Qualification: 
Ph.D
krm_vijaya@cb.amrita.edu

Dr. K. R. M. Vijaya Chandrakala currently serves as the Assistant Professor (Selection Grade) in the Department of Electrical and Electronics, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore Campus. Her areas of research include Power System Control, Deregulated Power System, FACTS Applications to Power Systems, Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicle Applications and Soft Computing Applications in Power Systems.

Dr. K.R.M. Vijaya Chandrakala joined Amrita School of Engineering in the year 2009. To her credit, she has produced 31 articles in scopus indexed international journals and conferences out of which 7 articles are science indexed journals.

She has executed project titled “Development of State Estimator for Power System” under Amrita Internal Seed Grant during 2016-2017. She has attended several short term courses, seminars and conducted FDP on MATLAB for the faculty and student members and delivered several lectures for the faculty, student members (UG/PG) within campus and outside in the area of Electrical Engineering.

Dr. K. R.M. Vijaya Chandrakala is a Technical Reviewer of IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems – Elsevier, Energy Conversion and Management - Elsevier, Energy – Elsevier, Electrical Power Components and Systems- Taylor and Francis and International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing Journals. She was awarded as Outstanding Reviewer – Elsevier Journals (International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Energy Conversion and Management, Energy) in 2017 and 2018.

Publications

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Title

2018

S. A, S, P., K, S., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Simulated Annealing Based Fractional Order PID Controller for Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Plant”, in Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology – RTEICT-2018, Sri Venkateshwara College of Engineering, Bengaluru, 2018.

2018

A. A. and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Hybrid Energy Storage System For an Electric Vehicle Powered by Brushless DC Motor”, in 2018 International Conference on Control, Power, Communication and Computing Technologies (ICCPCCT), 2018.[Abstract]


This paper gives an account on a hybrid energy storage system with Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor for an Electric vehicle. It is interconnected with a bidirectional DC-DC converter and the simulation results are obtained and tested for a small scale level. Battery can provide for longer all electric range depending on the battery capacity but has lesser efficiency when used under highly loaded conditions which leads to high thermal stress and decreases the life of the battery, which can be taken care of by supercapacitor. Simulation is done in MATLAB/ Simulink which has three modes of operation which includes powering the electric vehicle run on Brushless DC motor with both the energy storage devices and power management between them.

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2018

P. Kiran, Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., and Nambiar, T. N. P., “Multi-agent based systems on micro grid - A review”, in Proceedings of 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control, I2C2 2017, 2018, vol. 2018-January, pp. 1-6.[Abstract]


The intelligence required for the smart operation of micro grid can be realized by using Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). Micro grids will be an integral part of future electricity grid offering integration of DERs, advanced storage and demand management. This paper presents a detailed survey and review report of Multi-Agent based systems on Microgrid. Various advantages and challenges on Multi-Agent Technology in research years is discussed. This survey report will help the researchers to know the recent developments undertaken in this application. © 2017 IEEE.

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2018

R. N. Jenipher and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Magnetically controlled reactor based harmonic and voltage profile improvement in long transmission lines”, in 2017 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies, i-PACT 2017, 2018, vol. 2017-January, pp. 1-6.[Abstract]


The two aspects of power transmission that goes hand in hand, is the voltage control and the reactive power flow. Voltage control is very important in a transmission line to ensure system security, stability and reliability. The under consumption or over consumption of reactive power at load side, effects the voltage profile, which may lead to Ferranti effect, heating of lines, insulation failure. Since it is not always possible to change the nature of load, power compensation circuits are established. These circuits employ inductors (consumes reactive power), capacitors (generates reactive power) and power electronic switches (controls). Here; comes the advent of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices for reactive power compensation. The commonly used FACTS devices for reactive power compensation are Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR), Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC), Static Var Compensator (SVC), and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM). In this paper, characteristics of a new FACTS device named magnetically controlled reactor (MCR) design is drawn out and its harmonic and voltage profile is compared with TCR using MATLAB/Simulink. © 2017 IEEE.

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2017

P. Kiran, Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., and NAMBIAR, T. N. P., “Day ahead market operation with agent based modeling”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]


This paper analyses the deregulated electricity market by using an open source software namely Agent based Modeling of Electricity Systems (AMES). DC Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF) method is used for calculating the real power flow during the market operation. The whole electricity market is managed by the Independent System Operator (ISO) which computes the hourly Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and commitments of power exchange for day-ahead market operation. For the analysis and demonstration, a 3 bus system is considered and market operation is illustrated.

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2017

K. Arya and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Fuzzy logic controller based instantaneous p-q theory for power quality improvement”, in 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy), 2017.[Abstract]


This paper gives a solution for suppression in harmonics and compensates the reactive power present in a system. For the study, system considered for analysis is of three phase source feeding power to a non-linear and reactive loads. Diode bridge rectifier acts as non-linear load in parallel with a reactive load connected to the supply. Non-linear load creates problems on power quality and reactive power imbalance is created by reactive load. And, these issues can be mitigated through usage of power filters. Shunt Active Filter (SAF) with instantaneous reactive power control method is adopted in this work to mitigate the power quality issues. To maintain the DC link capacitor voltage constant, fuzzy logic controller is developed. The fuzzy logic controller with the instantaneous reactive power controls the DC link capacitor voltage thus would be helpful to suppress the source harmonics and reactive power compensation.

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2017

Dr. Balamurugan S., S., R. Shree, and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Congestion Management for Multi Area Deregulated Power System Using Price Area Concept”, in IEEE International Bienial Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy, 2017.[Abstract]


Congestion management is controlling the power flow in transmission line within the steady state stability limit. In deregulated power system, both economics and system security should be considered while managing the transmission line congestion. Price area congestion management technique is the one that not only relieves transmission line congestion but also provides maximum benefit to the stakeholders. The price area concept adopts different pricing for each area rather than fixing same price for all the areas. Different area pricing without congestion is achieved by increasing the price in deficit area and decreasing the price in surplus area. In this paper, control strategy based on price area congestion management for a three area system is developed. The control strategy is tested on a three area system operating in all possible combinations of contract. The test results prove that the control strategy based on price area concept relieves congestion without affecting the net surplus of the generation and distribution companies.

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2016

Dr. Balamurugan S., Janarthanan, N., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Laboratory Model to Teach Surge Impedance Loading”, in 2016 - Biennial International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy, PESTSE 2016, 2016.[Abstract]


This paper explains the development of laboratory model to teach Surge Impedance Loading to the undergraduate students. Simulation software used for teaching power systems fails to give physical sense to the students. The scaled down model of transmission line is developed at the Electrical Engineering development of Amrita school of Engineering, Coimbatore. The flat voltage profile is observed in the line when the line is loaded to Surge Impedance Loading. Further the Surge Impedance Loading and phase shift are studied during series and shunt compensation. Shunt capacitor compensation improves only Surge Impedance Loading but increases the phase shift. Series capacitor compensation improves Surge Impedance Loading and also stability by decreasing the phase shift. © 2016 IEEE.

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2014

S. Balamurugan, Janarthanan, N., Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., and Lekshmi R. R., “Laboratory Model for Teaching Real Power Flow Control in Transmission Line”, in 2014 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Technology for Education, 2014.[Abstract]


This paper explains the experiments developed in the laboratory to teach undergraduate students the different aspects of power system operation and control. Simulation software are used in most of the colleges to teach different aspects of power system. Students feel difficult to understand the power system behavior in physical sense. This paper describes a model power system built in the Electrical Engineering Department of Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore. The model consists of two bus system connected by two parallel transmission lines. The power flow in the transmission line is controlled by varying voltage magnitude, line reactance, passive and active series compensation.

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2014

N. Gayathri and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Embedded driver assistance system for effective dynamic vehicle routing”, in 2014 International Conference on Embedded Systems (ICES), 2014, pp. 182-187.[Abstract]


This paper proposes a prototype of a system that considers the real time traffic scenario on the road to implement dynamic vehicle routing. Conventionally, a path which is shorter in distance is considered to take minimum travel time. However, this need not always be true. Depending upon the traffic density prevailing on the road at the given instant, the travel time may vary. The proposed system is developed with the help of a data fusion algorithm. The data fusion algorithm is prepared based on the information obtained from a mathematical model developed using Dijkstra's Algorithm and from Image Processing based on real time scenario. The entire system is made stand alone by using eBox. At the end of computation, the system provides assistance to the driver in choosing the path that would take minimum time for travel.

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2014

G. N. and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “A novel technique for optimal vehicle routing”, in 2014 International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), 2014.[Abstract]


This paper proposes a novel approach in finding an optimal solution for vehicle routing. The intention here is to find the shortest time path between different points. Dijkstra's algorithm is a very popular technique used in communication networks for data routing and in path planning of robots. Normally the implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm involves initialization of weights depending upon a particular cost metric, namely, distance. Based on an analysis of these weights, a choice of right path is made. This conventional approach states that the shortest path will take minimum time to travel. However this may not always be true. Even depending on the traffic conditions prevailing at that particular instant, the time taken may vary. The proposed work takes into consideration the traffic density in a particular path which influences the time taken for travel and then suggests an optimal path. The results are validated using concepts of Object Oriented Programming and tested in a hardware environment using PIC16F877a micro controller. More »»

2014

Dr. Balamurugan S., NAMBIAR, T. N. P., Janarthanan, N., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Laboratory model to teach power system stability”, in 2014 IEEE International Conference on MOOC, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2014.[Abstract]


To teach and demonstrate the Power System Stability aspects to the undergraduate students, a laboratory model has been developed. Computer based simulation software's are used to teach different aspects of power system by most of the Institutions. These simulation studies often do not demonstrate the physical sense of power system behavior to students. Moreover, making the students to visualize the effect of instability is a very big challenge faced by the teaching community. This paper describes the experimental set up built in the Electrical Engineering Department of Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, consisting of an alternator connected to infinite bus through parallel transmission lines. In this experimental setup, the generator is brought to instability by changing the operating conditions. Further, the oscillation is controlled and brought back to stability by controlling the excitation and line reactance. This gives the clear idea about stability and its enhancement to the students.

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2013

S. Selva Kumar, Dr. Balamurugan S., Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., and R. Joseph Xavier, “Fuzzy Gain Schedule and Genetic Algorithm based PI controller for Gas Turbine Plant”, in X National Conference on Control Instrumentation System Conference (CISCON-2013), Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 2013.

2012

S. Selva Kumar, Dr. Balamurugan S., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Improvement of transient stability of the power system using small Magnetic Energy Storage”, in IEEE-International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM -2012), E.G.S Pillay Engineering college, Tamil Nadu, 2012, pp. 68-71.[Abstract]


Power system is a huge labyrinth of generation, transmission and large scale distribution of electrical power. Disturbances in the power system cause ineffective transfer of power and create problems to system stability. With the advancement of superconducting technology, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage device (SMES) can be used in stabilizing the system. In this paper the effects of SMES on Single Machine connected to Infinite Bus bar system, is studied. The SMES unit dampens the power system oscillations and improves the dynamic performance.

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Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2018

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M. and Dr. Balamurugan S., “Adaptive neuro-fuzzy scheduled load frequency controller for multi source multi area system interconnected via parallel ac-dc links”, International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 479-490, 2018.[Abstract]


The article focuses towards the development of an optimal secondary controller which could adapt with the varying system conditions to maintain the frequency and tie-line power flow variations within the nominal value. For the analysis, a two area multi source system consisting of thermal, hydro and nuclear system in one area is interconnected with another area comprising of thermal and hydro system via parallel AC-DC links. On subjection to unit step load change in demand, the impact on frequency and tie-line power flow variations in multi source multi area is observed under MATLAB/Simulink environment. The fine tuning of frequency and tie-line power flow variations is achieved with the help of secondary controller. Optimal secondary Proportional Integral (PI) controller is chosen based on Zeigler Nichols’ (ZN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) tuning techniques. On subjection to different load variations at different intervals of time, ANFIS tuned PI controller has retained the frequency and tie-line power variations for a robust multi source multi area system interconnected via parallel AC-DC links in a much faster way to its nominal values than other methods. The performance of the controller is evaluated based on performance indices.

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2017

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Voltage source inverter based static synchronous series compensator for improved available transmission capability in a transmission line”, International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 407-417, 2017.[Abstract]


This paper deals with the active power flow control in a transmission line thus improving Available Transmission Capability (ATC) using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC). For the analysis, a generator supplying two parallel transmission lines connected to a load as 2-bus system is considered. When the load increases, active power flow in the transmission lines is shared based on their limits depending on ATC which is based on power handling capacity according to the demand. Therefore, for effective control of the active power flow considering the power handling capacity, SSSC is connected in series with one of the transmission lines. SSSC controls the active power flow in transmission line by injecting voltage in quadrature to the line current. SSSC designed in this work is a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) which provides pulses and would help to inject the required voltage in quadrature to the line current. The PWM pulses of the VSI based SSSC is generated by dsPIC microcontroller. SSSC is modeled under both MATLAB / Simulink environment and implemented on a scaled down model of 150 km, 15.6 mH transmission lines connected in between generator and load. More »»

2017

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Teja, K. R., Kumar, N. S., Raghavendra, P. V. P., and Majji, L. S. Bhaskar, “Fabrication of high efficient dye sensitized solar cell using eosin blue sensitizer”, International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 9, pp. 185-194, 2017.[Abstract]


For past several decades research in the field of photovoltaic has progressed from first generation solar cell to third generation solar cell. The dominance of solid state device which converts photons to electrons is a new challenge in technologies. In this work, a high efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is fabricated. DSSC is easy to fabricate solar cell among the conventional pn-junction photo voltaic solar cells and even it is eco-friendly. A typical DSSC suffers from semiconductor liquid junctions and therefore concerns of electrolyte volatility and breakdown persists. By optimizing the sintering time, temperature, proper choosing of different types of sensitizer/dyes and the electrolyte, improves the efficiency of DSSC. It focuses towards developing DSSC on a small scale with the glass plates as electrodes coated with Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and graphite. The plates are conducting which are coated with Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO). To enhance the absorption power of the glass plates Eosin blue is chosen as a dye. These electrodes are placed in an electrolyte made up of Lithium Iodide (LiI) and Iodine (I). The electrical conduction mechanism of the fabricated DSSC is studied at 50 lux and also tested with cascaded series cell connection.

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2016

D. Raj, Bhoopathi, A., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Effect of Salt Gradient Pond for Thermal Energy Storage”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 150-155, 2016.[Abstract]


The effect of two main parameters in a solar pond are top layer area and bottom layer thickness. These parameters are considered and studied under experimental setup of salt gradient pond and its significant role in thermal energy storage. Two vessels of different radius are used, in order to understand the effect of different top layer area. As the area of the top layer and the thickness of the bottom layer in a pond increases, the stored energy is also found increasing.

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2016

C. K. K., A., V., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “The Impact of Salt Concentration on Thermal Energy Storage in Solar Pond”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 156-160, 2016.[Abstract]


This paper emphasize the effect of salt concentration on thermal energy storage in terms of temperature rise. Increase in temperature at different layers of the solar pond has direct indication on the effect of salt concentration. On experimental set up of solar pond with the salt concentration varied in the range of 160-250g by adding the water stored in the pond is analyzed. The temperature measured at different concentration of salt helps to extract sensible heat which could as energy storage. The analysis is carried out to determine the characteristics of different layers in the solar pond by varying salt concentration. Temperature Vs time behavior of the solar pond on varying concentration of salt is verified experimentally by plotting its characteristics.

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2016

L. R Priya, Subi, S., Vaishnu, B., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Study on Characterization of River Sand as Heat Storage Medium”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2016.[Abstract]


The article focuses towards the study and characterization of the river sand suitability for high temperature thermal energy storage. The study is carried out preferably on the specific heat capacity of the river sand. A river sand sample from the banks of cauvery having the smallest grain size has been chosen. The sample undergoes the tests namely; Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Detailed analysis is carried out to observe the sample’s change in weight when subjected to heating. FTIR analyzes the chemical groups present in the sample and DSC helps to identify its specific heat capacity which could justify the effect of thermal storage. TGA analysis showcased 1.013% of change in the sample weight during the first cycle of heating. However, during further heating cycle’s negligible change in weight is observed. Therefore, same sample could be used for several heating cycles without the need for replacement. The reason behind the weight loss was later examined by FTIR analysis. It is observed that the carbonate compound present in the sample was missing after heating. This test justifies the absence of carbonate compound presence after the heating process. The specific heat capacity of sand was found to be 1041 J/Kg/K by DSC analysis. The observed value of specific heat capacity of sand shows its superiority over the conventionally used high temperature thermal storage medium mainly molten salt and synthetic oils. The observation shows the heated sample with agglomeration due to the presence of other impurities and a considerable color change was observed. River sand is tested for its thermal characteristics and studied for the first time to the best of knowledge which the researchers are still at the finding stage. The specific heat capacity observed in the river sand makes its suitable for high temperature thermal energy storage in Concentrated Solar Power Plants (CSP).

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2016

M. P. Pranitha and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Optimal capacitor placement based improved reliability assessment of a distribution system”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2016.[Abstract]


This paper focuses to reduce the real power losses in a real-time radial distribution system by performing Optimal Capacitor Placement (OCP) using Genetic Algorithm (GA), thereby enhancing the reliability of the entire system. Reliability analysis on Amrita power house II, Amrita University, Ettimadai campus, Coimbatore operating at 22kV/415V system is carried out using ETAP software. System status subjected to different failures as ca se studies are considered. System performance is analyzed using Adaptive Newton Raphson method. Suggestions for suitable placement of capacitor banks with optimal size and cost is proposed by performing OCP using GA. Comparison of the results of reliability analysis is done with and without capacitor placement. Optimal capacitor placement helps in achieving optimal cost with suitable size and location of the capacitor bank, which is evident from the report obtained from the ETAP software. Out of load bus and breaker failure condition, the predominant remark was the considerable increase in real power loss of the overall system. Thus, the optimal capacitor placement found to be the most suitable solution for reduction of real power losses in a radial distribution system. Results of analysis illustrates that the increased value of sustained interruption system indices like System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI), System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) and preferably Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI) indicates that the system is highly unreliable without capacitors. The results obtained after capacitor placement indicates reduction in real power losses and thus decrease of reliability indices value. The expected energy that is not getting supplied to the consumer can be estimated and the cost incurred for loss can be reduced with the reliability assessment. Thus long and short term planning could be carried out. Improvements can be done by including more system reliability assessment indices. Total cost incurred due to unreliable condition of the system can be found out. This work would allow further extension by introducing FACTS devices for reliability enhancement.

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2016

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M. and Dr. Balamurugan S., “Simulated annealing based optimal frequency and terminal voltage control of multi source multi area system”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 78, pp. 823 - 829, 2016.[Abstract]


The article proposes optimal secondary controller for combined Load Frequency Control (LFC) and Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR) of multi source multi area system using simulated annealing technique. When subjected to load disturbance, frequency, tie-line power and voltage fluctuations results higher oscillations. Speed governor of the system helps to match generation with the demand. But, fine tuning of frequency, tie-line power and voltage when subjected to load disturbance in multi source multi area system is achieved by secondary Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. As a conventional benchmark \{PID\} controller is tuned using Zeigler Nichol’s (ZN) method and further optimized using Simulated Annealing (SA) technique. The performance of the system is validated and judged using performance indices. More »»

2016

Dr. Balamurugan S., Janarthanan, N., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Small and large signal modeling of heavy duty gas turbine plant for load frequency control”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 79, pp. 84 - 88, 2016.[Abstract]


In this paper, the transfer function model of heavy duty gas turbine has been developed for doing load frequency control studies. Based on the large signal model of Rowen, small signal model has been developed. This model is much suitable for doing Automatic Generation Control. Proportional integral and derivative secondary controller has been developed for both the small and large signal models to improve the system response. Ziegler Nichols’ method, Simulated Annealing and Fuzzy Gain Scheduling have been used for tuning the secondary controller. Ziegler Nichols’ method is used as conventional tuning, whereas Simulated Annealing is a search based tuning and Fuzzy Gain Scheduling is adaptive. It is found that Simulated Annealing tuned Proportional Integral Derivative Controller yields better response than other two controllers in both large signal and small signal model of heavy duty gas turbine plant. More »»

2015

M. Anju V. S, Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Balamurugan, D. S., and Janarthanan, M. N., “Simulated Annealing Based Optimal Load Frequency Control of a Two Area Non -Linear System with Static Synchronous Series Compensator”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 3165-3170, 2015.[Abstract]


This paper presents an application of a Fractional Order Proportional Integral Derivative (FOPID) controller for load frequency control in a non-linear system. When the system is subjected to unit step load disturbance in any one of the area, the variations occur in frequency and tie-line power flow. To control the frequency and tie-line power flow between the areas, optimal secondary controller is required. In this work, Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is used as secondary controller. For good approximation on the behaviour of the system, FOPID controller is used which analyses the integral and derivative order as fractions rather than integers. Simulated Annealing (SA) technique is employed for tuning the PID and FOPID controller gains on a large search space. As Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) device proves its flexibility of meeting the demand change at a faster rate before the secondary controller comes into action, Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) is incorporated along with the secondary controller for much improved control on the tie-line power flow. The response of FOPID controller with SSSC is found to be better and results are validated using performance indices.

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2015

R. Abhilash, Adithya, K., O Kumar, K., Balaji, T. J., Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., and Dr. Balamurugan S., “PLC-SCADA Based Supply Side Management in Deregulated Power Market”, WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 10, pp. 97-104, 2015.[Abstract]


The deregulation of power industry is restructuring of rules of monopoly, hence bringing in more private players to sell or buy the electricity as a commodity. The power and price values are bid by the respective generation companies (GENCO’s) and distribution companies (DISCOM’s) through the electronic mode. There are various complex computing methods for determining the optimum price among which the power exchange curve method is discussed herewith. By plotting demand and supplier power characteristics curves, the intersection point, MCP (Market clearing price) can be determined. MCP calculation is one of the most important functions of a power pool operator. Its main objective is to maximize the Global welfare function where the generating companies and the consumers are benefited and unbiased. The MCP is calculated using MATLAB software and the winning bidders of the current market are found. The power obtained for the winning supplier then undergoes optimum scheduling for generation optimization namely, supply side management. The power optimization includes Unit Commitment (UC) and selected units to be committed undergo Economic Load Dispatch (ELD). For practical implacability, the supply side power management is implemented using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) communicated through the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

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2015

U. V., N., J., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Stability Enhancement of a Synchronous Generator Connected to an Infinite Bus Bar Using SSSC”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, no. 55, pp. 3590-3595, 2015.[Abstract]


This paper proposes an algorithm for improving the transient stability of a synchronous generator connected to infinite busbar during fault condition using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC). Here a 6-pulse bidirectional converter with sine PWM is used to inject a voltage in quadrature lagging with line current. The developed control strategy uses dq0 transformation for regulating the line current during fault for enhancing the stability. The complete simulation of the system is performed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results show that the transient stability of synchronous generator is improved using SSSC.

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2015

J. N., Dr. Balamurugan S., N., K., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Design Aspects and Impact Analysis of TCSC”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, no. 55, pp. 3515-3518, 2015.[Abstract]


Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are used for controlling the power flow in transmission lines. Series FACTS devices like TCR and TCSC varies line reactance for the power flow control. In this paper, the design aspect of TCSC is discussed based on percentage of compensation and ratio between inductance and capacitance. The capacitance and inductive region of operation along with shift in resonance are analysed. Finally the impact of TCSC in the power system is analysed under the factors like Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) and stability. © Research India Publications.

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2014

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Balamurugan, S., Janarthanan, N., and Anand, B., “Variable structure fuzzy gain schedule based load frequency control of non-linear multi source multi area hydro thermal system”, International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 6, p. 785, 2014.[Abstract]


The article focuses on the issues of Load Frequency Control (LFC) under non-linear strategies in multi source multi area hydro thermal system. On practical perspective dead band, boiler dynamics, reheat steam turbine along with hydro turbine operating under two different area capacities are considered in the system. When subjected to random load variations in both the areas, the system exhibits higher oscillations. The speed governor matches the generation with the demand. The offset in the area frequencies and tie-line power is removed by using secondary Proportional Integral (PI) controller. The PI controller is tuned using Ziegler Nichols’ (ZN) and Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) method. The influence of high Proportional (P) controller gain during steady state and high Integral (I) controller gain during transient affects the system performance. Variable Structure System (VSS) helps to switch from P to PI controller during transient to steady state based on control error. The concept of VSS is applied to Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) PI controller. The performance of the optimal Variable Structure Fuzzy Gain Scheduled (VSFGS) controller under non-linear environment is judged and validated using performance indices. More »»

2014

S. Balamurugan, Shanthini, B. M., Lekshmi R. R., and Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., “Fuzzy Based Tariff”, Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 10, pp. 465 - 471, 2014.[Abstract]


In deregulated and smart grid system, time based tariff is implemented using complex communication system. This time based tariff depending on market clearing price initiates demand management. Moreover, the consumer supporting the utility by adopting demand management technique is not benefited directly by the utility. In this paper, tariff is locally decided by the smart meter based on change in frequency and change in demand using Fuzzy logic. Based on the relation between change in frequency and change in demand with tariff, fuzzy rules are developed. On implementing fuzzy based tariff, the consumers supporting utility by doing demand management gets more benefited without using the complex communication network. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] More »»

2014

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Sukumar, B., and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Load Frequency Control of Multi-source Multi-area Hydro Thermal System Using Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System Devices”, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 42, pp. 927-934, 2014.[Abstract]


AbstractThis article describes the load frequency control of a multi-area system. Each control area contains both a hydro and thermal power plant to form a multi-source multi-area hydro thermal system. The secondary proportional-integral controller has been tuned using Ziegler–Nichols, genetic algorithm, and fuzzy gain scheduling methods. On comparing the controller performance based on various performance indices, it is found that a fuzzy gain scheduling tuned proportional-integral controller is suitable for a multi-source multi-area hydro thermal system. Further improvement on the load frequency dynamics has been achieved by connecting superconducting magnetic energy storage unit in each control area and a static synchronous series compensator unit on a tie-line.

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2013

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Balamurugan, S., and K, S., “Variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling based load frequency controller for multi source multi area hydro thermal system”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 53, pp. 375–381, 2013.[Abstract]


In this paper, variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling is proposed for solving the load frequency control problem of multi source multi area hydro thermal power system. The two control areas are connected via tie line. Each area comprises of both hydro and thermal power plant. The area frequency and tie line power oscillates during load variations are controlled by primary governor controller and secondary Proportional Integral (PI) controller. The PI controller gains are tuned using Ziegler Nichols’ (ZN) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA). ZN method is for conventional bench marking and GA is based on search in the space. In both the methods, the gain values of PI controllers are fixed for any system changes and it is not acceptable. This problem is overcome by scheduling the gain based on system changes using Fuzzy Logic. Finally, Variable Structure System of switching P to PI controller during transient to steady state is integrated with fuzzy gain scheduling. On evaluating all the controller performance based on performance indices, variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling provides better response for multi source multi area hydro thermal power system.

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2012

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Damping of tie-line power oscillation in interconnected power system using variable structure system and unified power flow controller”, Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 8, pp. 85-94, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper focuses on systematic approach towards damping the tie-line power oscillations in an interconnected thermal power plant using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) with Variable Structure System (VSS) Controller. Conventionally, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is carried out by primary governor control and secondary Proportional-Integral (PI) controller. PI controller helps to damp out tie-line power and frequency oscillations when subjected to unit step load disturbance. Ziegler Nichols' (ZN) method is used in tuning the gains of conventional PI controller and VSS controller. Optimal switching of VSS controller is carried out by the performance indices. UPFC based damping controller helps to stabilize the tie-line power oscillations of power system. The simulation indicates reduced frequency and tieline power transient with much faster settling time is obtained by using UPFC along with secondary VSS controller. © JES 2012.

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2012

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, Kb, “Genetic algorithm tuned optimal variable structure system controller for enhanced load frequency control”, International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 4105-4112, 2012.[Abstract]


In this paper, the Load Frequency Control (LFC) is enhanced with optimal gains of the Variable Structure System (VSS) Controller tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA). For analysis, two-area thermal and hydrothermal power plants are considered in this paper. Conventionally, Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is used to control frequency and tie-line power deviations. To improve the PID control action during transient and steady state period, the PID controller is replaced by VSS Controller. The gains of the controllers are tuned using Zeigler Nichols' (ZN) and further with GA optimization technique. The performance of the controller is judged using Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) method. On analysis, it is observed that frequency and tie-line power deviations are improved using GA tuned VSS controller. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All right reserved.

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2012

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, Kb, “Development of variable structure fuzzy gain scheduling controller for an interconnected power system”, International Review on Modelling and Simulations, vol. 5, pp. 2228-2234, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper investigates on enhanced Load Frequency Control of two-area hydrothermal power plant when subjected to unit step load disturbance. The frequency and tieline power deviations are controlled using conventional Proportional and Integral controller tuned using Zeigler Nichols' method. By switching the controller action during transient and steady state period using Variable Structure System, the performance is improved. Fuzzy Gain Scheduling further improves the system performance by changing the proportional and integral gain according to the variations in the power plant. Finally, Variable Structure Fuzzy Gain Scheduling Controller is developed by integrating Fuzzy in Variable Structure System Controller resulting better controller action during transient and steady state period. The performance of these controllers is judged using Integral Time Absolute Error and Integral Time Squared Error techniques. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

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2011

S. Balamurugan, Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., ,, and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Development of variable structure fuzzy logic controller for enhanced load frequency control”, Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 7, pp. 297-307, 2011.[Abstract]


This paper presents a new method of Variable Structure Fuzzy Logic Controller applied to Load Frequency Control (LFC) problem. For analysis, thermal, hydro and gas turbine power plants have been considered. To control these plants, the conventional Proportional-ntegral (PI) controller is used for load tracking and frequency regulation. To dominate the proportional controller action during transient period, the PI controller is replaced by Variable Structure System (VSS) controller. Later, the VSS controller is replaced by means of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). Finally, the Variable Structure Fuzzy Logic Controller is developed by integrating the VSS and FLC. On analyzing these various controller actions on the power plants, it is found that Variable Structure Fuzzy Logic Controller yields better transient and steady state response than any other controller for all the power plants. © JES 2011 on-line. More »»

2010

Dr. Vijaya Chandrakala K. R. M., Dr. Balamurugan S., and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Automatic Generation Control for Hydrothermal Plant with Variable Structure System Controller and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage”, Journal of Automation and Systems Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 142–153, 2010.[Abstract]


This paper focuses on controlling the hydrothermal plant using Variable Structure System (VSS) controller and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit. The Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of hydrothermal plants is conventionally done by Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, which yields desired response too. For, further improvement of transient and steady state response, the conventional PI controller is replaced by Variable Structure System (VSS) controller. Ziegler Nichols’ (ZN) method is used in tuning the gains of conventional PI controller and VSS controller. The system response in terms of transient and steady state is much improved while using VSS controller than conventional PI controller. The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit being a frequency stabilizer which helps to damp out frequency oscillations much faster, is used along with the Variable Structure System (VSS) controller for controlling the hydrothermal power plant. The simulation response shows that the hydrothermal system with Variable Structure System (VSS) controller and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit exhibits better frequency and tie line power performance.

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