mentoring and Assistance in Real Time), a novel motion monitoring and audio-visual feedback device for the students in Vocational Education and Training (VET) to assist in minimizing and in correcting the errors in the use of occupational tools. SMART is easily attached to any vocational tool and can guide the user to conform to specific spatiotemporal trajectories and orientation as described by template shape. The paper provides a description of the low cost accelerometer, gyroscopes and an input interface that are integrated with the micro controller and proposes an algorithm to provide such guidance for the tool. © 2012 IEEE.

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PDF iconaugmented-vocational-tools-using-real-time-audiovisual-feedback-psychomotor-skill.pdf

2010

Conference Paper

Ca Venkittarayan, a, J., Gopal, VaMadan, Kartikkumar, Ra, Nitin, B. Sa, Madan, Na, Rajamani, Kb, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Bijlani, Bb, and Rao R. Bhavani, “Virtual soldering environment using touch and gesture for engineering labs education”, in TechSym 2010 - Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium, Kharagpur, 2010, pp. 206-210.[Abstract]


Labs form a central component especially in engineering education. The objective of our current work is to enhance the possibility of teaching, learning and experiencing engineering lab targeted towards teachers and students of various disciplines in engineering. This is achieved by developing virtual computer based lab environments. The experience of these environments is enriched with touch based technology. This paper talks about creation of virtual soldering environment. We have successfully implemented a working prototype which would enable the end user to get a feel for real time soldering. This approach of 'virtual' computer based training environment has great potential that stimulates self-learning process of soldering. © 2010 IEEE.

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PDF iconvirtual-soldering-environment-using-touch-and-gesture-for-engineering-labs-education.pdf

2010

Conference Paper

Rao R. Bhavani, Rajamani, K., Kamal Bijlani, Achuthan, K., Sreedha, N., Nithyanandan, V., Rahul, J., and Sheshadri, S., “Virtual Media Enhanced Vocational Education Curriculum”, in 2010 Second International Conference on Computer Research and Development (ICCRD), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June, 2010, pp. 280-284.[Abstract]


The following paper discusses the development of a virtual media enhanced vocational education curriculum that ultimately aims to reduce the digital and economic divide by targeting the illiterate and neo-literate sectors of India. While the application utilizes enhanced graphics, the end user experiences a simplistic interface. The virtual environment is developed in a modular way, enabling the user to learn methodically and at their own pace. The application's key usability element is that the fully developed virtual media enhanced vocational education curriculum will be web-based, where the user can access the program from any location through the medium of a computer and internet. Such an application has the potential to impart effective vocational training to the masses and at a pace that is at the comfort and pace of individual users. While the following paper discusses a specific application developed to train plumbers, the concept is generic and can be extended to any vocational training.

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PDF iconvirtual-media-enhanced-vocational-education-curriculum.pdf

2010

Conference Paper

Rao R. Bhavani, Sheshadri, S., and Unnikrishnan, R., “Vocational education technology: rural India”, in Proceedings of the 1st Amrita ACM-W Celebration on Women in Computing in India,September, 2010.[Abstract]


Vocational Education and Training (VET) helps bridge the gap between limited education and gainful employment. However, it is difficult to make VET readily accessible to economically and educationally challenged communities. To meet this challenge, we introduce a novel solution that adds unique elements to the realms of education technology: vocational education enhanced through both multimedia and haptic technology. This paper will present conceptual elements of revolutionary haptic technology to be applied in ...

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2009

Conference Paper

Kamal Bijlani, Pai, C., and Rao R. Bhavani, “E-Learning in Social Applications”, in EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, 2009.[Abstract]


Rural areas are picturesque but often have a lack of access to education and training facilities. E-Learning can provide a mechanism to bridge this gap. The A-VIEW E- Learning framework provides live interactive training and a social environment for the participants to cooperate and learn. In this paper we describe how the A-VIEW framework is being adapted and deployed for social applications in rural areas. Keywords: A-VIEW, E- Learning, Rural, Social More »»

2009

Conference Paper

N. Gupta, Yogeshwara, K., Kumar, R. N. Vinay, Bisht, R. Singh, Ginnela, Y., Rajamani, K., Kamal Bijlani, Krishnasree Achuthan, and Rao R. Bhavani, “Virtual Fabric Paint Environment using Touch and Gesture for Vocational Training”, in Haptic Audio visual Environments and Games, 2009. HAVE 2009. IEEE International Workshop on, 2009.[Abstract]


The objective of this work is to enhance the pace of learning occupational skills by developing multimedia enriched computerized vocational training programs targeted towards the illiterate and neo-literate sections of a society. This is achieved by developing virtual computer based vocational training environments. The experience of these environments is enriched with touch and gesture based technology. This paper talks about the creation of virtual vocational training scenario of a fabric painting application. We have successfully created a working prototype which brings out the real experience of fabric painting to the end user. Emphasis is placed on human-computer interactions that will allow simplistic interface for illiterate or neo-literate individuals. This approach of ‘virtual’ computer-based vocational training environment has great potential that stimulates self-learning processes of these vocational skills to a diverse audience with varying skill sets.

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PDF iconvirtual-fabric-paint-environment-using-touch-and-gesture-vocational-training.pdf

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Conference Proceedings

A. Chandran, E.S, R., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Significance of Haptic Feedback in Learning Lathe Operating Skills”, 2018 IEEE Ninth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E). pp. 97-101, 2018.[Abstract]


Significance of haptic cues, in a manual lathe operation, is less acknowledged and has not been given much emphasis, during lathe training. In this paper, a formative usability approach was pursued to appraise the importance of including haptic feedback from the hand-wheel of a lathe. The primary data was collected with a survey questionnaire, adopting purposive sampling method. The target population included people familiar with lathe operations, grouped into strata of beginners, intermediates and experts. The hypothesis formulated from the empirical study was tested using the Chi-square test. The result showed a significant trend between the intensity of haptic feedback, the participants perceive on the user hand-wheel and their experience-level in using a manual lathe. The results of this study can contribute to development of a haptic simulator, designed to train manual lathe operators, with sophisticated skills.

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2018

Conference Proceedings

, Sugunan, N., Krishna, ,, ,, ,, ,, K, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Design and Emotional evaluation of Pepe Jr: A cost effective platform for HRI studies”, International Confernece on Distributed Computing, VLSI, Electrical Circuits and Robotics(DISCOVER 2018). 2018.

2016

Conference Proceedings

J. Jose, Unnikrishnan, R., Marshall, D., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Haptics enhanced multi-tool virtual interfaces for training carpentry skills”, International conference on Robotics & Automation For Humanitarian applications (RAHA 2016). Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India, 2016.[Abstract]


This paper presents the design and computational modelling of a virtual simulator of a multitool, for training vocational skills in a hands-on way. Here we describe the audio-visual-haptic elements for the customized simulation interfaces for training carpentry tools and skills and the computational mathematical model to render haptic feedback for these actions. Finally the paper will explain the trainee's skill learning curves through these simulations, based on analysis of data from user studies. In our previous work, we designed a haptic training simulation interfaces for plumbing tools as part of Computerized Vocational Education and Training (CVET). As an extension to this we had developed a cost effective system to simulate various common tool exercises and procedures in virtual environments with a special focus of carpentry. Proposed system is designed to replace conventional training in the initial stage of vocational skill training and fasten the skill learning process to a diverse audience with varying skill sets. © 2016 IEEE.

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PDF iconhaptics-enhanced-multi-tool-virtual-interfaces-training-carpentry-skills.pdf

2016

Conference Proceedings

K. Gokulnath, Jose, J., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Human-In-The-Loop Industrial Robot Control by 3DOF Haptic Device”, International conference on Advancements in Automation robotics & sensing. (ICAARs 16) . Springer, 2016.

2013

Conference Proceedings

J. Otelsberg, Akshay, N., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Rethinking Representation and Relationship: Issues in the UI design for a content rich vocational training application for digitally illiterate populations”, International Conference on Education and Education Technology. Barcelona, 2013.

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Book Chapter

J. Jose and Rao R. Bhavani, “Bimanual Haptic Simulator for Training Hand Palpation and Lumbar Puncture”, in Haptic Interaction AsiaHaptics 2016. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol. 432, S. Hasegawa, Konyo, M., Kyung, K. - U., Nojima, T., and Kajimoto, H., Eds. Singapore: Springer, Singapore (Springer book series), 2018.[Abstract]


This paper addresses a bimanual haptic simulator for training human hand palpation and needle insertion motor skills in lumbar puncture medical procedure using two haptic device for medical students and physicians. This virtual reality environment simulates the human hand palpation and needle puncture with visual and haptic feedback. In this work, we studied lateral haptic model for rendering human hand palpation and layered haptic model for lumbar needle puncture. We have developed a training simulator for detecting the lumbar position and spinal needle insertion skills for lumbar puncture that can be demonstrated as a concept prototype to the medical haptic simulations.

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2018

Book Chapter

A. Balakrishnan, Sheshadri, S., Nagarajan, A., Unnikrishnan, R., Kongeseri, S., and Rao R. Bhavani, “Role of ICT in Enhancing Scale, Quality, and Reach of TVET in India”, in Handbook of Vocational Education and Training: Developments in the Changing World of Work, S. McGrath, Mulder, M., Papier, J., and Suart, R., Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 1–19.[Abstract]


India's skill requirement calls for millions of individuals to be formally trained and qualified for employment. What underlies an acknowledged dearth of skilled labor, impeding India from reaching its potential, are issues of quality, standardization, and accessibility to skill development, especially to and within existing vocational training programs. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) reiterated the urgent need for improved inclusion in skill development among socially and economically vulnerable groups to strengthen the prospect of decent employment and income generation, as indicated in the sub-goal of SDG 4 on quality education. Skill development practitioners and academicians recognize information communication and technology (ICT) as a critical component in addressing issues of inclusivity, quality, and standardized skill development. Discussion of ICT-integrated TVET primarily takes place in the context of formal training; however, a significant portion of skill development in India takes place along the lifelong learning continuum, outside of the formal context. This chapter, therefore, takes a wider perspective to review how ICT is reforming TVET delivery practices in India across formal, nonformal, and open and distance learning settings.

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2017

Book Chapter

Rao R. Bhavani, Sheshadri, S., and Maciuika, L. Aswati, “Addressing the First Teachers: Education and Sustainable Development for Children, Families and Communities Through Vocational Education, Technology and Life Skills Training for Women”, in Children and Sustainable Development: Ecological Education in a Globalized World, A. M. Battro, Léna, P., Sorondo, M. Sánchez, and von Braun, J., Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 319–334.[Abstract]


Supporting children's education and development has long been a focus of institutions and non-profit organizations in developing countries. Mounting evidence from developmental psychology and neuroscience continues to point to a child's environment, including resources and quality of caregiver interaction, as critical to healthy development in childhood and into adulthood. Since mothers most often serve as a child's first teachers in shaping a child's cognitive-emotional learning and values, empowering women also can support higher quality development for children. Amrita University's AMMACHI Labs addresses children's first teachers through empowering women with a multidisciplinary, computerized approach to vocational training and skill development, including life skills training, and personal and community development. This paper presents a case study of AMMACHI Labs' WE: Sanitation Project with rural women in India, supporting sanitation, skills, and increased capacity through skills training in toilet building, hygiene education, and life skills training, leading to increased participation in the family, community and economy.

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