Qualification: 
Ph.D, M.Tech, B-Tech
manjulagnair@am.amrita.edu

Dr. Manjula Nair is a Professor and the Chairperson of the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the Amrita School of Engineering at the Amritapuri Campus of Amrita Viswa Vidyapeetham. Her research focuses on Electric Power Quality Improvement. Dr. Nair’s work on the I.Cosɸ Control Algorithm for Active/Hybrid filtering of current harmonics at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi for her Ph. D. Thesis has fetched her many publications and is well recognised. Her earlier work mainly focussed on FACTS & Power Quality-Auto-tuned-Passive/Active/Hybrid Filtering units for Current/Voltage Harmonics, Design and Development of Controllers for these Filtering Units, FACTS Devices, Fuzzy and ANN Controllers for power applications, Custom Power Parks and Custom Power Devices and Control. Dr. Nair worked on the funded project on Digital Hybrid Filtering for Power Quality Improvement, funded by Department of Science and Technology(DST), Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD), Government of India.

Her current research is on Electric Vehicles – V2G, G2V, V2V, on-board integrated charging, wireless charging, eV charging stations and Hybrid Energy Storage Systems(HESS) for eV. Smart Buildings- Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), Zero Net Energy Buildings (ZNEB) and Smart Devices. Smart Grids- Power flow control in Smart Micro Grids, Intelligent Self-Healing systems based on Multi Agent Systems, IoT applications in Smart Grid Protection and Stability, Ship-board Smart Micro Grids, Smart Metering, Smart sensing and Control, HESS, Micro Grids and Smart Transformers. Renewable Energy Systems- Grid Integration of RES through Shunt Active Filters, Grid Integration of RES through eV Charging Stations, MPPT Controllers for RES, Micro-Algae fuel cells and Microbial Fuel Cells. Hybrid Energy Storage systems, Intelligent Controllers, AI/IoT/MAS applications in Electric Power Grids. She is working on different funded projects in the areas of eV-Grid Integration, Smart Grids and RES-Grid Integration.

Dr. Manjula Nair received the Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and Master of Technology in Electric Power Systems from the University of Calicut with distinction. She earned her Ph. D. in Power Electronics and Drives from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. Dr. Nair joined as Faculty in Amrita School of Engineering's Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in 1995 after a brief two years’ teaching position at the Amrita Institute of Computer Technology.

Dr. Nair serves as a reviewer of research publications of IEEE Transactions in Industrial Electronics, Power Delivery, Smart Grids and many Elsevier journals. She also serves as an AICTE authorised reviewer for STTPs and other funded project proposals.

Education

  • Ph. D., Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi (2007).
  • M. Tech., University of Calicut, Kerala (2000).
  • B. Tech., University of Calicut, Kerala (1992).

Research & Publications

Dr. Nair works on Electric Vehicles – V2G, G2V, V2V, on-board integrated charging, wireless charging, eV charging stations and Hybrid Energy Storage Systems(HESS) for eV. Smart Buildings- Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), Zero Net Energy Buildings (ZNEB) and Smart Devices. Smart Grids- Power flow control in Smart Micro Grids, Intelligent Self-Healing systems based on Multi Agent Systems, IoT applications in Smart Grid Protection and Stability, Ship-board Smart Micro Grids, Smart Metering, Smart sensing and Control, HESS, Micro Grids and Smart Transformers. Renewable Energy Systems- Grid Integration of RES through Shunt Active Filters, Grid Integration of RES through eV Charging Stations, MPPT Controllers for RES, Micro-Algae fuel cells and Microbial Fuel Cells. Hybrid Energy Storage systems, Intelligent Controllers, AI/IoT/MAS applications in Electric Power Grids. She is working on different funded projects in the areas of eV-Grid Integration, Smart Grids and RES-Grid Integration.

Her earlier work mainly focussed on FACTS & Power Quality-Auto-tuned-Passive/Active/Hybrid Filtering units for Current/Voltage Harmonics, Design and Development of Controllers for these Filtering Units, FACTS Devices, Fuzzy and ANN Controllers for power applications, Custom Power Parks and Custom Power Devices and Control. Dr. Nair worked on the funded project on Digital Hybrid Filtering for Power Quality Improvement, funded by Department of Science and Technology(DST), Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD), Government of India.

  • Electric Vehicles:
    • eV-Grid Integration in an EVCS infrastructure with IoT applications
    • Development of an Improvised Traction Drive Topology with on-board Integrated battery charging scheme
  • Smart Buildings, Zero Net Energy Building:
    • A Multi-Objective Optimization Controller for Energy Management in Zero Net Energy Buildings
  • Smart Grids:
    • An Intelligent Instrumentation and Communication Network in Smart Grids
    • Energy Storage and Management in Smart Micro-Grids – Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
    • An Intelligent Controller for Power Flow management in a Smart Micro-Grid System with Power Quality Enhancement
    • Distributed and Parallel Control of Smart Micro-Grid Systems with Security Enhancements to Cyber Threats
    • A Multi-Agent-System based Self-Healing Protection in Smart Grids
    • IoT based Intelligent Protection and Stability in Smart Grids o Home Energy Management Systems
    • Smart Transformers
  • Renewable Energy Systems:
    • Grid-Integration of RES with Power Quality Improvement
  • FACTS & Power Quality:
    • Shunt active Filter for Power Quality Improvement
    • Hybrid Filter with auto-tuned passive filter and shunt active filter
    • Hybrid Filter with Digital Control
    • Design and development of a Mini Custom Power park with Power Quality Improvement
Year of Publication
Title

2017

P. K. Preetha, S. Babu, S., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “DC link voltage regulation in active filter using drainage power from distribution transformer”, in 1st IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, ICPEICES 2016, 2017.[Abstract]

Non-linear loads constitute a major part of loads in the modern industrial and commercial utilities. They inject harmonics to the system and the normal delta-star distribution transformer traps the injected triple-n harmonics in the primary delta winding. This leads to the deterioration and reduction in the life of transformer. Hence, a three winding star-star-delta-utilized transformer is used to trap this harmonic or drainage power in the non-linear power system. This drainage power can be used to power auxiliary loads connected across the tertiary delta winding. Also, drainage power recovery makes the system performance better as triple-n harmonics are eliminated from supply line. For balanced and unbalanced secondary non-linear loads, the tertiary power can be recovered. Also, it can be stored in rechargeable batteries to power regulated loads. In this paper, the use of battery stored drainage power for the voltage regulation in shunt active filters is being discussed. The shunt active filter using Icosφ algorithm provides better harmonic elimination of non-linear load. When a load fluctuation occurs, the dc link capacitor voltage in the filter also fluctuates. Usually, the power needed for voltage regulation is supplied by the grid. In the proposed system, the drainage power stored in the battery is used for the voltage regulation. For using shunt active filter in the YYD-utilized transformer system, the control algorithm of the filter needs to be modified in order to sustain the triple-n harmonics in the system. The power recovered from triple-n harmonics can be stored in a battery and can be further used as the energy storage element of the filter. Results analyzed using MATLAB/SIMULINK reveals that the YYD-utilized system along with shunt active filter gives better utilization of drainage power and the overall system provides harmonic elimination. © 2016 IEEE.

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2017

V. Raveendran, Krishnan, N. N., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Active power compensation by Smart Park in DC metro railways”, in 1st IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, ICPEICES 2016, 2017.[Abstract]

Smart Park associated shunt active filter has the potential to support the main grid with respect to harmonic, reactive and active power needed by the load. By incorporating modified Icos - controller, active power support capability of Smart Park is studied in accordance with the SOC of master battery and the source current as constraints. The results of simulation prove the effectiveness of active power compensation capability of Smart Park together with harmonic and reactive power compensation for a 750V DC metro traction system. © 2016 IEEE.

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2017

P.N. Seema, Deepa, V., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Implementation of consumer level intelligence in a smart micro-grid along with HEMS based price prediction scheme”, in 1st IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, ICPEICES 2016, 2017.[Abstract]

The consumer demand is increasing day-by-day with the emergence of new technologies for human comfort. The growing demand is expeditiously leading to the depletion of resources and increasing tariff. The improvised structure of the conventional grid namely, smart grid is rapidly gaining attention with its scheme for efficient meeting of the growing demand and the integration of renewables. The implementation of smart grid requires extensive communication methodology and structured control strategy. In this paper, the controls over the smart grid have been segregated into three as primary, secondary and tertiary. This paper deals with the intelligence associated with the primary and secondary levels placed in regard with the consumer and micro-grid operation. A price prediction scheme as a part of Home Energy Management System (HEMS) has also been designed to increase the consumer awareness. The role of the consumer as well as micro-grid in intelligent demand management has been demonstrated in this paper through simulations in MatLab using fuzzy logic. This system was also verified in hardware and the implementation details have been provided. © 2016 IEEE.

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2017

V. C. J. Sankar, Sreehari, P., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Day Ahead Optimal Scheduling of an Islanded Urban Micro Grid with Distributed Active Generator Units”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

A micro grid is a network of electricity consumers with one or more local power sources that is usually attached to a main grid and can function independently. An Islanded micro grid usually consists of both renewable as well as conventional energy resources which operate independently from main grid. Even though renewable sources are ecofriendly their power generation is highly affected by changing weather conditions. Supplying electrical energy in response to demand variations is arduous. An islanded urban ac micro grid is considered where the total load is optimally shared among PV based active generators (AG), Micro gas turbines (MGT) and Diesel generator (DG). Objective is to have an optimal load sharing between MGTs and DGs. The optimization problem is treated as a unit commitment problem and its solution is figured out using dynamic programming based on day ahead PV production and demand forecast. Simulations are performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. A single phase islanded urban microgrid is developed in hardware consisting of an active generator unit with its controller. Charge and discharge control of active generator unit with long term and short term storage devices (Battery and Supercapacitor) is achieved via bidirectional buck boost converters.

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2017

P. K. Preetha, Athul, M. V., Nair, P. S. C., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Waste Harmonic Power Recovery from Distribution Transformer and its Controlled Consumption with Battery Support”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

The increasing usage of non-linear loads in power distribution system has led to several power quality issues. The triplen harmonics due to non-linear loads are trapped in the primary delta winding of conventional delta-star configured distribution transformer. This unrecovered harmonics is usually wasted in the form of heat leading to excessive power loss and reduced life of transformer, and this wasted power is termed as drainage power. The recovery of drainage power is possible with star-star-delta_utilized distribution transformer. In this configuration, the power due to circulating harmonics can be recovered across the zero potential terminal of the delta winding. The extracted power is characterized by variable voltage and frequency. This paper presents the recovery of harmonic power from delta winding of star-star-delta_utilized configuration transformer and its controlled consumption with battery support for feeding the load. The powering of load and battery charging are with reference to State of Charge (SoC) of Lead-acid battery and the harmonic current magnitude in the tertiary.

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2017

D. Madathil, Pandi, V. R., K. Ilango, and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Differential Evolution based Energy Management System for Zero Net Energy Building”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

Zero Net Energy Building (ZNEB) is a new concept trending in the recent years which focus on energy efficient technologies for the implementation of smart buildings. The building sector contributes largely towards the growing energy needs and increased carbon footprints. Hence ZNEBs are promoted around the world as they help maintain annual zero net energy in the building which means that the overall energy generated through renewable technologies is equal to the energy consumed. In this paper, a Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm based grid connected ZNEB is designed to minimize electrical energy cost in the residential building by optimally scheduling the loads. The paper also aims to obtain a modified DE for better solutions.

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2017

R. S. Sreeleksmi, Ashok, A., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “A Fuzzy Logic Controller for Energy Management in a PV — Battery based Microgrid System”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

For integrating renewable energy resources such as PV to a microgrid there requires an efficient energy management strategy due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources. An energy storage system such as battery storage system is always used along with PV as an auxiliary energy source. In this paper we propose a fuzzy based controller for the energy management in a PV-Battery based microgrid. Depending on the availability of PV power, Battery State of Charge(SoC), Load the fuzzy logic controller will take the decision and corresponding switching signals will be produced.

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2017

V. C. J. Sankar, Hareesh, V., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Integration of Demand Response with Prioritized Load Optimization for Multiple Homes”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

Demand response is emerging as a powerful tool for optimal load management in smart grid environment. This work aims to improve the efficiency of demand response by classifying them into three based on the supply-demand characteristics as natural DR, mandatory DR and emergency DR. The master controller acts as the backbone of the network generating the required demand response signals and receiving the response of the end users by establishing a two way communication between master controller and end users. The devised methodology for optimal demand response is simulated in MATLAB/ Simulink taking into consideration a network of four houses, each with their smart meter and managed by a master controller. Simulation incorporated the functions of Home Energy Management System (HEMS), which is a major feature of the Smart Grid along with demand response

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2017

R. Divya, Nandukrishnan, S. M., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Hardware Implementation of Power Sharing and Power Quality Improvement for Grid Integration of Microgrid”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

Microgrid is an integration platform for supply-side, storage units and demand resources located in a local distribution grid. A microgrid is typically located at the low voltage level with total installed micro generation capacity below the MW range. A microgrid should be capable of handling both normal state (grid-connected) and emergency state (islanded) operation In this paper the integration of two microgrids with a main grid is discussed along with methods for reduction of various the power quality issues such as harmonics produced by the nonlinear loads using power quality methods. There numerous filtering techniques that are used for the reduction of harmonic issues, which includes IcosΦ, synchronous reference frame, synchronous detection etc. In this paper the integration of main grid with two microgrids were simulated with improved power quality by using modified IcosΦ algorithm. Based on the obtainability of power in each microgrid and the tariffs a MATLAB program was developed based on which the switching of the two microgrids will. It was found that the THD values where reduced and the microgrids were able to switch between each other based on the obtainability of power and the tariff. The results are obtained in MATLAB Simulink and the THD values are measured and power quality issues were found to be reduced. Hardware has been implemented in analog system and results were observed.

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2017

V. Raveendran, R. Divya, Chandran, P. C. S., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Smart Level 2 DC Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Improved Grid Stability Sand Battery Backup”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

The population of Electric Vehicle (EV) is tremendously increasing with the increase in fuel price and decrease in availability. As the number of EV increases, along with that the number of EV charging stations should also increase, which constitute a considerable charging impact on the grid from which the supply is taken. In this paper, in order to reduce this charging impact and its after effects, a topology for EV charging station is proposed which also promote the use of EVs. The proposed topology mainly consists of a charging station powered by the grid as well as the storage integrated solar PV system and a controller. The grid dependency of the charging station is reduced by using a renewable energy source (Solar PV) and for improving the system reliability a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is incorporated. The control technique helps to reduce the charging impact on the grid by controlling the charging current as per the system conditions. To make the EV Charging Station (EVCS) more customized, three different options (Quick, Green and Budget) for charging are given such that the customer is free to choose one among them according to his requirement. The cost of charging will vary according to the selected mode of charging. A smart Electric Vehicle charging station is designed and the charging current control in various grid conditions are tested and verified by u sing MATLAB Simulink model and the obtained results are included.

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2017

V. Raveendran, Krishnan, N. N., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Vehicle-to-grid Support by Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Operated at Airports and Metro Rail Stations”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

Electric Vehicle (EV) is anticipated to play an important role in urban transport in near future. The passion in the minds of many researchers for an eco-friendly transport medium with reduced dependency on fossil fuels have sparked a large-scale research shift towards EV and its promotion. It is one of the solutions for major issues owing to urban transport such as deteriorating air quality, rising green-house gas emissions and noise pollution. With the popularization of EVs, the research on EV charging stations (EVCS) has also boosted up and global standards have been set for charging with the help of EV manufacturers. This work aims at contributing towards the application of these EVCS installed at various locations in providing Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) support along with vehicle charging to support the grid during different requirements. A specific c ase of EVCS i nstalled at Kochi Metro Rail System has been simulated where vehicle charging, harmonic elimination, and reactive power compensation is studied and the results are explained with the help of waveforms. A hardware setup has also been used to verify the simulation results.

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2017

M. K. Kumar, Kailas, T. S., K. Ilango, and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Fuzzy Control based Biogas IC Engine Generator System in a Residential Building”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

Biogas is a fuel which has promising characteristic of replacing conventional fossil fuels. Because of this more and more ways of effectively utilizing biogas should be implemented. This paper proposes the simulation study of a biogas fed internal combustion engine that is capable of producing electricity by running a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The engine is being controlled to a set speed by a speed controller. For providing continuous supply of biogas a storage tank at the outlet of an anaerobic digester is proposed. The proposed storage tank will have monitoring mechanism so that whenever the tank is being depleted the IC engine is shut off and when there is sufficient concentration of biogas it will provide an availability indication. Together with this a supervisory controller will monitor the system and control of the PMSG generation into a dc bus through power electronic interface.

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2017

S. Anoop, K. Ilango, Nandagopal, J. L., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Implementation of a Load Side Management Algorithm for an Islanded Microgrid Powered by Renewable Energy Sources”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

The replacement of conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, by renewable energy sources is today's necessity due to the environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels. Renewable energy sources have to be encouraged more in power generation, which is the major consumer of fossil fuel. But a trade-off between the consumption and generation has to be considered for a sustainable, efficient and greener power system. This paper proposes the load side management of a stand alone residential building. Automation has included in the system to make the overall system an economical and efficient one. A load scheduling scheme has proposed based on the load profiles of the system. The overall load side management algorithm has been validated using simulation and hardware prototype model. MATLAB and C programming has been used for simulation and Atmega 2560 for hardware implementation

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2017

P. T. Pillai, Sreelekshmi, R. S., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “A PV Panel Model Considering Temperature and Irradiance Effect on Panel Resistances”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]

The global energy apetite is exponentially increasing at an alarming pace. The total demand cannot be fulfilled by the existing generating systems and hence dependence on renewable energy sources are predominant. Solar energy is a novel trend and could satisfy global apetite. Due to fluctuating operating condition MPP vary and MPPT algorithm are required. In this paper a novel MPPT methodology is introduced and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK

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2017

D. Aiswarya, K. Ilango, and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “A Comparative Performance Analysis of PV Grid Interface STATCOM Control Algorithms”, in 2017 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT), 2017.[Abstract]

Integration of non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Resources (RES) to the utility grid is one of the challenging issue faced by the power system engineers. The quality of power supplied to the customer, power system security and protection are few of the major issues that hinders the development of more efficient control logic in integration of renewable energy sources to the grid. The integration unit of RES with additional features can mitigate the power quality issues present in the grid such as current distortion, voltage distortion, current and voltage harmonics issues etc,. In this work a STATCOM unit is chosen as the interfacing unit with two different control algorithms to verify their performance in different modes of operation such as day time mode with real power sharing from RES to grid with power quality improvement and night time mode without real power sharing from RES to grid with power quality improvement. The proposed STATCOM interface unit PV system has been modeled and results are validates using MATLAB (2015) simulation platform.

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2017

V. C. Sankar, Raghunath, J., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Optimal Scheduling and Energy Management of a Residential Hybrid Microgrid”, in 2017 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies”, i-PACT 2017, 2017.

2017

V. C. J. Sankar, Sreehari, P., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Optimal Scheduling of an Islanded Urban Micro Grid”, in 2017 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT), 2017.[Abstract]

A micro grid is a small-scale power grid that can operate independently or in conjunction with the area's main electrical grid. Islanded micro grid may consist of both renewable as well as conventional energy resources. Power generation greatly depends on weather conditions. Supplying electrical energy in response to demand variations is a challenging task. An islanded urban ac micro grid is considered where the demand requirements are met by PV based active generators (AG), Micro gas turbines (MGT) and Diesel generators (DG).A portion of the total load is taken care of by Active Generators and the remaining part will be supplied by MGTs and DGs. Objective is the optimal load sharing between MGTs and DGs in the most economical way. The optimization problem is approached as a unit commitment problem based on day ahead PV generation and Load forecast. Basic simulations are performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK

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2017

V. C. Jishnu Sankar, Haritha, G., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Thyristor Switched Smart Transformer for Active Power Flow Control in Multi Micro grid System”, Energy Procedia, vol. 117, pp. 1007 - 1014, 2017.[Abstract]

An intentional active power flow control between microgrids in a multi micro grid system in the grid connected mode is achieved at the point of common coupling. The thyristor controlled on load tap changing transformer at the point of common coupling is equipped with voltage based power flow controller where different tapping are switched according to the required power flow condition to be satisfied and the amount of power to be transmitted. Accordingly, the voltage based droop control associated with the distributed generation units in each of the micro grid changes their active power generation. Thus, without much communication to other elements of the micro grids, the Smart Transformer at the point of common coupling allows active power exchange. The simulations performed in MATLAB/ SIMULINK for both three phase and single phase system follows that active power flow control is achieved in a multi micro grid system using the thyristor switched Smart Transformer. Hardware implementation has also been initiated to analyze the concept of power flow control with thyristor switched Smart Transformer and results are studied. The proposed system shows its operational effectiveness, which can be employed to solve grid emergencies in real time.

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2017

K. Rakhi, Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and Ilango, K., “Hardware Implementation of Solar Photovoltaic System Based Half Bridge Series Parallel Resonant Converter for Battery Charger”, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1622-1630, 2017.

2017

S. Anoop, K. Ilango, Nandagopal, J. L., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Load Side Management of an Automated Residential Building Powered by Renewable Energy Sources”, in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES), 2017.[Abstract]

As a solution to the emerging energy crisis and the environmental problems, renewable energy has to be utilised to the most. This paper deals with a residential building which is fully powered by renewable energy sources such as hydrogen fuel cell, IC engine and solar PV. Since the utility has no role in this scenario, the management of the system has to be done precisely, otherwise, it may lead to the entire system failure. The control and monitoring of the building's load, from a load point of view, by utilising weather data, load profile, source availability, etc. have been discussed in this paper. An automated building has been considered in this paper to ensure energy conservation and reliability. The proposed algorithm has been validated using MATLAB and C Programming.

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2016

M. P.V. and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Performance Analysis of Different Custom Power Devices in Power Park”, in 2016 - Biennial International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy, PESTSE 2016, 2016.[Abstract]

This paper discubes about the various custom power devices used in custom power park. The custom power plant ensures the delivery of high grade of power to customers. The performance of shunt active filter, DVR, SSTS, pabive filter and overall CPP controller are analyzed. Simulation is carried out using Matlab Simulink platform. The control algorithm used for shunt active filter and DVR are ICosO and IRPT respectively. A shunt pabive filter is designed to eliminate the lower order harmonics so that the rating of shunt active filter can be reduced considerably. The controller for SSTS is based on voltage detection scheme. The voltage of preferred and alternate feeders are sensed and given to the overall controller of custom power park.

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2016

Sreelekshmi R.S., Prasad, A., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Control and operation of microgrid connected Hybrid Energy Storage System”, in 2016 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability, ICEETS 2016, 2016, pp. 356-360.[Abstract]

The high penetration of the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) can create stability, reliability and power quality problems in the main electrical grid due to their stochastic nature. Microgrids can be analysed as a solution capable of guaranteeing a controlled injection of energy generated by the renewable energy technologies. The use of storage system in a MG plays an essential role in order to ensure energy balance and in maintaining high power quality. Due to the technical limitations of the currently available storage systems, it is necessary to use more than one storage technology to satisfy the requirement of microgrid applications. In order to satisfy the above constraints, this paper proposes the association of a supercapacitor (SC) and a lithium ion battery in a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS). A novel control strategy is adopted for the control of the HESS. Hierarchical control is used for the control of the inverter in islanding and grid connected mode. Self synchronization control ensures smooth transition between islanded and grid connected modes. Simulation of the system is carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. More »»

2016

J. S. V. C., G., H., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Smart Transformer Based Power Flow Control in Multi Microgrid System”, in 2016 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), 2016, pp. 366-371.[Abstract]

In order to increase the flexibility of a microgrid, the active power exchange between a microgrid and the utility grid as well as other microgrids need to be controlled properly. The voltage based control of a Smart Transformer allows the control of active power flow between a utility grid and a microgrid at the point of common coupling (PCC). This paper addresses the control of the active power flow between two microgrids in an islanded mode and also between two microgrids in the grid connected mode with and without encouraging the participation of the utility grid. Here, we utilize the voltage based control on a thyristor controlled on load tap changing transformer which makes the Smart Transformer concept even more smart. The thyristor based Smart Transformer at the PCC enables faster switching and minimizes the arcing problems of a normal on-load tap changing transformer. The distributed generation units in the microgrid should be equipped with a voltage-based droop control strategy which reacts on the voltage change, making the Smart Transformer an element that controls power exchange without the need for any communication to other elements in the microgrid. The experimental simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK follow that a smart transformer allows the power flow control between two microgrids.

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2016

D. R, K. Ilango, S, D., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Tariff Based Fuzzy Logic Controller for Active Power Sharing between Micro-grid to Grid with Improved Power Quality”, IEEE International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), Nagarcovil. Nagarcovil, pp. 406-409, 2016.

2016

S. M. R, Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and S, S., “Photovoltaic Based Adaptive Shunt Hybrid Filter for Power Quality Enhancement”, in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), 2016.[Abstract]

Power electronic controller based power system equipment are widely used in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. These controllers help in energy saving, but they introduce different power quality issues such as harmonic distortions in current and voltage, voltage sag/swell etc. These power quality issues cause malfunctioning of associated circuits. This paper presents an adaptive shunt hybrid filter where voltage support for DC link capacitor is provided by solar photovoltaic source which improves the power quality by eliminating current harmonics, and improving the power factor. With the help of suitable control algorithm, the filter achieves capability of real power pumping to the grid in addition to harmonic and reactive compensation. The simulation results are carried out with three phase non-linear loads under balanced and/or unbalanced source/load conditions. The results obtained are satisfactory which depicts the effectiveness of the control algorithm and improvement in the power quality with Solar Photo Voltaic integration

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2016

V. Raveendran, Krishnan, N. N., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Smart Park as a Shunt Active Filtering System in Metro Railways”, in 2016 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), 2016.[Abstract]

Electric Vehicle charging station (Smart Park) when modified as a shunt active power filter(SAF) effectively compensates for active, reactive and harmonic power requirements of the load. Analysis of the Smart Park SAF system equipped at a dc metro traction substation is done here. Smart Park shunt active filter provides the compensation by using Icosφ algorithm. Simulations have been performed in matlab for 750 V DC metro traction nonlinear load. The simulation results substantiate the feasibility of grid support by Smart Park for a metro rail system.

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2016

S. P. N, V, D., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Consumer Level Intelligence in a Smart Micro-Grid”, in 2016 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), 2016.[Abstract]

Reckless consumption of electric power by the consumers is one of the main reasons of depletion of resources (coal, petroleum) and increasing tariff. To improve the current statistics of distribution and consumption the Smart grid brought out a scheme providing the consumer higher control over the power generation and distribution thus increasing the responsibility of the consumer making them more vigilant and providing for sustainable development. Smart Grid improvises the conventional grid on various levels which calls forth the requirement for sophisticated controls carried out in various levels namely, primary, secondary, and tertiary. This paper deals with the intelligence associated with the primary and secondary levels placed in regard with the consumer and micro-grid operation. The role of the consumer as well as micro-grid in intelligent demand management has been demonstrated in this paper through simulations in MatLab using fuzzy logic.

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2015

P. Anu, Divya, R., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “STATCOM Based Controller for a Three Phase System Feeding Single Phase Loads”, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy, TAP Energy 2015, 2015, pp. 333-338.[Abstract]

Majority of loads connected in the power system are single phase loads. Large concentration of single phase non-linear loads will inject harmonics in to the system and create unbalance in the source current. Most of these loads consume more reactive power and thus increases feeder losses and reduces active power flow capability of the system. In this paper, a STATCOM based controller for a three phase system feeding single phase loads is presented. The objectives of the controller in the system is to compensate the inductive loads to obtain nearly unity power factor, balance the source currents by cancelling the effect of unbalanced loads and to filter out the load harmonic currents in order to form a sinusoidal supply current. Single phase synchronous reference frame theory based algorithm is used for generating the reference source currents. A simulation model of the system is developed in MATLAB SIMULINK and tested with linear and non-linear loads under balanced and unbalanced conditions. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

L. S. Stanly, Divya, R., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System with Shunt Active Filtering Capability Under Transient Load Conditions”, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy, TAP Energy 2015, 2015, pp. 345-350.[Abstract]

This paper discusses about the active filtering capability that can be incorporated in grid connected photovoltaic systems by proper control of the grid interfacing inverter. Improved Linear Sinusoidal Tracer Algorithm is used for generating the reference signals to control the inverter so that the system feeds the available photovoltaic energy into the grid, provides reactive power compensation and harmonic elimination of the loads connected at the point of common coupling. The controller is tested in MATLAB/SIMULINK for linear and nonlinear loads. The simulation results demonstrate the efficient working of grid connected photovoltaic system as Shunt Active Filter. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

M. P.V., Raji, S., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Performance Analysis of Different Control Algorithms for Series active Filter”, in Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, 2015.

2014

Ma Aiswarya, K. Ilango, P.V., M., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Simulation Analysis of Modified DC Bus Voltage Control Algorithm for Power Quality Improvement on Distributed Generation Systems”, in IEEE-International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems (PESTSE2014), Amrita School of Engineering, Bangaluru, 2014.[Abstract]

This paper presents a control strategy for shunt active filter interface for distributed generation scheme without degrading the power quality in the grid. The control strategy used enhances the performance of shunt active filter by sharing active power being generated from distributed generation to grid as well as load in addition to regular functions such as current harmonic elimination, reactive power compensation, power factor correction. The modified control algorithm is designed and analyzed for non-linear load using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results shows good performance of controller for power quality improvement of distributed generation system interfaced through shunt active filter. © 2014 IEEE.

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2014

K. Rakhi, K. Ilango, Manjunath, H. V., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Simulation Analysis of Half Bridge Series Parallel Resonant Converter Based Battery Charger for Photovoltaic System”, in IEEE-International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems (PESTSE2014), Amrita School of Engineering, Bangaluru, 2014.[Abstract]

An innovative application of half-bridge series-parallel resonant converter (HBSPRC) for photovoltaic system and secondary battery interface is explained in this paper. This converter is designed for eliminating both low and high-frequency current ripples on the battery. This will helps to maximize battery life. The switching frequency greater than that of resonance frequency is preferred for operation, because the power switches turn on at zero current and zero voltage; thus, the freewheeling diodes need not have very fast reverse-recovery characteristics. Moreover the proposed battery charger circuit has a few components. To enhance the overall efficiency of the system energy conversion loss is to be minimized and the performance of the power converters depends upon the control method adopted. In this present work, Fuzzy logic based voltage controller and PI voltage controller have been designed, modeled and simulated in MATLAB/simulink platform and results are presented. © 2014 IEEE.

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2014

V. Raveendran and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “SmartPark as Shunt Active Filter using modified ICosφ controller”, in 2014 Power and Energy Systems Conference: Towards Sustainable Energy, PESTSE 2014, Bangalore, 2014.[Abstract]

This paper describes the use of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (SmartParks) as Shunt Active Filters (SAF) to provide Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) services to the grid such as reactive power compensation and harmonic elimination. The bidirectional converters used in these parks are used to charge the batteries during off-peak hours, support the grid by providing compensation when demanded and also supply the stored renewable energy to the grid if the parks use solar energy for charging. The complete simulation of the hysteresis current controlled voltage source converter (VSC) acting as SmartPark is presented using modified ICosΦ controller. Simulations are performed in MATLAB for inductive and non-linear loads under steady state as well as transient conditions. Simulation results demonstrate the viability of this simple and efficient controller to be used as SAF. © 2014 IEEE.

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2014

D. Madathil, K. Ilango, Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and V. S. Kirthika Devi, “Voltage Flicker Mitigation in Electric Arc Furnace using D-STATCOM”, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), vol. 5, pp. 211–218, 2014.[Abstract]

The major power quality issue of voltage flicker has resulted as a serious concern for the customers and heavy power companies. Voltage flicker is an impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light source whose luminance fluctuates with time. This phenomenon is experienced when an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) as load is connected to the power system. Flexible AC transmission devices (FACTS) devices were gradually utilized for voltage flicker reduction. In this paper the FACTS device of Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM) is used to serve the purpose of mitigating voltage flickering caused by electric arc furnace load, which is efficiently controlled by Icosɸ control algorithm. The model of electric arc furnace is considered as a current source controlled by a non linear resistance, which had been simulated and performance was analyzed using MATLAB/SIMULINK Software.

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2014

Dr. Manjula G. Nair, Sindhu, M. R., and Nambiar, T. N. P., “Dynamic Power Quality Compensator with an Adaptive Shunt Hybrid Filter”, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 508-516, 2014.

2014

V. Raveendran and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Vehicle-to-grid Transactions and Shunt Active Filtering Capability of SmartParks Equipped with Modified ICosФ Controller”, in 2014 IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, 2014.[Abstract]

This paper discusses about vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services such as reactive power compensation and harmonic elimination by employing the converters used in electric vehicle charging stations (Smartparks) as shunt active filters (SAF). Batteries can be charged using the bidirectional converters during off peak hours. The parks can supply stored energy to the grid if they have excess solar energy for charging and also support the grid by providing compensation. By incorporating modified ICosΦ algorithm the complete simulation of hysteresis current controlled voltage source converter (VSC) acting as a Smartpark is presented. For inductive and non-linear loads simulations have been performed in Matlab under steady state and transient conditions. The feasibility of this simple and efficient controller to be used as SAF is demonstrated by the simulation results.

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2012

K. Ilango, Bhargav, A., Trivikram, A., Kavya, P. S., Mounika, G., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Performance Comparison of Shunt Active Filter Interfacing Algorithm for Renewable Energy Sources”, in IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES 2012), Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bengaluru, 2012.[Abstract]

The renewable energy source interfacing with grid is the major issue in the electric utility side. The various types of grid interfacing converter topology have been proposed by researchers to improve quality of power and efficiency of the system. This paper focuses the shunt active filter interface for the renewable energy source with an efficient modified IcosΦ algorithm for controlling the grid /source side power flow and renewable energy power with linear static loads. The proposed shunt active filter interfacing algorithm is compared with the well known algorithm of Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (IRPT) with modifications for reactive power compensation and real power control from the renewable energy source. The performance of the both the algorithms have been simulated and tested in MATLAB/Simulink. More »»

2012

K. Ilango, .A, B., .A, T., .P.S, K., .G, M., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Power Quality Improvement Using STATCOM with Renewable Energy Sources”, IEEE -5th India International Conference on Power Electronics, (IICPE 2012), IEEE PELS – IES Delhi Chapter & IEEE PES-IAS Delhi Chapter. Delhi Technological University, Delhi, 2012.

2012

K. Ilango, Ram, S., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “A hybrid photovoltaic-battery powered DC-DC converter with high conversion ratio and reduced switch stress”, in IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES 2012), Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bengaluru, 2012.[Abstract]

In this paper, a new hybrid photovoltaic-battery powered DC-DC converter topology is proposed. The proposed topology is realized by cascading buck-boost converter with high step-up converter. High voltage conversion ratio has been achieved using hybrid switched capacitor technique. This proposed topology limits the voltage stress across the semiconductor devices to half of the output voltage. A 400W hybrid photovoltaic-battery powered system with 220V DC output is designed and simulation results have been verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK. More »»

2012

K. Ilango, P.V., M., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “An Enhanced Controller for Shunt Active Filter Interfacing Renewable Energy Source and Grid”, in India International Conference on Power Electronics, IICPE2012, IEEE 5th India International Conference on Power Electronics, Kathmandu, 2012, pp. 305-310.[Abstract]

Developing efficient interfacing technologies to interconnect renewable energy sources with grid is a promising research area in renewable energy related applications. The interfacing unit becomes crucial as renewable energy sources when directly connected to grid, can inject harmonic components that may deteriorate the quality of power. This paper proposes a mechanism to use shunt active filter as an interface between renewable energy sources and grid with a modified and efficient control scheme. The shunt active filter with this modified controller controls the real power supplied by the grid (source) in addition to its usual functions such as reactive power compensation, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. Performance of the modified IcosΦ controller is compared with that of IRPT control algorithm. Two nonlinear loads are considered here namely AC voltage controller as soft starter for induction motor and a diode bridge rectifier feeding resistive load. Simulation of proposed system proves the effectiveness of using a shunt active filter as the interfacing unit for grid integrated renewable energy systems. ©2012 IEEE.

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2012

K. Ilango, P.V., M., and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “An Enhanced Controller for Shunt Active Filter Interfacing Renewable Energy Source and Grid”, in Sustainable Energy Technologies (ICSET), 2012 IEEE Third International Conference on, 2012.[Abstract]

Develoving efficient interfacing technologies to interconnect renewable energy sources with grid is a promising research area in renewable energy related applications. The interfacing unit becomes crucial as renewable energy sources when directly connected to grid, can inject harmonic components that may deteriorate the quality of power. This paper proposes a mechanism to use shunt active filter as an interface between renewable energy sources and grid with a modified and efficient control scheme. The shunt active filter with this modified controller controls the real power supplied by the grid (source) in addition to its usual functions such as reactive power compensation, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. Performance of the modified Icosφ controller is compared with that of IRPT control algorithm. Two nonlinear loads are considered here namely AC voltage controller as soft starter for induction motor and a diode bridge rectifier feeding resistive load. Simulation of proposed system proves the effectiveness of using a shunt active filter as the interfacing unit for grid integrated renewable energy systems.

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2011

Dr. Sindhu M. R., Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and Nambiar, T. N. P., “An ANN Based Digital Controller with Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Power Quality Improvement”, International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 2837–2845, 2011.

2009

S. MR, Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and Nambiar, T. N. P., “An ANN Controlled Three-Phase Auto-Tuned Passive Filter for Harmonic and Reactive Power Compensation”, Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 9, 2009.[Abstract]

Automatically tuned passive filters can improve power quality to a great extent in power systems. A novel three-phase shunt auto-tuned filter is designed to effectively compensate source current harmonics and to provide reactive power required by the non-linear load, which draws a highly reactive, harmonic-rich current from the supply. An artificial neural network (ANN) based controller selects filter component values in accordance with reactive power requirement and harmonic compensation. Traditional passive filters are permanently connected to the system and draw large amounts of source current even under light load conditions. By using auto-tuned filters, the passive filter components can be controlled according to load variations and, hence, draw only required source currents. The selection is done by the ANN with the help of a properly tuned knowledge base to provide instantaneous compensation using a digital controller

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2008

Ga Bhuvaneswari, Charles, Sa, and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Power quality studies on a soft-start for an induction motor”, in Transmission and Distribution Exposition Conference: 2008 IEEE PES Powering Toward the Future, PIMS 2008, Chicago, IL, 2008.[Abstract]

Three-phase induction motor of ratings beyond 50 kW take very large low power factor currents while being started directly from a 3-phase supply. Normally soft-starts are used for avoiding this problem and to achieve smooth starting of large capacity induction motors. A 3-phase AC voltage controller is employed as a soft-start. But, this takes harmonic-rich current especially while operating at large firing angles. In this paper, the effect of inserting a shunt active filter to provide harmonic and reactive power compensation in a soft-start has been studied. The shunt active filter has been inserted between the AC voltage controller and power supply to take care of the reactive power requirement of the motor and AC voltage controller and also to provide harmonic compensation. Both simulation hardware studies have been done on a 22 kW induction motor with and without soft-start arrangement. The shunt-active filter uses the IcosΦ control algorithm for calculating the compensation currents. The results with the insertion of shunt active filter show a substantial reduction in the current drawn from the source and its harmonic content. This will be a very useful scheme especially in industries where multiple induction motors of large capacity are frequently started from a 3-phase supply. ©2008 IEEE.

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2008

M. R. Sindhu, Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and Nambiar, T. N. P., “An ANN based digital controller for a three-phase active power filter”, in 2008 Joint International Conference on Power System Technology POWERCON and IEEE Power India Conference, POWERCON 2008, New Delhi, 2008.[Abstract]

Three-phase shunt active power filters are designed to effectively compensate for the current harmonics and reactive power requirements in a three-phase system with harmonic loads. An ANN (artificial neural network) based controller selects the amount of harmonic current injection based on the percentage of harmonic distortion present in the source current and also on the reactive power requirement of the load. The selection is done by the ANN with the help of a properly tuned knowledge base. © 2008 IEEE. More »»

2008

G. Bhuvaneswari and Dr. Manjula G. Nair, “Design, Simulation, and Analog Circuit Implementation of a Three-phase Shunt Active Filter using the I cos Φ Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 23, pp. 1222-1235, 2008.[Abstract]

A three-phase shunt active filtering algorithm based on the real component of fundamental load current I cos φ has been proposed and implemented in a novel manner in this paper. The complete simulation and hardware implementation of the active filter (AF) with the proposed algorithm has been presented. Simulations have been performed for various dynamic operating conditions under balanced/unbalanced nonlinear reactive loads for both balanced as well as unbalanced/distorted source conditions. The AF has been realized by means of a hysteresis current-controlled voltage-source inverter (VSI). The experimental setup is controlled by making use of simple op-amp-based analog circuits and digital signal processor ADMC401. Experimental results have been obtained for different load and source conditions and discussed in detail. The response of the AF system in simulation as well as in hardware proves the effectiveness of the proposed control technique

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2006

Dr. Manjula G. Nair and Bhuvaneswari, G., “A Novel Shunt Active Filter Algorithm: Simulation and Analog circuit-based Implementation”, International journal of energy technology and policy, vol. 4, pp. 118–125, 2006.[Abstract]

Active power filters are widely accepted and implemented as a reliable means for solving power quality problems and supplying clean power to the end user. In this paper, a novel three-phase shunt active filtering algorithm is proposed and simulated. The control algorithm is implemented in hardware using simple analog circuits using only a few operational amplifiers. The simulation results and the experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. The simplicity and compactness of the hardware circuits involved are an added advantage to the proposed algorithm as compared to other conventional algorithms.

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2006

G. Bhuvaneswari, Dr. Manjula G. Nair, and S. Reddy, K., “Comparison of Synchronous Detection and I. Cos #x003D5; Shunt Active Filtering Algorithms”, in Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, 2006. PEDES '06. International Conference on, 2006.[Abstract]

In this paper, two shunt active filtering algorithms, namely, synchronous detection technique and newly proposed I.cosϕ algorithm have been simulated and implemented in hardware and a comparison has been brought out. The proposed algorithm is found to work satisfactorily under various system operating conditions. The hardware implementation of both the schemes have been done and the proposed scheme is found to be simple and working satisfactorily

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2005

Dr. Manjula G. Nair and Bhuvaneswari, G., “Design, Simulation and Analog Circuit Implementation of a Three-phase Shunt Active Filter using the Icos φ Algorithm”, in 2005 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drives Systems, 2005.[Abstract]

Fine-tuning of the active filtering techniques have always been the focus of many researchers in the area of active power filters for proper power quality mitigation in retrofit systems. In this paper, the newly proposed Icosφ algorithm is applied to a three-phase shunt active filter to provide harmonics' and reactive power compensation as demanded by the non-linear reactive load. The design is verified in simulation as well as implemented in hardware using simple analog circuits and results are compared.

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2004

Dr. Manjula G. Nair and Bhuvaneswari, G., “Analog Circuit Based Implementation of Novel Current Compensation Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filters”, IASTED International Conf. On Power and Energy systems. Florida, USA, 2004.

2002

Dr. Manjula G. Nair and Nambiar, T. N. P., “Fuzzy logic based facts controller for damping oscillations”, in Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference, Yokahama, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 2019-2022.[Abstract]

This paper describes the modeling and fuzzy based control to enhance the dynamic stability of a single machine connected to a large system through flexible ac transmission system. A linear model of a synchronous machine with excitation system characterized by a single time constant and gain is adopted for this purpose. The synchronous machine is described in terms of six parameters derived on the basis of operating conditions and line reactance. The flexible ac transmission system adjusts the line reactance by turning on/off series capacitance added to the transmission line. The effect of change in line reactance on the parameter values of the machine model is found and the most sensitive parameters are identified. The response of the machine for different disturbances and natural damping coefficients is evaluated by modifying the most sensitive parameters using the fuzzy knowledge-based FACTS controller. The simulation studies bring out the effectiveness of the control scheme. More »»
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