Qualification: 
Ph.D, MSc
tg_satheesh@cb.amrita.edu

Dr. T. G. Satheesh Babu currently serves as Associate Professor in the Department of Sciences at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham. He obtained his bachelor's in Chemistry from University of Calicut, Kerala and masters in Chemistry from Gandhigram Rural University, Tamil Nadu. He completed his Ph. D from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham in the area of Biosensors. He was awarded the Prestigious Innovative Young Biotechnologist Award (IYBA) 2013, Instituted by the DBT, Government of India. His areas interest include non-enzymatic biosensors, immunosensors, Lab-on- a-Chip devices, paper based analytical devices, and POCT devices,

Biosensor Research Lab

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

V. S. Vargis, Vasu, S. P., Sree, R. J., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Peroxidase Labeled Antibody Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Ultrasensitive Voltammetric Immunosensing”, IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 20, pp. 1142-1149, 2020.[Abstract]


An electrochemical immunosensing platform capable of detecting Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration as low as femtograms was developed based on signal amplification strategy. The immunosensing platform was fabricated using self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 11- mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA) on a gold disc electrode. The covalent immobilization of antibody was achieved through the bonding of a carboxyl group of MUDA and amino group of antibody using [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. The formation of SAM and antibody immobilization was analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The gold nanoparticles conjugated with horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary antibodies were used as nanolabels, to increase the sensitivity and catalytic efficiency of the immunosensor. The sandwich immunocomplex formed on the electrode surface produced an electrocatalytic response through the reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of thionin. The fabricated immunosensor exhibited two linear ranges that included IgG concentrations of 10 fg mL−1 to 0.1 ng mL−1 and 0.1 to 100 ng mL−1 respectively.

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2020

A. K. Ravi, Navaneeth, P., Suneesh, P. Vasu, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Manganese dioxide based electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitro-group containing organophosphates in vegetables and drinking water samples”, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, p. 113841, 2020.[Abstract]


The widespread use of organophosphates in agricultural farms for pest control has raised serious concerns over the quality of food and water available to the common public. As an effort to fabricate a sensitive, selective, cost-effective and non-toxic sensor to detect nitro-group containing organophosphates in and vegetable washings, a simple manganese dioxide based sensor was developed. α-Manganese dioxide nano-rods were electrodeposited on platinum disk electrode (MnO2/Pt) and is employed to detect 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (4-NPP). 4-NPP is a model compound that well represents widely used nitro-group containing organophosphates such methyl parathion, parathion, fenitrothion, methyl paraoxon and paraoxon in aqueous medium. Determination of 4-NPP at nanomolar levels was achieved using the fabricated sensor using cyclic voltammetry. The developed sensor was found to show a linear response in the concentration range 100 nM to 900 nM with a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 10 nM and a high sensitivity of 11.68 μA μM−1. The sensor showed good selectivity against many of common inorganic ions and two of the major organophosphates: Quinalphos and Dimethoate but the selectivity is poor among other nitro-group containing aromatics.

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2020

A. Sreekumar, Navaneeth, P., Suneesh, P. Vasu, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “A graphite pencil electrode with electrodeposited Pt-CuO for nonenzymatic amperometric sensing of glucose over a wide linear response range”, Microchimica Acta, vol. 187, p. 113, 2020.[Abstract]


A disposable nonenzymatic glucose sensor was obtained by pulsed electrodeposition of Pt-CuO on a graphite pencil electrode (GPE). The morphology of the modified GPE was studied using SEM, and the chemical composition of the coating was examined by EDAX and XRD. The electrochemical response of the modified GPE was compared with individual copper- and platinum-modified GPEs. The electrodeposition parameters were optimized with respect to the electrocatalytic activity of the deposits towards glucose oxidation. Best operated at a working potential of 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the sensor has a sensitivity of 2035 μA mM−1 cm−2, a 0.1 μM detection limit and a wide linear response range that extends up to 25 mM. It is highly selective for glucose in the presence of various exogenous and endogenous interfering species. Eventhough the requirement of alkaline medium for sensing is a limitation, easy fabrication procedure, very high sensitivity and selectivity, wide analytical range, and disposable sensor characteristics show potential application towards blood glucose determination.

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2019

K. Dhara and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrochemical Nonenzymatic Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide at Pd Nanoparticles-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite”, Sensor Letters, vol. 17, pp. 283-289, 2019.[Abstract]


A highly sensitive nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was fabricated using palladium nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pd/rGO) nanocomposite. The Pd/rGO nanocomposite was prepared by single-step chemical reduction method. Nanocomposite was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Screen printed electrodes (SPE) were fabricated, and the Pd/rGO nanocomposite was cast on the working electrode of the SPE. The Pd/rGO/SPE was electrochemically characterized by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The sensor exhibited extremely high electrocatalytic activity to H2O2 in neutral medium (pH = 7.4) with a wide linear range (from 10 μM to 4 mM), and very high sensitivity of 2104 μA mM–1 cm–2. The lower limit of detection found to be 0.5 μM. The Pd/rGO/SPE sensor demonstrated excellent features such as good reproducibility, long-term stability, and selectivity.

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2019

V. Vijayanandh, Aarathi Pradeep, Suneesh, P. V., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design and simulation of passive micromixers with ridges for enhanced efficiency”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 577, p. 012106, 2019.[Abstract]


Uniform and rapid mixing between various streams in a microfluidic device is essential for the development of device involving reaction between multiple streams. In this work, microfluidic channels of various geometries were designed and their fluid flow patterns were analyzed to optimize complete mixing of different fluids. The designs were modified by incorporating different types of ridges (square, curved and triangular shaped) in the microfluidic channels. Numerical analysis of the designs was carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3a. The extent of mixing in each of the design was calculated and the optimized design was fabricated using photolithography followed by soft lithography. The performance of the developed micromixer was studied using colored solutions and it was found to be in good agreement with the simulated results.

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2019

R. P. Edachana, Kumaresan, A., Balasubramanian, V., Thiagarajan, R., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Paper-based device for the colorimetric assay of bilirubin based on in-situ formation of gold nanoparticles”, Microchimica Acta, vol. 187, p. 60, 2019.[Abstract]


A paper-based colorimetric assay for the determination of bilirubin has been developed. The method is based on the in-situ reduction of chloroauric acid to form gold nanoparticles. A chromatographic paper was patterned using a wax printer. Chloroauric acid was drop-cast onto the reagent zone. In the presence of bilirubin, gold(III) ions are reduced and form gold nanoparticles. This leads to a color change from yellow to purple. The intensity of the purple color (peak at 530 nm) increases with bilirubin concentration in the 5.0 to 1000 mg L−1 range. The detection limit is 1.0 mg L−1. For the quantification of bilirubin, images were captured using a digital camera, and data were processed with the help of machine learning-based supervised prediction using Random Forest classification. The method was applied to the determination of bilirubin in urine samples. The spiked urine samples exhibit more than 95% recovery.

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2019

A. Pathak, Pv, S., Stanley, J., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Correction to: Multicolor emitting N/S-doped carbon dots as a fluorescent probe for imaging pathogenic bacteria and human buccal epithelial cells (Microchimica Acta, (2019), 186, 3, (157), 10.1007/s00604-019-3270-7)”, Microchimica Acta, vol. 186, 2019.[Abstract]


The published version of this article, unfortunately, contains error. Figure 2 image was available in the multiple submissions during reviewing of the manuscript. But during the final submission, the author was asked to provide the word document of the manuscript with good resolution of the images. During the preparation of the images, authors unfortunately missed to include the inset image of Fig. 2. Given in this article is the correct figure. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.

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2019

M. Roshith, Kumar, M. S., Kumar, A. K. Nanda, Ramasubramanian, S., Stanley, J., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Kumar, D. V. Ravi, “Urchin-like fibrous red phosphorus as an efficient photocatalyst for solar-light-driven disinfection of E. coli”, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 384, 2019.[Abstract]


Fibrous red phosphorus (FRP), a crystalline allotrope of red phosphorus has interesting structural features and promising applications in the area of energy storage devices and photocatalysis. In this work, we employ a solid state method to synthesize crystalline red phosphorus which results in an interesting urchin-like structure. The microstructure shows a bundle of fibers originating from a core. Detailed characterization points to the presence of FRP as the major allotrope in the product. Photocatalytic activity of FRP is examined towards the solar disinfection of water using E. coli as a model pollutant. The bandgap of the synthesized FRP is 1.9 eV and it has optimum valence band and conduction band levels to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical and H2O2. OH· is then produced from the H2O2. These photo-generated ROS are successful in bringing 8 log reduction in the concentration of E. coli in 30 min, which compares extremely well with values reported from other catalysts. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

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2019

M. Ranjana, Ramesh, V. V. E., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Kumar, D. V. Ravi, “Sophorolipid induced hydrothermal synthesis of Cu nanowires and its modulating effect on Cu nanostructures”, Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, vol. 18, p. 100285, 2019.[Abstract]


Cu nanowires are important class of one dimensional metal nanowires with high electrical conductivity comparable to silver nanowires. Sophorolipid (SL), a well-known biosurfactant and glycolipid, plays significant role in the synthesis of nanomaterials as reducing and capping agent. Herein, we report the synthesis of Cu nanowires using sophorolipid by alkyl amine mediated hydrothermal synthesis and in this process, octadecylamine (ODA) used as alkyl amine. Cu nanowires of length ∼5−40μm and width ∼50−250 nm are produced at SL/ODA weight ratio of 0.13:1. Further structural investigations suggest that the morphology of these Cu nanostructures changes from nanowires to micron size rods and decahedron particles by modulating the weight ratio of SL and ODA.

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2019

A. Pathak, Dr. Suneesh P. V., Stanley, J., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Multicolor Emitting N/S-doped Carbon Dots as a Fluorescent Probe for Imaging Pathogenic Bacteria and Human Buccal Epithelial Cells”, Mikrochim Acta, vol. 186, no. 3, p. 157, 2019.[Abstract]


Carbon dots co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur (NSCDs) were obtained from thiourea and TAE (Tris-acetate-ethylenediamine) buffer using microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. The synergistic presence of nitrogen and sulfur as a dopant results in teasing fluorescence properties and a fluorescence quantum yield of 57%. An HR-TEM study showed the NSCDs to be mono-dispersed and seemingly spherical with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 3.6 ± 0.88 nm. The NSCDs are nontoxic as proven by an MTT assay for cytotoxicity. The optical characterization was done by using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy which revealed excitation wavelength-dependent multicolor emissions. The characterization of surface topology was done by using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The NSCDs were used to image various pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas & Staphylococcus) and human buccal epithelial cells by applying multicolor fluorometry. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur doped carbon dots (NSCD) based on Thiourea and 50X Tris-acetate-ethylenediamine (TAE) buffer having multicolor fluorescence, used for tagging and imaging pathogenic bacteria and Human buccal epithelial cells using fluorescence microscope.

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2019

V. Sara Vargis, Priya, C. Jayachandr, Surendran, H., Vasu, S. Punathil, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Gopalakrishnan, T., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanolabel for Voltammetric Immunosensing.”, IET Nanobiotechnol, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 107-113, 2019.[Abstract]


This study describes the development and testing of a simple and novel enzyme-free nanolabel for the detection and signal amplification in a sandwich immunoassay. Gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGOAu) was used as the nanolabel for the quantitative detection of human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). The rGOAu nanolabel was synthesised by one pot chemical reduction of graphene oxide and chloroauric acid using sodium borohydride. The pseudo-peroxidase behaviour of rGOAu makes the nanolabel unique from other existing labels. The immunosensing platform was fabricated using self-assembled monolayers of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUDA) on a gold disc electrode. The covalent immobilisation of antibody was achieved through the bonding of the carboxyl group of 11-MUDA and the amino group of the antibody using chemical linkers [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide] and -hydroxysuccinimide. The fabricated immunosensor exhibited a linear range that included HIgG concentrations of 62.5-500 ng ml. The sensor was also used for the testing of HIgG in the blood sample.

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2018

R. Kumar D.V. and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Hydrazine free synthesis of Cu nanostructures: Exploring vitamin-C as environmental benign reducing agent to synthesize Cu nanowires”, Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, vol. 96, pp. 121-125, 2018.[Abstract]


Among the other syntheses procedures, Cu nanowires synthesized using hydrazine as reducing agent and ethylene diamine (EDA) as shape directing agent are well established for the fabrication of transparent conducting electrodes and for the large scale production. In this article, we explore the synthesis Cu nanowires by above method without using hydrazine, a highly toxic chemical reagent. Our investigation shows that vitamin-C (l-ascorbic acid) can be used as efficient alternative to hydrazine to produce Cu nanowires. Varying the EDA/Cu molar ratio resulted Cu nanowires and micron size flower like dendritic structures of copper.

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2018

Keerthy Dhara, T. Ramachandran, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Highly Sensitive Nonenzymatic Electrochemical H2O2 Sensor Based on Pt Nanoparticles Anchored Reduced Graphene Oxide”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 18, pp. 4380-4386, 2018.[Abstract]


A highly sensitive nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was fabricated using platinum nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt/rGO) nanocomposite. The Pt/rGO nanocomposite was prepared by single-step chemical reduction method. Nanocomposite was characterized by various analytical techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Screen printed electrodes (SPEs) were fabricated and the nanocomposite was cast on the working area of the SPE. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry demonstrated that the Pt/rGO/SPE displayed much higher electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2 than the other modified electrodes. The sensor exhibited wide linear detection range (from 10 M to 8 mM), very high sensitivity of 1848 A mM1 cm2 and a lower limit of detection of 0.06 M. The excellent performance of Pt/rGO/SPE sensor were attributed to the reduced graphene oxide being used as an effective matrix to load a number of Pt nanoparticles and the synergistic amplification effect of the two kinds of nanomaterials. Moreover, the sensor showed remarkable features such as good reproducibility, repeatability, long-term stability, and selectivity.

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2018

J. Raveendran and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design and Fabrication of a Three Layered Microfluidic Device for Lab on a Chip Applications”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 16286 - 16292, 2018.[Abstract]


This paper describes the design and fabrication of a microfluidic device for lab on a chip (LOC) applications. Homogenous fluid coverage in the detection well was studied using two and three layer LOC prototypes. Top and middle layer of the device were made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and bottom layer (LB) with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The introduction of middle layer increased the depth of detection wells. Inorder to increase the hydrophilicity and hence the uniform well filling, the top layer was treated with PEG. The bonding between layers was performed by corona oxidation and uncured PDMS as adhesive. Carbon electrodes were printed on PET sheet and bonded with middle layer. The performance of LOC device was validated by analyzing the electrochemical response of redox species o-phenylenediamine.

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2018

P. A. Kumar, John Stanley, Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Suneesh, P. V., “Synthesis of Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide and itsApplication in Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 16125 - 16131, 2018.[Abstract]


In this work Nickel-Aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) was successfully synthesized via urea hydrolysis method. This involves the digestion of aluminium sulphate, nickel sulphate and urea at 90 ⁰C for 24 hours. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies revealed the presence of highly ordered layers and the Ni-Al LDH was observed to be in the hexagonal cubic crystalline structure through X-ray diffraction studies. The prepared compound was utilized for fabrication of a non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor. Glucose oxidation on the sensor occurred at 0.6 V in 0.1 M NaOH. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of4.12 µA/mM/cm2 with linearity upto28 mM. The developed sensor was sensitive towards glucose in the presence of common interfering molecules such asascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and creatinine.

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2018

Aarathi Pradeep, S. Raj, V., John Stanley, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design, Simulation and Fabrication of a Normally-Closed Microvalve Based on Magnetic Actuation”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 16059 - 16064, 2018.[Abstract]


Magnetic actuation is promising in realizing flow-control devices because of the simplicity in in fabrication and its fast response. A normally-closed active microvalve based on magnetic actuation has been designed, simulated and fabricated for controlled delivery of fluids. By incorporating magnetic particles onto a deflectable membrane, the magnetic activity can be tuned and the actuation can be controlled using an electromagnet. Studies were focused to optimize the design and thickness of the deflectable membrane and the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles for efficient actuation. Magnetic actuation was carried out using a programmed microcontroller that controls the activity of individual electromagnets which in turn controls the deflection of the membrane. The geometries were designed using CADian and CleWin software and deflection of the membrane was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool Comsol Multiphysics. The optimized design was fabricated using direct laser write lithography following standard procedures and the simulation results were verified experimentally.

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2018

P. E. Resmi, Palaniayappan, A. L., T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrochemical Synthesis of Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Sensing of Glucose”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 16487 - 16493, 2018.[Abstract]


This paper describes the electrochemical exfoliation of graphene from a graphitic electrode in sulphuric acid medium. Parameters such as applied potential, electrolyte concentration and duration of electrolysis were optimized for the synthesis of single layered graphene sheets. Copper oxide –graphene composite was synthesized and used for the fabrication of a disposable nonenzymatic glucose sensor. The electrochemical detection of glucose on the CuO/graphene composite electrode was studied extensively using voltammetric and amperometric techniques

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2018

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Vargis V, Priya C. J., Surendran H, Suneesh P. V., and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nanolabel for voltammetric immunosensing”, IET Nanobiotechnology, 2018.[Abstract]


This study describes the development and testing of a simple and novel enzyme-free nanolabel for the detection and signal amplification in a sandwich immunoassay. Gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGOAu) was used as the nanolabel for the quantitative detection of human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). The rGOAu nanolabel was synthesised by one pot chemical reduction of graphene oxide and chloroauric acid using sodium borohydride. The pseudo-peroxidase behaviour of rGOAu makes the nanolabel unique from other existing labels. The immunosensing platform was fabricated using self-assembled monolayers of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUDA) on a gold disc electrode. The covalent immobilisation of antibody was achieved through the bonding of the carboxyl group of 11-MUDA and the amino group of the antibody using chemical linkers [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide] and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The fabricated immunosensor exhibited a linear range that included HIgG concentrations of 62.5–500 ng ml−1. The sensor was also used for the testing of HIgG in the blood sample. More »»

2018

P. Dilna, Raveendran, J., John Stanley, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Paper Based Microfluidic Device for the Detection of Total Protein in Blood”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 16220 - 16225, 2018.[Abstract]


Liver disorders are a widespread health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The mortality rate due to liver disorders can be reduced significantly by systematic monitoring of proteins that act as liver function biomarkers. This paper demonstrates the design and fabrication of a paper based microfluidic device for the quantification of total protein in blood. The fabrication of microchannels was carried out using wax printing. The total protein concentration in the range of 0 to 14 g dL-1were successfully measured using the fabricated paper device with the lower limit of detection being 0.5 g dL-1. The device also showed excellent specificity and repeatability. Total protein in blood serum samples was tested using the device and the obtained results were validated with conventional laboratory methods.

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2018

A. Pradeep, S., V. R., Stanley, J., Nair, B. G., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Automated and Programmable Electromagnetically Actuated Valves for Microfluidic Applications”, Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, vol. 283, pp. 79-86, 2018.[Abstract]


In this paper, we report the design and development of easy-to-fabricate, low cost electromagnetically actuated ON/OFF valves to control multiple fluids on a programmable microfluidics platform. The valves were fabricated using mild steel pieces glued onto a PDMS membrane and its deflection was effected by using an array of solenoids. The activation of solenoid array was controlled using a programmed microcontroller. Numerical studies were carried out to optimize design parameters such as the distance between the valve and the solenoid, membrane thickness and the diameter of the deflection zone. The deflection of the valves was also studied using a high-speed digital camera and the results were in good conformity with the simulation results. Deflections up to 1200 μm could be achieved with a response of 3 ms. The efficiency of the developed platform for controlling multiple fluids was verified by experimental studies using coloured solutions and biosensors. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

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2018

J. Raveendran, Stanley, J., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Voltammetric Determination of Bilirubin on Disposable Screen Printed Carbon Electrode”, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 818, pp. 124-130, 2018.[Abstract]


Disposable screen printed carbon electrodes have been developed for the quantitative determination of free bilirubin. The electrodes were fabricated using graphite carbon ink and characterized with microscopy, spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The carbon ink for printing is made of graphite nanoparticles of size around 50 nm. Electrochemical oxidation of bilirubin was carried out voltammetrically in Trizma buffer of pH 8.5. The sensor showed a dynamic detection range of 5–600 μM and a sensitivity of 95 μAμM−1 cm−2. The SPCE showed superior performance than many of the reported sensors in terms of dynamic range, sensitivity and oxidation potential. Molecules such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, glucose, creatinine and ethanol were tested using SPCE and found to be non interfering with the detection of creatinine in the physiological conditions. The sensor was tested using bilirubin spiked serum samples and found that it is giving response to free bilirubin. The sensor was also used to study the affinity of free bilirubin to albumin and displacement of bilirubin from albumin by ibuprofen.

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2017

J. Raveendran, R. G. Krishnan, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Voltammetric Determination of Ascorbic Acid by using a Disposable Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Cu(OH)2 Nanorods”, Microchimica Acta, pp. 1-7, 2017.[Abstract]


The authors describe a disposable non-enzymatic sensor for ascorbic acid (AA) that was obtained by modifying a screen printed electrode (SPE) with Cu(OH)2 nanorods (NRs). The NRs were synthesized by a wet chemical process which involves sequential addition of NH3 and NaOH to CuSO4 solution. NR formation was confirmed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic, microscopic, and diffraction studies. The Cu(OH)2 NRs were mixed with carbon ink and printed onto an SPE. Electrochemical detection of AA was carried out at pH 7.4, at a typical voltage as low as 0 mV versus saturated calomel electrode with a scan rate of 100 mV/s, and is assumed to involve the chemical reduction of Cu(II) by AA followed by electrochemical oxidation of Cu(I). The sensor has a linear response in the 0.0125 to 10 mΜ AA concentration range. Response to AA is free from interference by urea, glucose, uric acid, dopamine, metal ions such as Fe2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+, NaCl, KCl and ethanol. It was applied to the determination of AA in a vitamin C tablet and in urine. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria

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2017

J. Raveendran, Resmi P. E., Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of a disposable non-enzymatic electrochemical creatinine sensor”, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 243, pp. 589 - 595, 2017.[Abstract]


Abstract A disposable non-enzymatic sensor for creatinine was developed by electrodepositing copper on screen printed carbon electrodes. The sensor was characterized using electrochemical and microscopic techniques. Electrochemical detection of creatinine was carried out in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4. The estimation was based on the formation of soluble copper-creatinine complex. The formation of copper-creatinine complex was established using the pseudoperoxidase activity of copper-creatinine complex. The sensor showed a detection limit of 0.0746 μM with a linear range of 6–378 μΜ. The sensor exhibited a stable response to creatinine and found to be free from interference from molecules like urea, glucose, ascorbic acid and dopamine. Real sample analysis was carried out with blood serum.

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PDF iconfabrication-of-a-disposable-non-enzymatic-electrochemical-creatinine-sensor-29november2017.pdf

2017

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., John Stanley, Jyothi Sree R, T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Vertically Aligned TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Decorated with CuO Mesoclusters for the Nonenzymatic Sensing of Glucose”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 16, pp. 1-8, 2017.

2016

A. Pradeep, J. Raveendran, Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Computational simulation and fabrication of smooth edged passive micromixers with alternately varying diameter for efficient mixing”, Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 165, pp. 32-40, 2016.[Abstract]


To improve the efficiency of passive micromixers, microchannels of varying geometry have been widely studied. A highly efficient passive micromixer was developed by alternatively varying the cross-sectional diameter along the flow. Microfluidic channels of various geometries were designed and the fluid flow patterns were studied using COMSOL Multiphysics. The extent of mixing in the microchannels for the various designs were analyzed and the most efficient micromixer was further optimized for best mixing performance. The optimized design was fabricated using direct laser write lithography. The spin speed, exposure energy, baking temperature, baking and development time were observed to play an important role in fabrication. Experimental evaluation of the simulation results was carried out by injecting coloured solutions through the PDMS microchannels and by electrochemical studies.

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2016

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Keerthy Dhara, John Stanley, T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Cupric Oxide Modified Screen Printed Electrode for the Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensing”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 8772-8778, 2016.

2016

K. Dhara, Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Au nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for the fabrication of disposable nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor”, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 764, pp. 64-70, 2016.[Abstract]


A simple approach is followed for the fabrication of disposable nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor using gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Au/rGO) nanocomposite. Au/rGO nanocomposite was prepared by one pot reduction of graphene oxide and Au(III) ions. The composite was characterized using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The Au/rGO nanocomposite suspension was cast on the indigenously fabricated screen printed electrode (SPE). Voltammetric studies on the modified electrode showed that the Au/rGO nanocomposite modified SPE have enhanced catalytic activity towards H2O2. The sensor exhibited linear relationship in the range from 20 μM to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 1238 μA mM- 1 cm- 2 and a limit of detection 0.1 μM. The sensor also showed excellent selectivity in presence of other electroactive species such as ascorbic acid, dopamine, glucose and uric acid. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2015

K. Dhara, Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Highly sensitive and wide-range nonenzymatic disposable glucose sensor based on a screen printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide and Pd-CuO nanoparticles”, Microchimica Acta, 2015.[Abstract]


A nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide decorated with palladium-copper oxide nanoparticles (Pd-CuO/rGO) was synthesized by single-step chemical reduction. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanocomposite were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. A 3-electrode system was fabricated by screen printing technology and the Pd-CuO/rGO nanocomposite was dropcast on the carbon working electrode. The catalytic activity towards glucose in 0.2 M NaOH solutions was analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry and amperometry. The steady state current obtained at a constant potential of +0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) showed the modified electrode to possess a wide analytical range (6 μM to 22 mM), a rather low limit of detection (30 nM), excellent sensitivity (3355 μA∙mM−1∙cm−2) and good selectivity over commonly interfering species and other sugars including fructose, sucrose and lactose. The sensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in blood serum. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien

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PDF iconhighly-sensitive-and-wide-range-nonenzymatic-disposable-glucose-sensor-based-screen-printed-carbon-electrode-modified-with-reduced-graphene-oxide-and-pd-cuo-nanoparticles-08july2015.pdf

2015

Dr. Suneesh P. V., Vargis Vidhu Sara, Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Co-Cu alloy nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic sensing of glucose”, Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 215, pp. 337-344, 2015.[Abstract]


A nonenzymatic glucose sensor was fabricated by electrodepositing cobalt rich cobalt-copper alloy nanoparticles (Co-CuNPs) on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube (TDNT) arrays. For this, TDNT arrays with tube diameter of 60 nm were synthesized by electrochemical anodization. The composition of the electrodeposited alloy was optimized based on the electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation. This is achieved by controlling the concentration of electrolyte and time of deposition. Chemical composition of the optimized Co-Cu alloy nanoparticles is determined to be Cu0.15Co2.84O4 with fcc crystalline structure. The sensor showed two linear range of detection with high sensitivity of 4651.0 μA mM-1 cm-2 up to 5 mM and 2581.70 μA mM-1 cm-2 from 5 mM to 12 mM with a lower detection limit of 0.6 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor is highly selective to glucose in the presence of various exogeneous and endogeneous interfering species and other sugars. The response of the sensor towards blood serum was in good agreement with that of commercially available glucose sensors. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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2015

Keerthy Dhara, Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Single step synthesis of Au-CuO nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for high performance disposable nonenzymatic glucose sensor”, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 743, pp. 1-9, 2015.[Abstract]


A nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor was fabricated using gold-copper oxide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Au-CuO/rGO). A novel one step chemical process was employed for the synthesis of nanocomposite. Morphology and crystal planes of the nanocomposite were characterized using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The Au-CuO/rGO nanocomposite was dispersed in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and drop-casted on the working area of the indigenously fabricated screen printed electrode (SPE). The sensor showed good electrocatalytic activity in alkaline medium for the direct electrooxidation of glucose with linear detection range of 1 μM to 12 mM and a lower detection limit of 0.1 μM. The sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity 2356 μA mM- 1 cm- 2. Sensor was used for the determination of serum glucose concentration and the results obtained were compared with commercially available test strips. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2014

Keerthy Dhara, John Stanley, T. Ramachandran, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Pt-CuO Nanoparticles Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Fabrication of Highly Sensitive Non-Enzymatic Disposable Glucose Sensor”, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 195, pp. 197–205, 2014.[Abstract]


Platinum nanocubes and copper oxide nanoflowers decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) obtained by one step chemical process. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirms that CuO in monoclinic form and Pt in cubic crystal form. Pt-CuO/rGO nanocomposite dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was drop casted onto the working electrode of an indigenously fabricated screen printed three electrode system. Oxidation of glucose on the Pt-CuO/rGO nanocomposite modified screen printed electrode (SPE) was occurred at +0.35 V. The sensor showed a limit of detection 0.01 μM (S/N = 3) and very high sensitivity of 3577 μA mM−1 cm−2 with linear response upto 12 mM. The sensor was highly selective to glucose in the presence of commonly interfering species like ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and acetaminophen. The sensor was employed for the testing of glucose in blood serum and the results obtained were comparable with other standard test methods.

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2013

Dr. Suneesh P. V., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and T. Ramachandran, “Electrodeposition of aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys from a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte containing aluminium chloride and triethylamine hydrochloride”, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 909-916, 2013.[Abstract]


The electrodeposition of Al and Al-Cu binary alloys on to gold substrates from a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte containing AlCl3-Et3NHCl was studied. The electrochemical behavior of the electrolyte and the mechanism of deposition were investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the properties of deposits obtained were assessed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Al of 70 μm in thickness and an Al-Cu alloy of 30 μm in thickness with 8at% copper were deposited from the electrolyte. SEM images of the deposits indicate that the Al deposit was smooth and uniform, whereas the Al-Cu deposit was nodular. The average crystalline size, as determined by XRD patterns, was found to be (30 ± 5) and (29 ± 5) nm, respectively, for Al and Al-Cu alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel plots) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements showed that Al-Cu alloys are more corrosion resistant than Al. More »»

2013

Dr. Suneesh P. V., K. Chandhini, T. Ramachandran, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Tantalum oxide honeycomb architectures for the development of a non-enzymatic glucose sensor with wide detection range”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 50, pp. 472 - 477, 2013.[Abstract]


Abstract Tantalum oxide honeycomb nanostructures (THNS) were fabricated by electrochemical anodisation of tantalum in H2SO4–HF medium. \{XRD\} analysis showed that annealing of \{THNS\} at 400 °C improves the crystallinity. \{HRSEM\} and \{AFM\} results illustrated that nanopores with an average diameter of 30 nm were uniformly distributed and the pore size reduced to 24 nm and 18 nm during subsequent electrodeposition of Pt and CuO. Electrodeposited Pt and CuO exhibited face centered cubic (fcc) and monoclinic crystal structure respectively. Cyclic voltammetric studies revealed that, on the hybrid material electrooxidation of glucose occurs at a lower potential (0.45 V). The sensor exhibited linear response to glucose up to 31 mM, fast response time (<3 s) and a low detection limit of 1 μM (S/N=3). The sensor is free of interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and acetaminophen. Sensor was used to analyze glucose in blood serum samples.

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2012

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Dhanya Varadarajan, Gayathri Murugan, T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Gold Nanoparticle–Polypyrrole Composite Modified TiO2 Nanotube Array Electrode for the Amperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid”, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 42, pp. 427-434, 2012.[Abstract]


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes were fabricated by anodisation of titanium foil in 0.15&nbsp;M ammonium fluoride in an aqueous solution of glycerol (90&nbsp;% v/v). Electropolymerisation of pyrrole and deposition of gold nanoparticles on to the TiO2&nbsp;nanotube array electrode were carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrochemical characterization of the sensor was performed by CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology of the electrode was studied after every step of modification using field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The sensor was tested for AA and other biomolecules in phosphate buffered saline solution of pH 7 using CV, differential pulse voltammetry and amperometry. The sensor exhibited very high sensitivity of 63.912&nbsp;μA&nbsp;mM−1&nbsp;cm−2&nbsp;and excellent selectivity to ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of other biomolecules such as uric acid, dopamine, glucose and para-acetaminophen. It also showed very good linearity (<em class="a-plus-plus">R</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.9995) over a wide range (1&nbsp;μM–5&nbsp;mM) of detection. The sensor was tested for AA in lemon and found its concentration to be 339&nbsp;mg&nbsp;ml−1.

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2010

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Development of non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose and ascorbic acid”, 2010.[Abstract]


Tremendous efforts have been directed towards the development of non-enzymatic sensors for the measurement of biomolecules such as glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, etc. as it was established that the enzymatic sensors lack stability. Hence in this work, a more detailed study on non-enzymatic sensors was carried out for the measurement of glucose and ascorbic acid. Recently, nanomaterials based electrochemical sensors for the direct electrooxidation have been studied extensively due to their unique physical and chemical properties such as increased surface area, mass transport and catalysis. Copper and copper oxide based materials were reported to be potential candidates for the oxidation of glucose. Hence in this work, we have developed nanoporus copper oxide and copper oxalate modified copper electrode as well as copper oxide modified copper electrode for the quantitative determination of glucose. These modified electrodes were prepared by adopting a single step anodisation of copper in two different electrolytes. A prototype of the disposable sensor also was fabricated and tested with insulin pump which yielded good results. Similarly, for the quantitative determination of AA, the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) attracted attention of different research groups due to the specific properties such as good conductivity, electrocatalytic behaviour and biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TDNT) exhibit excellent properties such as large surface area, high orientation with uniformity and excellent biocompatibility, in addition to its ease of preparation. Making advantage of these characteristics of gold nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanotube arrays, we developed ascorbic acid sensors by electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles on titanium dioxide nanotube arrays.

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2010

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Single step modification of copper electrode for the highly sensitive and selective non-enzymatic determination of glucose”, Microchimica Acta, vol. 169, pp. 49-55, 2010.[Abstract]


A non-enzymatic sensor was developed for the determination of glucose in alkaline medium by anodisation of copper in sodium potassium tartrate solution. The morphology of the modified copper electrode was studied by scanning electron microscopy, and its electrochemical behavior by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode enables direct electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose on a CuO/Cu electrode at 0.7 V in 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. At this potential, the sensor is highly selective to glucose even in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or dopamine which are common interfering species. The sensor displays a sensitivity of 761.9 μA mM−1 cm−2, a linear detection range from 2 μM to 20 mM, a response time of <1 s, and a detection limit of 1 μM (S/N = 3). It was tested for determination of glucose level in blood serum.

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2010

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Dr. Suneesh P. V., T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Gold Nanoparticles Modified Titania Nanotube Arrays for Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid”, Analytical Letters, vol. 43, no. 18, pp. 2809-2822, 2010.[Abstract]


Development and use of highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays modified with gold nanoparticles for the selective detection of ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of uric acid and glucose are reported here. Gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the Nanotube arrays by CV. The sensor was characterized using SEM, EDS, CV, and EIS. It showed very good performance with a sensitivity of 46.8&nbsp;μA mM−1&nbsp;cm−2, response time below 2 seconds and linearity in the range of 1&nbsp;μM to 5&nbsp;mM with a detection limit of 0.1&nbsp;μM and was tested for the AA concentration in pharmaceutical preparations.

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2007

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., G., K., and Meenakshi, S., “Influence of Soil Characteristics on Leaching Rate of Fluoride from Soils in Selected Fluoride Environments of Tamil Nadu in South India”, Poll. Res., vol. 26, pp. 503-506, 2007.

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Title

2019

Raveendran, Jeethu,, Raj,, S., V., Pradeep, A., Vasu, S. P., Stanley, J., Nair, B., Thiagarajan, R., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Lab on a Chip Device for Multi-Analyte Detection and a Method of Fabrication Thereof”, U.S. Patent 16/1829132019.[Abstract]


The disclosure provides for a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device and a method of fabrication thereof. Additionally, a system and a method for point of care testing of multiple biomarkers such as glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, and bilirubin is provided. The microfluidic assembly consists of three layers in which the top and the middle layers are made up of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the bottom layer with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The device integrates screen printed non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors in the bottom layer for simultaneous detection of glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, and bilirubin. A hand held potentiostat with readout enables readout for the point of care application of integrated sensing device. The device developed has potential to revamp healthcare by providing access to affordable technology for better management a diabetes and related complications at every door step.

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2019

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Thiagarajan, R., and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Non-enzymatic glucose sensor”, U.S. Patent 15 / 431 , 801 2019.[Abstract]


A non - enzymatic glucose sensor and method for fabricating
the sensor are disclosed . The glucose sensor contains at least
one non - enzymatic electrode configured to catalyze the
electro - oxidation of glucose in preference to other bio
molecules . The surface of the electrode comprises Cuo
nanoparticles . The sensor shows sensitivity and selectivity exceeding enzyme based devices presently in use

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2017

Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Thiagarajan, R., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Non-enzymatic Glucose Sensor”, 2017.[Abstract]


A non-enzymatic glucose sensor and method for fabricating the sensor are disclosed. The glucose sensor contains at least one non-enzymatic electrode configured to catalyze the electro-oxidation of glucose in preference to other bio-molecules. The surface of the electrode comprises CuO nanoparticles. The sensor shows sensitivity and selectivity exceeding enzyme based devices presently in use.

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Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Title

2018

N. T. Madhu, E., R. P., Aarathi Pradeep, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design and Simulation of Fluid Flow in Paper Based Microfluidic Platforms”, IConAMMA. 2018.

2018

S. G., Raveendran, J., P.V., S., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Disposable Electrochemical Dopamine Sensor Using Photoluminescent Graphene Oxide”, IConAMMA. 2018.

2018

D. Mohan, Pathak, A., E., R. P., V., S. P., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fluorescence Imaging of E. coli using CdSe Quantum Dots”, IConAMMA. 2018.

2018

A. Harilal, Ramachandran T., V., S. P., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Silver Peroxide-Zinc Rechargeable Battery”, IConAMMA. 2018.

2018

Vidhu Sara Vargis, P, C. J., P.V, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Voltammetric Immunosensing Platform Based on Dual Signal Amplification Using Gold Nanoparticle Labels”, IConAMMA. 2018.

2018

V. Vijayanandh, Aarathi Pradeep, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Passive Micromixers with Ridges for Enhanced Mixing Efficiency”, IConAMMA. 2018.

2016

V. Raj S, P.V, S., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Paper Based-Solid State Asymmetric Supercapacitor Using Cobalt Oxide Nano Particles”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

R. P. E., Krishnan, R. G., Ramachandran T., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrochemical Oxidation of Carbon Electrode and Study of their Potential Applications”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

K. R, John Stanley, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Two Chamber E. coli Microbial Fuel Cell using Manganese Dioxide Cathode”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

R. G. Krishnan and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrochemical Detection of Hemoglobin in Urine”, Urine International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

L. Priya R, T, R., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and V, S. P., “Fabrication of High Power MFC using E.coli Biofilm Coated Reduced Graphene Oxide”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

S. P. V, T, R., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrodeposition of Al-Zr Alloys from AlCl3 - Triethylammine Hydrochloride Room Temperature Ionic Liquid”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

D. P, Raveendran, J., John Stanley, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Paper Based Microfluidic Device for the Detection of Total Protein in Blood”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

J. Raveendran, John Stanley, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Shallow Microchannels for Highly Uniform Blood Smear Preparation”, International Conference on Advanes in Materials and Manufacturing Applications (IConAMMA2016), vol. 149. p. 012036, 2016.[Abstract]


Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic channels for blood cell analysis were fabricated using etched glass as the master for soft lithography. The design consisted of shallow microchannels with uniformly spaced micropillars that aid in the formation of thin blood films (smear) through capillary filling of the microchannels. The concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the time duration of etching were varied and conditions optimized for fabrication of microstructures of different depths. Morphological analysis revealed the structure and dimension of the microstructures to be highly consistent. It was also noted that the micropillars formed during soft lithography prevented the roof of the PDMS microchannel from collapsing, a common phenomena observed while using shallow microfluidic channels. The fabricated prototype was used for blood cell analysis and the blood smear formed due to capillary flow was found to eliminate the drawbacks associated with manual smear preparation. Thus, a novel cost effective microfluidic device for cell analysis using glass etching was successfully developed and tested.

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2016

J. Raveendran and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design and Fabrication of a Three Layered Microfluidic Device for Lab-on-a-chip Applications”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

J. Raveendran, Aarathi Pradeep, Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Design and Fabrication of Three Layered Lab-on-a-chip for Electrochemical Detection of Multiple Analytes”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16,. 2016.

2016

Aarathi Pradeep, S, V. Raj, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design, Simulation and Fabrication of a Normally-Closed Microvalve based on Magnetic Actuation”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

R. P.E, A.L, P., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Dr. Ramachandran T., “Electrochemical synthesis of graphene”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

N. T. Madhu, Aarathi Pradeep, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design and Simulation of Fluid Flow in Paper-based Microfluidics Platforms”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2016

A. Kumar P, V, S. P., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Synthesis of Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide Modified Graphene Oxide and their Potential Applications”, International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16. 2016.

2015

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., V, S. Gopi G., and Vidhu Sara Vargis, “Bioconjugation of Gold Nanoparticles using HRP Labelled Immunoglobulin G”, International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (NANO-15). K S R college, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, 2015.

2015

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G. and K, B. Paul, “Pt –Pd Nanoparticle Decorated Graphene Oxide on Screen Printed Carbon Electrode for Nonenzymatic Sensing of Glucose in Neutral Medium”, International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (NANO-15). K S R college, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, 2015.

2015

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G. and P, D., “Microfluidic Paper based Device for Liver Function Test”, International Conference on Recent Advances in Materials and Chemical Science (ICRAMCS2015). Gandhigram Rural Institute, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, 2015.

2013

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Vidhu Sara Vargis, Jyothi Sree R, T, R., and Nair, B. G., “Gold Nanoparticles-Polyaniline Nanocomposites Modified TiO2 Nanotube Array for Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid”, Amrita Bioquest. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,, Amritapuri campus, Kollam, Kerala, 2013.

2012

P. V. Suneesh, Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and T. Ramachandran, “Electrodeposition of aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys from a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte containing aluminium chloride and triethylamine hydrochloride”, 62nd Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry. Nikata, Japan, 2012.[Abstract]


The electrodeposition of Al and Al-Cu binary alloys on to gold substrates from a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte containing AlCl3-Et3NHCl was studied. The electrochemical behavior of the electrolyte and the mechanism of deposition were investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the properties of deposits obtained were assessed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Al of 70 $μ$m in thickness and an Al-Cu alloy of 30 $μ$m in thickness with 8at{%} copper were deposited from the electrolyte. SEM images of the deposits indicate that the Al deposit was smooth and uniform, whereas the Al-Cu deposit was nodular. The average crystalline size, as determined by XRD patterns, was found to be (30 ± 5) and (29 ± 5) nm, respectively, for Al and Al-Cu alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel plots) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements showed that Al-Cu alloys are more corrosion resistant than Al. More »»

2012

P. V. Suneesh, Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and T. Ramachandran, “Electrodeposition Of Alumium And Aluminium-Copper Alloys From AlCl3-Et3NHCl Room Temperature Ionic Liquid”, 62nd Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry. International Society of Electrochemistry, Nikata, Japan, 2012.

2009

Dr. Suneesh P. V., Vignesh, V., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and T. Ramachandran, “Selective Determination of Ascorbic Acid Using Polypyrrole - Gold Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode”, International Conference on Precision, Meso, Micro and Nano Engineering, COPEN6, 2009. 2009.

2008

S. Ramachandran, T. Ramachandran, Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Nithya K., “Comparative Study of Removal of Fluoride from Ground Water by Bio-sorption using Fresh Water Algae based BioMass and Surface Modified Activated Carbon”, Proceedings of International Conference CHEMCON 2008, Green Technology and Sustainable Development, 61st Annual Session of IIChE . Panjab University, Chandigarh, p. 137, 2008.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Title

2018

P. V. Suneesh, T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrodeposition of Al-Zr-Cu Ternary Alloy from AlCl3-Et3NHCl Ionic Liquid containing Acetylacetonates of Copper and Zirconium”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 16640-16645.[Abstract]


Electrochemical co-deposition of aluminium, zirconium and copper was investigated from a room temperature ionic liquid containing 2:1 weight ratio Aluminium Chloride - Triethylammine Hydrochloride (AlCl3-Et3NHCl) and acetylacetonates of copper and zirconium. The mechanism of deposition was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Alloy films of thickness about 80 μm was obtained at constant potential of -1.8 V (vs Pt wire) on a gold substrate. The as deposited alloy films were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Adherent and shiny Al-Zr-Cu alloy deposits containing 7% of copper and 3% of zirconium were obtained. The crystalline nature of the deposited alloy was analyzed using XRD. The deposit obtained showed higher corrosion resistance than deposited aluminium and the binary alloys from this bath.

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2018

V. S. Raj, Stanley, J., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of a Configurable Multi-Potentiostat for LOC Applications”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 16732-16739.[Abstract]


This paper describes the development of a portable, cost effective reconfigurable multi-analyte detection electronics meter module for Lab-on-a-chip applications. A low costpotentiostat(LMP91000) was used as the analog front end (AFE) in this work. The advanced core microcontroller from Microchip (PIC16LF1783) was used for controlling the different operation of the meter. The current obtained by amperometrictechniques was calibrated and displayed on a graphical LCD and alsodisplayed on a smart phone using Bluetooth technology.

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2016

J. Raveendran, Aarathi Pradeep, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of a Lab-On-A-Chip Device for the Simultaneous Detection of Three Analytes”, in International Conference on Advanced Materials, SCICON’16, 2016.

2015

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., Vidhu Sara Vargis, and Jyothi Sree R, “Signal amplification in immunosensing using gold nanoparticles”, in National Conference on Recent Advances in Chemical Sciences (RACS-2015), Gandhigram Rural Institute, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, 2015.

2015

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G. and Madhu, N. T., “Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide”, in International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (NANO-15), K S R college, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, 2015.

2014

T. S. Sethu Parvathy, Dhara Keerthy, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Activated Screen Printed Electrode For Highly Sensitive Ascorbic Acid Sensing”, in International Conference on Biomaterials-2014, Asian Polymers Association, New Delhi, 2014.

2014

Aarathi Pradeep, Jeethu Raveendran, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Design, Simulation and fabrication of Microfluidic Channels for Lab-on-a-Chip applications”, in International Conference on Biomaterials-2014 , Asian Polymers Association, New Delhi, 2014.

2013

S. R. Shrinidhi, Aarathi Pradeep, John Stanley, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Nanomaterials Based Non-enzymatic Glucose Sensors”, in Recent Advances in Surface Science (RASS) , Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram, 2013.

2013

S. R. Jyothi, Sara Vargis Vidhu, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Prussian Blue and Gold Nanoparticles Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode for the Fabrication of Immunosensor”, in Natioanl Conference on Recent Advances in Surface Science (RASS), Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram, 2013.

2013

P. V. Suneesh, K. Chandhini, T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Non-enzymatic Glucose Biosensor Using CuO/Pt Nanoparticles Modified Ta2O5 Nanotube Arrays”, in National Conference on Recent Advances in Surface Science (RASS), Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram, 2013.

2013

Dhara Keerthy, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, T. Ramachandran, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Pt-CuO-Graphene Nanocomposite for Non-enzymatic Amperometric Glucose Detection”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2013

Sara Vargis Vidhu, Sree R. Jyothi, T. Ramachandran, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Au Nanoparticles-Polyaniline Nanocomposites Modified TiO2 Nanotube Array for Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2013

John Stanley, Ramacahandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Pt-Pd Decorated TiO2 Nanotube Array for the Non-enzymatic Determination of Glucose in Neutral Medium”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2013

Jeethu Raveendran, Ramachrandran T, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Non-enzymatic Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Creatinine”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2013

John Stanley, S. Ramyakrishnan, Vineeth Raj S, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Development of a Non-enzymatic Glucose Biosensor using Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Modified TiO2 Nanotube Arrays”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus,, 2013.

2013

S. R. Shrinidhi, Aarathi Pradeep, Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of Highly Sensitive and Selective Non-enzymatic Glucose Sensor”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2013

T. Jyotsna, J. Dhivyalakshmi, Sree Jyothi, Vargis Vidhusara, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of NiO-Pt Nanoparticles Modified Disposable Screen Printed Electrode for the Determination of Blood Glucose”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2013

Chandini Umesh, Ashwathi A. M., John Stanley, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Multiple Signal Amplification Platform for Immunosensing”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.

2011

J. Saju, T. Ramachandran, Nair, B. G., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Nanoporous Copper / Oxide Copper Oxalate Electrode for Nonenzymatic Sensing of Glucose”, in Third international conference on frontiers in Nanoscience and Technology (Cochin Nano 2011), Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), IMA House, Cochin, 2011.

2010

Dr. Suneesh P. V., Ramachanderen, T., and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “The Electrodeposition of Aluminium from AlCl3-TMPAC Room Temperature Ionic Liquid”, in National Conference on Recent Advances in Electroanalytical Techniques (RAET), Gandhigram Rural University, 2010.

2010

R. Narendran, V. Vignesh, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Electrochemical Determination of Ascorbic Acid using Polyaniline - Gold Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode”, in National Conference on Recent Advances in Electro analytical Techniques (RAET), Gandhigram Rural University, 2010.

2010

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G. and Ramachandran T., “Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid using Electrodeposited Gold Nanoparticle on Polypyrrole Coated Titania Nanotube Array Electrode”, in National Conference on Recent Advances in Electro analytical Techniques (RAET), Gandhigram Rural University, 2010.

2009

V. Dhanya, Gayathri, M., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Ramachanderen, T., “Gold Nanoparticles Modified Titanium dioxide Nanotube arrays for Amperometric sensing of Ascorbic Acid”, in International conference on active and smart materials, Thyagarajar College, Madurai, 2009.

2009

Dr. Suneesh P. V., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Ramachanderen, T., “Gold Nanoparticles Modified TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for the Selective Determination of Ascorbic Acid”, in International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, IIT Guwahati, 2009.

2009

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G. and T, R., “Highly Ordered Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays for the Amperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid”, in Second international conference on Nanoscience and Technology (Cochin Nano-2009), CUSAT, 2009.

2009

Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G. and Ramachandran T., “Highly Sensitive Non-enzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on Nanoporous Copper oxide/ Copper oxalate”, in International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, IIT Guwahati, 2009.

Faculty Research Interest: