Qualification: 
Ph.D
krm_vijaya@cb.amrita.edu

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M. currently serves as Assistant Professor at Department of Electrical and Electronics, School of Engineering, Coimbatore Campus. Her areas of research include Power System.

Dr. K.R.M. Vijaya Chandrakala joined Amrita School of Engineering in the year 2009. She did her B. Tech., from NSS College of Engineering and M. Tech., in Electrical Power Systems from Trichur College of Engineering, Kerala.

She has been awarded with the  Ph. D. Degree from Anna University, Chennai, during the year 2013 on Load Frequency Control of Multi Source Multi Area Hydro Thermal System using Soft Computing Techniques and FACTS Devices. She has two years of teaching experience in postgraduate programs and eleven years in undergraduate programs.

Dr. K. R.M. Vijaya Chandrakala is a project group member in DST - VINNOVA Smart Grid project with KTH, Sweden. She has published 06 Articles in peer reviewed impact factor International Journals out of which one is Elsevier. She has also published 09 articles in International / National Conferences.

She has attended several short term courses, seminars and conducted FDP on MATLAB for the faculty and student members and delivered several lectures for the faculty, student members (UG/PG) within campus and outside in the area of Electrical Engineering, Power Systems and Soft Computing Techniques. Her research interest includes Power System Control, FACTS Devices and Soft Computing Techniques to Micro and Smart Grid.

Dr. K. R.M. Vijaya Chandrakala is a Technical Reviewer of Electrical Power Components and Systems, Taylor and Francis and International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing Journals.

She has guided several undergraduate and postgraduate projects in inter disciplines and intra University of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham under the area of Power Systems,  Power Electronics, FACTS Devices, Embedded Systems, Bio-medical Instrumentation and Soft Computing Techniques.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Balamurugan S., Janarthanan, N., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Small and large signal modeling of heavy duty gas turbine plant for load frequency control”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 79, pp. 84 - 88, 2016.[Abstract]


In this paper, the transfer function model of heavy duty gas turbine has been developed for doing load frequency control studies. Based on the large signal model of Rowen, small signal model has been developed. This model is much suitable for doing Automatic Generation Control. Proportional integral and derivative secondary controller has been developed for both the small and large signal models to improve the system response. Ziegler Nichols’ method, Simulated Annealing and Fuzzy Gain Scheduling have been used for tuning the secondary controller. Ziegler Nichols’ method is used as conventional tuning, whereas Simulated Annealing is a search based tuning and Fuzzy Gain Scheduling is adaptive. It is found that Simulated Annealing tuned Proportional Integral Derivative Controller yields better response than other two controllers in both large signal and small signal model of heavy duty gas turbine plant. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M. and Dr. Balamurugan S., “Simulated annealing based optimal frequency and terminal voltage control of multi source multi area system”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 78, pp. 823 - 829, 2016.[Abstract]


The article proposes optimal secondary controller for combined Load Frequency Control (LFC) and Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR) of multi source multi area system using simulated annealing technique. When subjected to load disturbance, frequency, tie-line power and voltage fluctuations results higher oscillations. Speed governor of the system helps to match generation with the demand. But, fine tuning of frequency, tie-line power and voltage when subjected to load disturbance in multi source multi area system is achieved by secondary Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. As a conventional benchmark \{PID\} controller is tuned using Zeigler Nichol’s (ZN) method and further optimized using Simulated Annealing (SA) technique. The performance of the system is validated and judged using performance indices. More »»

2016

Journal Article

M. P. Pranitha and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Optimal capacitor placement based improved reliability assessment of a distribution system”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2016.[Abstract]


This paper focuses to reduce the real power losses in a real-time radial distribution system by performing Optimal Capacitor Placement (OCP) using Genetic Algorithm (GA), thereby enhancing the reliability of the entire system. Reliability analysis on Amrita power house II, Amrita University, Ettimadai campus, Coimbatore operating at 22kV/415V system is carried out using ETAP software. System status subjected to different failures as ca se studies are considered. System performance is analyzed using Adaptive Newton Raphson method. Suggestions for suitable placement of capacitor banks with optimal size and cost is proposed by performing OCP using GA. Comparison of the results of reliability analysis is done with and without capacitor placement. Optimal capacitor placement helps in achieving optimal cost with suitable size and location of the capacitor bank, which is evident from the report obtained from the ETAP software. Out of load bus and breaker failure condition, the predominant remark was the considerable increase in real power loss of the overall system. Thus, the optimal capacitor placement found to be the most suitable solution for reduction of real power losses in a radial distribution system. Results of analysis illustrates that the increased value of sustained interruption system indices like System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI), System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) and preferably Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI) indicates that the system is highly unreliable without capacitors. The results obtained after capacitor placement indicates reduction in real power losses and thus decrease of reliability indices value. The expected energy that is not getting supplied to the consumer can be estimated and the cost incurred for loss can be reduced with the reliability assessment. Thus long and short term planning could be carried out. Improvements can be done by including more system reliability assessment indices. Total cost incurred due to unreliable condition of the system can be found out. This work would allow further extension by introducing FACTS devices for reliability enhancement.

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2016

Journal Article

L. R Priya, Subi, S., Vaishnu, B., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Study on Characterization of River Sand as Heat Storage Medium”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2016.[Abstract]


The article focuses towards the study and characterization of the river sand suitability for high temperature thermal energy storage. The study is carried out preferably on the specific heat capacity of the river sand. A river sand sample from the banks of cauvery having the smallest grain size has been chosen. The sample undergoes the tests namely; Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Detailed analysis is carried out to observe the sample’s change in weight when subjected to heating. FTIR analyzes the chemical groups present in the sample and DSC helps to identify its specific heat capacity which could justify the effect of thermal storage. TGA analysis showcased 1.013% of change in the sample weight during the first cycle of heating. However, during further heating cycle’s negligible change in weight is observed. Therefore, same sample could be used for several heating cycles without the need for replacement. The reason behind the weight loss was later examined by FTIR analysis. It is observed that the carbonate compound present in the sample was missing after heating. This test justifies the absence of carbonate compound presence after the heating process. The specific heat capacity of sand was found to be 1041 J/Kg/K by DSC analysis. The observed value of specific heat capacity of sand shows its superiority over the conventionally used high temperature thermal storage medium mainly molten salt and synthetic oils. The observation shows the heated sample with agglomeration due to the presence of other impurities and a considerable color change was observed. River sand is tested for its thermal characteristics and studied for the first time to the best of knowledge which the researchers are still at the finding stage. The specific heat capacity observed in the river sand makes its suitable for high temperature thermal energy storage in Concentrated Solar Power Plants (CSP).

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2014

Journal Article

S. Balamurugan, Shanthini, B. M., Lekshmi, R. R., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Fuzzy Based Tariff”, Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 10, pp. 465 - 471, 2014.[Abstract]


In deregulated and smart grid system, time based tariff is implemented using complex communication system. This time based tariff depending on market clearing price initiates demand management. Moreover, the consumer supporting the utility by adopting demand management technique is not benefited directly by the utility. In this paper, tariff is locally decided by the smart meter based on change in frequency and change in demand using Fuzzy logic. Based on the relation between change in frequency and change in demand with tariff, fuzzy rules are developed. On implementing fuzzy based tariff, the consumers supporting utility by doing demand management gets more benefited without using the complex communication network. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] More »»

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Balamurugan, S., Janarthanan, N., and Anand, B., “Variable structure fuzzy gain schedule based load frequency control of non-linear multi source multi area hydro thermal system”, International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 6, p. 785, 2014.[Abstract]


The article focuses on the issues of Load Frequency Control (LFC) under non-linear strategies in multi source multi area hydro thermal system. On practical perspective dead band, boiler dynamics, reheat steam turbine along with hydro turbine operating under two different area capacities are considered in the system. When subjected to random load variations in both the areas, the system exhibits higher oscillations. The speed governor matches the generation with the demand. The offset in the area frequencies and tie-line power is removed by using secondary Proportional Integral (PI) controller. The PI controller is tuned using Ziegler Nichols’ (ZN) and Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) method. The influence of high Proportional (P) controller gain during steady state and high Integral (I) controller gain during transient affects the system performance. Variable Structure System (VSS) helps to switch from P to PI controller during transient to steady state based on control error. The concept of VSS is applied to Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) PI controller. The performance of the optimal Variable Structure Fuzzy Gain Scheduled (VSFGS) controller under non-linear environment is judged and validated using performance indices. More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, Kb, “Variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling based load frequency controller for multi source multi area hydro thermal system”, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 53, pp. 375-381, 2013.[Abstract]


In this paper, variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling is proposed for solving the load frequency control problem of multi source multi area hydro thermal power system. The two control areas are connected via tie line. Each area comprises of both hydro and thermal power plant. The area frequency and tie line power oscillates during load variations are controlled by primary governor controller and secondary Proportional Integral (PI) controller. The PI controller gains are tuned using Ziegler Nichols' (ZN) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA). ZN method is for conventional bench marking and GA is based on search in the space. In both the methods, the gain values of PI controllers are fixed for any system changes and it is not acceptable. This problem is overcome by scheduling the gain based on system changes using Fuzzy Logic. Finally, Variable Structure System of switching P to PI controller during transient to steady state is integrated with fuzzy gain scheduling. On evaluating all the controller performance based on performance indices, variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling provides better response for multi source multi area hydro thermal power system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2012

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, Kb, “Development of variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling controller for an interconnected power system”, International Review on Modelling and Simulations, vol. 5, pp. 2228-2234, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper investigates on enhanced Load Frequency Control of two-area hydrothermal power plant when subjected to unit step load disturbance. The frequency and tieline power deviations are controlled using conventional Proportional and Integral controller tuned using Zeigler Nichols' method. By switching the controller action during transient and steady state period using Variable Structure System, the performance is improved. Fuzzy Gain Scheduling further improves the system performance by changing the proportional and integral gain according to the variations in the power plant. Finally, Variable Structure Fuzzy Gain Scheduling Controller is developed by integrating Fuzzy in Variable Structure System Controller resulting better controller action during transient and steady state period. The performance of these controllers is judged using Integral Time Absolute Error and Integral Time Squared Error techniques. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

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2012

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, Kb, “Genetic algorithm tuned optimal variable structure system controller for enhanced load frequency control”, International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 4105-4112, 2012.[Abstract]


In this paper, the Load Frequency Control (LFC) is enhanced with optimal gains of the Variable Structure System (VSS) Controller tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA). For analysis, two-area thermal and hydrothermal power plants are considered in this paper. Conventionally, Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is used to control frequency and tie-line power deviations. To improve the PID control action during transient and steady state period, the PID controller is replaced by VSS Controller. The gains of the controllers are tuned using Zeigler Nichols' (ZN) and further with GA optimization technique. The performance of the controller is judged using Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) method. On analysis, it is observed that frequency and tie-line power deviations are improved using GA tuned VSS controller. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All right reserved.

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2012

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Damping of tie-line power oscillation in interconnected power system using variable structure system and unified power flow controller”, Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 8, pp. 85-94, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper focuses on systematic approach towards damping the tie-line power oscillations in an interconnected thermal power plant using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) with Variable Structure System (VSS) Controller. Conventionally, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is carried out by primary governor control and secondary Proportional-Integral (PI) controller. PI controller helps to damp out tie-line power and frequency oscillations when subjected to unit step load disturbance. Ziegler Nichols' (ZN) method is used in tuning the gains of conventional PI controller and VSS controller. Optimal switching of VSS controller is carried out by the performance indices. UPFC based damping controller helps to stabilize the tie-line power oscillations of power system. The simulation indicates reduced frequency and tieline power transient with much faster settling time is obtained by using UPFC along with secondary VSS controller. © JES 2012.

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2010

Journal Article

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Automatic Generation Control for Hydrothermal Plant with Variable Structure System Controller and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage”, Journal of Automation and Systems Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 142–153, 2010.[Abstract]


This paper focuses on controlling the hydrothermal plant using Variable Structure System (VSS) controller and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit. The Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of hydrothermal plants is conventionally done by Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, which yields desired response too. For, further improvement of transient and steady state response, the conventional PI controller is replaced by Variable Structure System (VSS) controller. Ziegler Nichols’ (ZN) method is used in tuning the gains of conventional PI controller and VSS controller. The system response in terms of transient and steady state is much improved while using VSS controller than conventional PI controller. The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit being a frequency stabilizer which helps to damp out frequency oscillations much faster, is used along with the Variable Structure System (VSS) controller for controlling the hydrothermal power plant. The simulation response shows that the hydrothermal system with Variable Structure System (VSS) controller and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit exhibits better frequency and tie line power performance.

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Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2014

Conference Paper

Dr. Balamurugan S., NAMBIAR, T. N. P., Janarthanan, N., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Laboratory model to teach power system stability”, in 2014 IEEE International Conference on MOOC, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2014.[Abstract]


To teach and demonstrate the Power System Stability aspects to the undergraduate students, a laboratory model has been developed. Computer based simulation software's are used to teach different aspects of power system by most of the Institutions. These simulation studies often do not demonstrate the physical sense of power system behavior to students. Moreover, making the students to visualize the effect of instability is a very big challenge faced by the teaching community. This paper describes the experimental set up built in the Electrical Engineering Department of Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, consisting of an alternator connected to infinite bus through parallel transmission lines. In this experimental setup, the generator is brought to instability by changing the operating conditions. Further, the oscillation is controlled and brought back to stability by controlling the excitation and line reactance. This gives the clear idea about stability and its enhancement to the students.

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2014

Conference Paper

G. N. and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “A novel technique for optimal vehicle routing”, in 2014 International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), 2014.[Abstract]


This paper proposes a novel approach in finding an optimal solution for vehicle routing. The intention here is to find the shortest time path between different points. Dijkstra's algorithm is a very popular technique used in communication networks for data routing and in path planning of robots. Normally the implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm involves initialization of weights depending upon a particular cost metric, namely, distance. Based on an analysis of these weights, a choice of right path is made. This conventional approach states that the shortest path will take minimum time to travel. However this may not always be true. Even depending on the traffic conditions prevailing at that particular instant, the time taken may vary. The proposed work takes into consideration the traffic density in a particular path which influences the time taken for travel and then suggests an optimal path. The results are validated using concepts of Object Oriented Programming and tested in a hardware environment using PIC16F877a micro controller. More »»

2013

Conference Paper

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., Selvakumar, S., and R Xavier, J., “Fuzzy Gain Schedule and Genetic Algorithm based PI controller for Gas Turbine Plant”, in X National Conference on Control Instrumentation System Conference (CISCON-2013), Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 2013.

2012

Conference Paper

Dr. Balamurugan S., Selvakumar, S., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Improvement of transient stability of the power system using small Magnetic Energy Storage”, in IEEE-International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM -2012), 2012, pp. 68-71.[Abstract]


Power system is a huge labyrinth of generation, transmission and large scale distribution of electrical power. Disturbances in the power system cause ineffective transfer of power and create problems to system stability. With the advancement of superconducting technology, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage device (SMES) can be used in stabilizing the system. In this paper the effects of SMES on Single Machine connected to Infinite Bus bar system, is studied. The SMES unit dampens the power system oscillations and improves the dynamic performance. More »»

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2014

Conference Proceedings

Na Gayathri and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Embedded driver assistance system for effective dynamic vehicle routing”, International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 182-187, 2014.[Abstract]


This paper proposes a prototype of a system that considers the real time traffic scenario on the road to implement dynamic vehicle routing. Conventionally, a path which is shorter in distance is considered to take minimum travel time. However, this need not always be true. Depending upon the traffic density prevailing on the road at the given instant, the travel time may vary. The proposed system is developed with the help of a data fusion algorithm. The data fusion algorithm is prepared based on the information obtained from a mathematical model developed using Dijkstra's Algorithm and from Image Processing based on real time scenario. The entire system is made stand alone by using eBox. At the end of computation, the system provides assistance to the driver in choosing the path that would take minimum time for travel. © 2014 IEEE.

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