Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Journal Article

Ashok Kumar Mohan, Dr. Nirmala Devi M., Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, and Santhya R, “A Selective Generation of Hybrid Random Numbers via Android Smart Phones”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 311-317, 2018.[Abstract]


The True Random Number Generator (TRNG) is an important module for countless cryptographically secure appliances. TRNG generation technique requires custom made hardware with quantum phenomena, which on the whole are expensive research components. A secure and sound TRNG design is anticipated at this time, which is based on the permutation of sensor feeds and combination of noise patterns from the peripherals of any Android smartphone. The source for this generator is the selected features from the in-built hardware components namely accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, WiFi signal measure, cell tower information, GPS coordinates and battery thermal noise. Additionally, Process ID (PID) of the corresponding Android processes is given as key vector to augment the entropy and also addresses some of the security concern like confidentiality, integrity and availability of the authentic sources. . Hardware-Based Random Number Generator (HRNG) can be achieved by combing the source of the user, their corresponding parameters and the measure of imperfection.

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2018

Journal Article

, Alangot, B., and Achuthan, K., “Trace and track: Enhanced pharma supply chain infrastructure to prevent fraud”, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol. 218, pp. 189-195, 2018.[Abstract]


The menace of counterfeit drugs has prompted the regulatory authorities to mandate trace and track systems to verify the provenance of drugs as it travels across the supply chain. Here, we propose a highly scalable and enhanced trace and track system for pharma supply chain. Our novel idea of using an IoT framework known as GDP (Global Data Plane) integrated with blockchain helps in communication and management of data between untrusted parties. The blockchain maintains an immutable record of drugs each party holds and transactions the parties make amongst themselves. This makes it hard to introduce counterfeit drugs into the supply chain. © 2018, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

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2017

Journal Article

J. M. Kannimoola, Jayaraman, B., Tambay, P., Achuthan, K., and Jinesh, M. K., “Temporal constrained objects: Application and implementation”, Computer Languages, Systems and Structures, vol. 49, pp. 82-100, 2017.[Abstract]


We present a novel programming concept called temporal constrained objects for modeling of dynamic systems. It is an extension of the paradigm of constrained objects which provides a principled approach to modeling complex engineering systems based upon two main principles: a compositional specification of the structure of the system, using objects, and a declarative specification of its behavior, using constraints. A novel feature of temporal constrained objects is the series variable, the sequence of whose values is determined by constraints that include metric temporal operators. The emergent behavior of a dynamic system is determined through a process of time-based simulation and constraint satisfaction at each step. Each class definition for a temporal constrained object is translated into a Prolog rule with constraint-solving capability. In order to improve the performance for long simulations, a partial evaluation technique is adopted for optimized code generation. This paper describes the syntax of a language called TCOB along with several examples, our objective being to demonstrate the benefits of the programming paradigm. TCOB has been implemented and all examples presented in this paper were tested using this implementation. An overview of the translation as well as partial execution and its performance improvements are presented in the paper. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

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2017

Journal Article

A. U. Prem Sankar, Poornachandran, P., Ashok, A., Manu, R. K., and Hrudya, P., “B-secure: A dynamic reputation system for identifying anomalous BGP paths”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 515, pp. 767-775, 2017.[Abstract]


BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is one of the core internet backbone protocols, which were designed to address the large-scale routing among the ASes (Autonomous System) in order to ensure the reachability among them. However, an attacker can inject update messages into the BGP communication from the peering BGP routers and those routing information will be propagated across the global BGP routers. This could cause disruptions in the normal routing behavior. Specially crafted BGP messages can reroute the traffic path from a source ASN to a specific destination ASN via another path and this attack is termed as AS Path Hijacking. This research work is focused on the detection of suspicious deviation in the AS path between a source and destination ASNs, by analyzing the BGP update messages that are collected by passive peering to the BGP routers. The research mainly focuses on identifying the AS Path Hijacking by quantifying: (1). How far the deviation occurred for a given AS Path and (2). How much credible is the deviated AS path. We propose a novel approach to calculate the deviation occurred by employing weighted edit distance algorithm. A probability score using n-gram frequency is used to determine credibility of the path. Both the scores are correlated together to determine whether a given AS Path is suspicious or not. The experimental results show that our approach is capable of identifying AS path hijacks with low false positives. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017. More »»

2017

Journal Article

A. Ashok, Poornachandran, P., Pal, S., Sankar, P., and Surendran, K., “Why so abnormal? Detecting domains receiving anomalous surge traffic in a monitored network”, Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, vol. 32, pp. 2901-2907, 2017.[Abstract]


Anomalous traffics are those unusual and colossal hits a non-popular domain gets for a small epoch period in a day. Regardless of whether these anomalies are malicious or not, it is important to analyze them as they might have a dramatic impact on a customer or an end user. Identifying these traffic anomalies is a challenge, as it requires mining and identifying patterns among huge volume of data. In this paper, we provide a statistical and dynamic reputation based approach to identify unpopular domains receiving huge volumes of traffic within a short period of time. Our aim is to develop and deploy a lightweight framework in a monitored network capable of analyzing DNS traffic and provide early warning alerts regarding domains receiving unusual hits to reduce the collateral damage faced by an end-user or customer. The authors have employed statistical analysis, supervised learning and ensemble based dynamic reputation of domains, IP addresses and name servers to distinguish benign and abnormal domains with very low false positives. © 2017-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan and Murali, S. S., “Virtual lab: An adequate multi-modality learning channel for enhancing students’ perception in chemistry”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 574, pp. 419-433, 2017.[Abstract]


This paper investigates the instructional effectiveness of learning modalities towards enhancing learners’ conceptual understanding of crystal field theory (CFT) using a multimedia rich platform such as Virtual Laboratory. The virtual laboratory in the present work has integrated modalities such as graphics, images, animations, videos and simulations for simultaneous demonstration of concepts related to CFT. This study aims to evaluate the impact of these modalities on the learning outcomes of visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners irrespective of their preferred learning modality. A case study of 524 undergraduate chemistry students from four higher educational institutes was carried out as part of the evaluation. Assessment of knowledge, conceptual understanding, application and analysis with and without the virtual lab platform was done using assessment quizzes. Results showed that students that underwent a combination of visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning modalities within virtual lab environment had significantly improved their understanding resulting in better performance. The study also characterizes the effectiveness of integrated modalities on the enhancement of learning amongst the three types of learners. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

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2017

Journal Article

V. Radhakrishnan, Narayanan, H., and Shiju Sathyadevan, “System call authorization in linux by a secure daemon”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 3903-3908, 2017.[Abstract]


Compromises on data integrity and confidentiality have exposed the vulnerability of security architectures of traditional Linux-based operating systems against malicious attacks. Minimized functionality and increased complexity restrict the effectiveness of traditional approaches such as sandboxing in handling attacks. We proposed architecture based on restricted user privileges and authorization to secure the Linux operating system. We developed a Secure Daemon to authorize the system calls. All the system calls invoked by user processes are redirected to secure daemon using a dynamic dispatch mechanism (wrapper functions) implemented on top of the existing libraries. Our approach ensures that critical system resources are protected in the event of an attack. Since the major elements of the proposed system operate at the user level, it is portable across all Linux distributions. ©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

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2017

Journal Article

K. U. Abinesh Kamal and Shiju Sathyadevan, “Intrusion detection system using big data framework”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 3909-3913, 2017.[Abstract]


In the enormous stream of network traffic, there is no way to identify which packet is benign and which is an anomaly packet. Hence, we intend to develop a new network intrusion detection model using apache-spark to improve the performance and to detect the intrusions while handling the colossal stream of network traffic in IDS. The model can detect known intrusion effectively using real-time analytics and hence identify unknown data schema compared with traditional IDS. The objective of the model addresses the following capabilities: Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) by inspecting the network traffic and examining the properties that describe the intrusion characteristics. Collaborating the vulnerability assessment with human intervention, using C.45 decision tree algorithm, optimizes pattern matching to boost detection rate. The clustered hosts are grouped based on their number of visits in an unique IP. The intrusion classifiers are developed by investigating each IP groups which reflects different properties used for prediction. The prediction model is built over Amrita Big Data Apache-Spark framework as a sequence of workflows. The above workflow is implemented in Amrita Big Data Framework (ABDF) to improve the detection time and performance, the model output provides effective results in detecting DOS attacks and port scanning attacks. ©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

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2017

Journal Article

K. Achuthan, Francis, S. P., and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Augmented reflective learning and knowledge retention perceived among students in classrooms involving virtual laboratories”, Education and Information Technologies, pp. 1-31, 2017.[Abstract]


Learning theories converge on the principles of reflective learning processes and perceive them as fundamental to effective learning. Traditional laboratory education in science and engineering often happens in highly resource-constrained environments that compromise some of the learning objectives. This paper focuses on characterizing three learning attributes associated with reflective learning i.e. metacognition (M), analogical reasoning (A) and transfer of knowledge (T) and assessed college laboratory education blended with ICT-enabled virtual laboratories. Key contributions of this study include: 1) Development of assessment of MAT attributes using a combination of multiple choice questions, True/False statements and descriptive questions 2) assessment of conceptual learning occurring in the laboratory environment and of learning attributes using Virtual Laboratories (VLs) in classroom education. Feedback data indicated using virtual laboratories in classrooms for training students before using physical laboratories demonstrated a significant improvement (>100% change) in learning in comparison to physical laboratories without VLs. We also show using VLs as pre-lab or post-lab exercise augmented reflective learning and information retention among 145 students in this blended learning case study, compared to an independent control group of 45 students who had no virtual laboratory training. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC More »»

2015

Journal Article

K. Achuthan, Brahmanandan, S., and Bose, L. S., “Cognitive load management in multimedia enhanced interactive virtual laboratories”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 320, pp. 143-155, 2015.[Abstract]


Learning in multimedia enhanced interactive environments has distinctly impacted the cognitive processing of information. Theoretical learning requires conceptual understanding while experimental learning requires cognition of underlying phenomena in addition to a firm grasp of procedures and protocols. Virtual laboratories have been recently introduced to supplement laboratory education. In this paper, an outline of the modes of knowledge representation for virtual laboratories is presented. The results from this work show how the combination of physical and sensory representations in virtual laboratories plays a key role in the overall understanding of the content. Information processing through visual, auditory, pictorial as well as interactive modes offers unique pathways to cognition. An analysis of comprehension for N=60 students showed a significant change in the time taken to answer questions as well as an overall improvement in scores when exposed to multimedia enhanced interactive virtual laboratories (MEIVL). This study also portrayed a reduction in the perception of difficulty in understanding physics experiments. Statistical tests on various modes of assessments were done both online and in classroom quantify the extent of improvement in learning based on the enabling, facilitating and split attention aspects of MEIVL. More »»

2015

Journal Article

Raghu Raman, Prof. Nedungadi, P., V Smrithi Rekha, and Krishnasree Achuthan, “Computer Science (CS) Education in Indian Schools: Situation Analysis using Darmstadt Model”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (IN PRESS), 2015.[Abstract]


Computer science (CS) and its enabling technologies are at the heart of this information age, yet its adoption as a core subject by senior secondary students in Indian schools is low and has not reached critical mass. Though there have been efforts to create core curriculum standards for subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Math, CS seems to have been kept outside the purview of such efforts leading to its marginalization. As a first step, using the Darmstadt model from the ITiCSE working group that provides a systematic categorization approach to CS education in schools, we coded and analyzed the CS situation for the Indian schools. Next, we focused on the motivation category of the Darmstadt model and investigated behavioral intentions of secondary school students and teachers from 332 schools in India. Considering the CS subject as an educational innovation, using Rogers’ Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, we propose a pedagogical framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict-adoption of the CS subject among potential-adopter students and teachers. Data was analyzed to answer research questions about student and teacher intentions, influence of gender, school management, and school location in adopting CS. Interestingly, girls, urban students, teachers, and private schools were seen favoring the adoption of CS. An important issue that needed to be addressed, however, was the interchangeable use of terms like CS, Informatics, ICT, and digital literacy. Through our article, we offer a promising picture of the educational policy directives and the academic environment in India that is rapidly growing and embracing CS as a core subject of study in schools. We also analyze the factors that influence the adoption of CS by school students and teachers and conclude that there is a very positive response for CS among educators and students in India.

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PDF iconcomputer-science-cs-education-in-indian-schools-situation-analysis-using-darmstadt-model.pdf

2015

Journal Article

V. J. Jincy and Sundararajan, S., “Classification mechanism for iot devices towards creating a security framework”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 321, 2015.[Abstract]


IoT systems and devices are being used for various applications ranging from households to large industries on a very large scale. Design of complex systems comprising of different IoT devices involves meeting of security requirements for the whole system. Creating a general security framework for such interconnected systems is a challenging task and currently we do not have standard mechanisms for securing such systems. The first step towards developing such a framework would be to build a classification mechanism which can identify the security capabilities or parameters of the different entities comprising an IoT system. In this paper we describe one such mechanism which can take user input to classify the different components of a complex system and thereby determine their capability to support security mechanisms of different degrees. This in turn would enable designers to decide what kind of security protocols they need to adopt to achieve end-to-end security for the whole system. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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2015

Journal Article

K. Boopathi, Sreejith, S., and Bithin, A., “Learning Cyber Security Through Gamification”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 8, p. 642, 2015.[Abstract]


Objectives: Introducing gaming approach in the jeopardy round of InCTF (Indian Capture the Flag). Methods: Present Jeopardy round of InCTF can be compared as take-away assignments, where participants are given set of questions to solve, this is aimed at testing their knowledge in various computer security concepts. To make jeopardy round more attractive and motivating to the students we introduce a gaming approach to it. A game is developed which is divided into various levels and at each level the knowledge of students in Cyber security concepts is tested. Our design will help others to host jeopardy round CTF and get maximum learning outcome from the students. Findings: Security competition like CTF (Capture the Flag) are effective tool in providing computer security training. Conclusion: Gaming approach in Cyber security education will be a big step forward in training more students in computer security and create a secure online world.

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2014

Journal Article

Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Nedungadi, P., and Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, “Modeling Diffusion of Blended Labs for Science Experiments Among Undergraduate Engineering Students”, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol. 135 LNICST, pp. 234-247, 2014.[Abstract]


While there is large body of work examining efficacy of Virtual Labs in engineering education, studies to date have lacked modeling Blended Labs (BL) - mix of Virtual Labs (VL) and Physical Labs (PL) for science experimentation at the university engineering level. Using Rogers theory of perceived attributes, this paper provides a research framework that identifies the attributes for BL adoption in a social group comprising of (N=246) potential adopter undergraduate engineering students. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the interinfluence of related group of potential adopter faculties who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that acceptance of BL as an innovation and its learning outcomes are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Department and Faculty support. Learning outcomes are very positive under BL when compared to PL, though within BL, ordering of PL and VL was not significant. For certain innovation attributes gender differences were significant. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt BL model for learning than using only PL. © Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2014.

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2014

Journal Article

P. Poornachandran, Hrudya, P., and Reghunadh, J., “Human vs. machine: Analyzing the robustness of advertisement based CAPTCHAs”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 264, pp. 477-489, 2014.[Abstract]


A program that can ensure whether the response is generated by a human, not from a machine, is called CAPTCHA. They have become a ubiquitous defense to protect web services from bot programs. At present most of the visual CAPTCHAs are cracked by programs; as a result they become more complex which makes both human and machine finds it difficult to crack. NLPCAPTCHAs, an acronym for Natural Language Processing CAPTCHA, are introduced to provide both security and revenue to websites owners through advertisements. They are highly intelligent CAPTCHAs that are difficult for a machine to understand whereas it's a better user experience when compared to traditional CAPTCHA. In this paper we have introduced a method that is able to analyze and recognize the challenges from three different types of NLPCAPTCHAs. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

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2013

Journal Article

B. Jayaraman and Jayaraj Poroor, “Modeling mobile stateful channels in πZ”, Science of Computer Programming, vol. 78, pp. 1470 - 1489, 2013.[Abstract]


We investigate a principled extension of the π-calculus for formal modeling of mobile communicating systems with stateful channels. In our proposed extension, called πZ, a channel is associated with a stateful abstract type in the Z specification language. We develop both reduction as well as labeled transition semantics for πZ. We show that the important properties of the π-calculus are preserved in πZ: (1) τ-transitions match reductions; and (2) bisimilarity induced by the labeled transitions is closed under parallel composition, name restriction, and a restricted recursion. The paper illustrates the use of stateful channels by modeling the ‘hidden node problem’ in a wireless network.

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2012

Journal Article

J. Ea John, Ajai, A. SaRemya, and Poornachandran, Pb, “Effective implementation of des algorithm for voice scrambling”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 335 CCIS, pp. 75-84, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper presents a high performance reconfigurable hardware implementation of speech scrambling-descrambling system which can be used for military and high security environments. The scrambling algorithm is based on DES algorithm with a novel skew core key scheduling. The scrambled speech signal is not intelligible to the listener, but the recovered audio is very clear. This type of encryption can be used in applications where we need to discourage eavesdropping from co-channel users or RF scanners. The DES design is implemented on Virtex 5 XC5VLX110T Field Programming Gate Arrays (FPGA) technology. Final 16-stage pipelined design is achieved with encryption rate of 35.5 Gbit/s and 2140 number of Configurable logic blocks (CLBs). © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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2012

Journal Article

P. Va Sruthi, Poornachandran, Pb, and Ajai, A. SaRemya, “Performance analysis and improvement using LFSR in the pipelined key scheduling section of DES”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 335 CCIS, pp. 215-224, 2012.[Abstract]


In this paper, DES algorithm is implemented by applying pipelining concept to the key scheduling part. Using this implementation, it is possible to have the key length equal to data length; which further improves the security of the system, at the same time decaying the performance. This scenario is similar to that of one time pad. i.e, here key storage and transmission is going to occupy more area and power, degrading the performance of the system. The security vs performance trade off is analyzed for the circuit. Another solution is also introduced in this paper, i.e, the Linear Feedback Shift Registers(LFSRs). Using LFSR, it is possible to have different keys generated every clock cycles, improving the security of the system, at the same time we need to store or transmit the single seed of LFSR only. The design is implemented in Virtex 5 FPGA device using Xilinx 12.1 platform. An encryption rate of 35.5 gbits/S is obtained, which is almost the fastest among all other current implementations. The performance of the system in terms of area, power and timing is analyzed using the Synopsys tool. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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2012

Journal Article

A. Ashok, Poornachandran, P., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Secure authentication in multimodal biometric systems using cryptographic hash functions”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 335 CCIS, pp. 168-177, 2012.[Abstract]


In this Information Age, security of personal data is one of the biggest issues faced by most of the nations. Biometrics provides substantial help in guarding against attempts to establish fraudulent multiple identities or prevent identity fraud. The greatest advantage that the biometric data of an individual remains constant acts as its biggest liability. Once the attacker gets biometric password of an individual then security of his data becomes a big problem. This paper comes with a unique solution which will allow people to change their biometric password and helps to overcome some of the present issues in biometric systems. The biometric password is created by hashing the biometric data of the user. Merging of biometrics and cryptography proves to be more secure and helps to provide a better authentication system for the society. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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2012

Journal Article

B. Jayaraman and Jayaraj Poroor, “C2L:A Formal Policy Language for Secure Cloud Configurations”, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 10, pp. 499 - 506, 2012.[Abstract]


We present a formal policy language (C2L) for stating permissible cloud configurations. Syntactically, C2L is based upon a spatio-temporal modal logic and provides a concise and clear statement of policy constraints for colocation, hosting, migration, security, andavailability.We illustrate the language witha numberof policyspecificationexamples and also present an algorithm forverifying whethera cloud configuration along with its history satisfiesaC2Lpolicy specification.We provide complexity analysisof the algorithm, and conclude thatC2Lisa useful and viable formalism for specifying and verifying cloud configuration policies

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2011

Journal Article

Jayaraj Poroor and Jayaraman, Bb, “Verifying security properties of internet protocol stacks: The split verification approach”, Journal of Systems Architecture, vol. 57, pp. 269-281, 2011.[Abstract]


We propose a novel method to construct user-space internet protocol stacks whose security properties can be formally explored and verified. The proposed method allows construction of protocol stacks using a C++ subset. We define a formal state-transformer representation of protocol stacks in which the protocol stack is specified in terms of three primary operations, which are constructed from sub-operations, in a compositional manner. We also define a Kripke model that captures the sequencing and attributes of stack operations. We propose a novel approach, called split verification, which combines theorem-proving and model-checking to establish properties for a protocol stack specification. In split verification, properties to be established for the stack are expressed as a combination of properties for primitive operations to be established via theorem-proving as well as temporal properties on operation sequencing, called promotion conditions, to be established via model-checking on the stack operations model. We use abstract Z specifications to represent operation properties and computational tree logic (CTL) formulae to represent promotion conditions. Operation properties are established by checking whether the operation(s) under consideration are correct refinements of the abstract Z specification(s). Our conclusion is that split verification: (a) avoids scalability issues caused by state-space explosion in model-checking and long unwieldy proofs in theorem-proving, and, (b) lowers cost of proof maintenance for localized changes in the stack.

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2009

Journal Article

Jayaraj Poroor and Jayaraman, B., “DoS Attacks on Real-Time Media through Indirect Contention-in-Hosts”, IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, pp. 22-30, 2009.[Abstract]


Quality of service (QoS) is critical for delivering real-time media services (RTMSs). The authors identify a new class of denial-of-service attacks against RTMSs - indirect contention-in-hosts (ICiH). Here, attackers attempt to indirectly degrade RTMS QoS by directing packets at other concurrent services, thereby inducing resource contention between RTMS packets and attack packets in the protocol stack. To analyze such attacks, the authors' operation-trace analysis method formalizes the notion of contention among concurrent services and develops several metrics to quantify ICiH's effects.

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Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Conference Proceedings

J. J and Sankaran, S., “Towards a Decision-Centric approach for securing Cyber Physical Systems”, 10th International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS) 2018. p. 500‐502, 2018.[Abstract]


The emerging discipline of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) integrate the interdisciplinary fields of computing, networking and control to offer solutions to real world problems. CPS solutions typically include security mechanisms that defend against attack attempts and initiate countermeasures to thwart the attacker objectives. To minimize the system performance overhead, the optimal decision would be to initialize the security mechanism in response to attack attempts in contrast to sustained operation. In this work, we use Markov Decision Processes (MDP) to decide the threshold upon which the system initiates the security mechanism. The system may be initialized at the threshold to minimize the overall operating costs. The proposed model can be further used to develop a decision-centric security architecture for CPS that balances the trade-off between system performance and security.

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2018

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran, Sanju, S., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Towards Realistic Energy Profiling of Blockchains for securing Internet of Things”, IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS) 2018. pp. 1454-1459, 2018.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoTs) offers a plethora of opportunities for remote monitoring and communication of everyday objects known as things with applications in numerous domains. The advent of blockchains can be a significant enabler for IoTs towards conducting and verifying transactions in a secure manner. However, applying blockchains to IoTs is challenging due to the resource constrained nature of the embedded devices coupled with significant delay incurred in processing and verifying transactions in the blockchain. Thus there exists a need for profiling the energy consumption of blockchains for securing IoTs and analyzing energy-performance trade-offs. Towards this goal, we profile the impact of workloads based on Smart Contracts and further quantify the power consumed by different operations performed by the devices on the Ethereum platform. In contrast to existing approaches that are focused on performance, we characterize performance and energy consumption for real workloads and analyse energy-performance trade-offs. Our proposed methodology is generic in that it can be applied to other platforms. The insights obtained from the study can be used to develop secure protocols for IoTs using blockchains.

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2018

Conference Proceedings

S. Roy, Sankaran, S., Singh, P., and Sridhar, R., “Modeling Context-Adaptive Energy-Aware Security in Mobile Devices (Accepted)”, 43rd Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshops (LCN Workshops). 2018.

2018

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran and Gupta, M., “Towards a Hybrid Model for CPU Usage Prediction of Smartphone Users(Accepted)”, International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications (ADCOM) 2018 . 2018.

2018

Conference Proceedings

S. Roy, Sankaran, S., Singh, P., Sridhar, R., and , “CONTEXT-SEC: Balancing Energy Consumption and Security of Mobile Devices (Accepted) ”, 2018 Ninth International Green and Sustainable Computing (IGSC) Workshops. 2018.

2017

Conference Proceedings

A. Raj, Jithish, J., and Sankaran, S., “Modelling The Impact Of Code Obfuscation On Energy Usage”, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1819. CEUR-WS, 2017.[Abstract]


Advancements in computing and communication technologies have given rise to low-cost embedded devices with applications in diverse domains such as Smarthome, industrial automation, healthcare, transportation etc. These devices are power-constrained which emphasizes the need for lightweight security solutions. Code obfuscation has been demonstrated to provide time-limited protection of source code from inference or tampering attacks. However, size of the obfuscated code increases with increase in code size which can have a negative impact on energy consumption. In particular, different transformations of the source code result in varying amounts of energy consumption for embedded devices. In this work, we model the impact of algorithms for code obfuscation on energy usage for embedded devices and analyze the energy-security-performance trade-offs. The insights from our analysis can be used to develop techniques depending on the needs of the applications thus facilitating efficient energy usage. Copyright ©2017 for the individual papers by the papers' authors.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

J. Jithish and Sankaran, S., “A Hybrid Adaptive Rule Based System For Smart Home Energy Prediction”, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1819. CEUR-WS, 2017.[Abstract]


The increase in energy prices combined with the environmental impact of energy production has made energy efficiency a key component towards the development of smart homes. An efficient energy management strategy for smart homes results in minimized electricity consumption leading to cost savings. Towards this goal, we investigate the impact of environmental factors on home energy consumption. Home energy demand is observed to be affected by environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and humidity which are inherently uncertain. Analyzing the impact of these factors on electricity consumption is challenging due to the unpredictability of weather conditions and non-linear relationship between environmental factors and electricity demand. For demand estimation based on these time varying factors, a hybrid intelligent system is developed that integrates the adaptability of neural networks and reasoning of fuzzy systems to predict daily electricity demand. A smart home dataset is utilized to build an unsupervised artificial neural network known as the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). We further develop a fuzzy rule based system from the SOM to predict home energy demand. Evaluation of the system shows a strong correlation between home energy demand and environmental factors and that the system predicts home energy consumption with higher accuracy. Copyright ©2017 for the individual papers by the papers' authors.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

J. J and Sankaran, S., “A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach for Domestic Water Usage Prediction”, Proceedings of IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). 2017.[Abstract]


The unconstrained rise in water usage as a result of population growth, rapid urbanization and climate change has become an issue of paramount concern for policy makers across the globe. Consequently, fresh water as a renewable but finite resource must be managed efficiently to sustain domestic and productive activities. Efficient water management strategies must be developed to address the challenges of increased demand without undermining long term sustainability. Developing such strategies necessitates a multidisciplinary approach incorporating policy planning and applied technology to efficiently manage water resources for maximizing economic growth and promoting social welfare. Towards this goal, we develop a hybrid intelligent system for domestic water usage prediction based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The proposed system is trained in a supervised manner to model the relationship between environmental factors and domestic water consumption. The system forecasts domestic water usage based on environmental factors particularly atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. Evaluation of the system on a real smart home dataset demonstrates that the system predicts domestic water consumption with higher accuracy.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

J. Jithish and Sankaran, S., “A Rule-Based System for Smart Home Energy Prediction”, Development Aspects of Intelligent Systems (DIAS) co-located with Innovations in Software Engineering 2017. 2017.

2017

Conference Proceedings

J. Jithish and Sankaran, S., “Securing networked control systems: Modeling attacks and defenses”, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Asia (ICCE-Asia). IEEE, Bangalore, India, 2017.[Abstract]


Networked Control Systems (NCS) have emerged as a viable solution to effectively manage critical infrastructures in smart cities and modern industrial settings. The networked architecture of NCS that facilitates the communication between its distributed components makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. The vulnerabilities in the communication network coupled with safety critical nature of data necessitates the need to develop models to analyze the impact of cyber attacks on system stability and performance. In this work, we develop an analytical model for Denial of Service (DoS) and Deception attacks in NCS. Based on the insights from the model, we propose a mechanism based on symmetric key encryption to secure NCS from such attacks. The comparison of our security mechanism with the standard reference signal demonstrates that our approach is successful in securing the NCS with minimal performance overhead.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

A. Rajan, Jithish, J., and Sankaran, S., “Sybil attack in IOT: Modelling and defenses”, 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). IEEE, Udupi, India, 2017.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm in information technology (IT) that integrates advancements in sensing, computing and communication to offer enhanced services in everyday life. IoTs are vulnerable to sybil attacks wherein an adversary fabricates fictitious identities or steals the identities of legitimate nodes. In this paper, we model sybil attacks in IoT and evaluate its impact on performance. We also develop a defense mechanism based on behavioural profiling of nodes. We develop an enhanced AODV (EAODV) protocol by using the behaviour approach to obtain the optimal routes. In EAODV, the routes are selected based on the trust value and hop count. Sybil nodes are identified and discarded based on the feedback from neighbouring nodes. Evaluation of our protocol in ns-2 simulator demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in identifying and detecting sybil nodes in IoT network.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

T. V. Ram and Sankaran, S., “Towards policy-driven power management for cloud computing”, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). IEEE, Bhubaneswar, India, 2017.[Abstract]


Cloud computing enables users to rent computing resources on-demand towards meeting the needs of diverse applications. However, scaling of resources may incur significant impact on performance and power consumption which are the two key concerns for cloud service providers. The major goal of cloud providers is to develop policies for balancing the conflicting objectives of maximizing performance and minimizing energy consumption. Towards this goal, we analyze the impact of scale-up and scale-out techniques for varying cloud workloads through an OpenStack implementation. Our analysis reveals that these techniques vary with the nature of applications that run on the cloud as a result of which policies need to be developed on a per-application basis. We develop a threshold-based policy which determines the optimal trade-off depending on the application profile. Our proposed policy is generic and can be applied to other workloads thus facilitating efficient management of resources.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran and Gupta, M., “Towards Modeling Vehicular Networks with Power-Performance trade-offs”, IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS) . 2017.[Abstract]


Vehicular networks are gaining increasing significance due to real-time communication and decision-making capabilities of vehicles and their interaction with road-side units. Power Management is critical for roadside units since they are typically powered on for servicing requests from vehicles. In this work, we envision low-power proxy servers to act on behalf of roadside units during periods of minimal activity to enable roadside units to be powered down resulting in power savings. However there exists a need for modeling of vehicular networks with roadside units and proxy servers for analyzing power-performance trade-offs. Towards this goal, we develop a queueing model to understand the impact of highway traffic on the power consumed by roadside units and proxy servers and further propose a threshold based approach for power savings. Our experiments conducted using real traces demonstrate that the proposed approach is traffic-aware in that it balances the trade-off between power consumption and delay.

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2017

Conference Proceedings

S. Anil Kumar, J, J., and Sankaran, S., “Towards efficient resource provisioning in Vehicular Networks”, IEEE Biennial International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy (TAPEnergy) 2017. 2017.[Abstract]


The growing technological advancements in the fields of computation and communication technologies has enabled a communication network of vehicles, interacting among themselves to facilitate safe and efficient traffic in urban environments, termed as Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). VANETs depend on computational units called Road Side Units (RSUs), deployed along the highway to enable connectivity to moving vehicles in the network. Developing mechanisms for efficient resource provisioning of RSUs are of significant importance for energy efficiency in Vehicular networks. Towards this goal, we develop a model to dynamically resize computational resources of RSUs based on vehicle density. The proposed model utilizes queuing theory to determine the optimum number of computational units required to handle data exchanges depending on the vehicle density. Preliminary results in MATLAB/Simulink environment show feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed solution for achieving energy efficient operation in VANETs.

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2016

Conference Proceedings

P. Poornachandran, Raj, D., and Pal, S., “Effectiveness of Email Address Obfuscation on Internet”, Innovations in Computer Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the Third ICICSE, 2015. Springer Singapore, Singapore, pp. 181–191, 2016.

2016

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran, “Predictive Modeling based Power Estimation for Embedded Multicore Systems”, ACM International Conference on Computing Frontiers (CF). ACM Digital Library, Como, Italy, pp. 370-375, 2016.[Abstract]


The increasing number of cores in embedded devices results in improved performance compared to single-core systems. Further, the unique characteristics of these systems provide numerous opportunities for power management which require models for power estimation. In this work, a statistical approach that models the impact of the individual cores and memory hierarchy on overall power consumed by Chip Multiprocessors is developed using Performance Counters. In particular, we construct a per-core based power model using SPLASH2 benchmarks by leveraging concurrency for multicore systems. Our model is simple and technology independent and as a result executes faster incurring lesser overhead. Evaluation of the model shows a strong correlation between core-level activity and power consumption and that the model predicts power consumption for newer observations with minimal errors. In addition, we discuss a few applications where the model can be utilized towards estimating power consumption.

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PDF iconPredictive-Modeling-based-Power-Estimation-for-Embedded-Multicore-Systems.pdf

2016

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran, “Lightweight Security Framework For IoTs Using Identity Based Cryptography”, International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). IEEE, Jaipur, India, 2016.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoTs) is gaining increasing significance due to real-time communication and decision making capabilities of sensors integrated into everyday objects. Securing IoTs is one of the foremost concerns due to the ubiquitous nature of the sensors coupled with the increasing sensitivity of user data. Further, power-constrained nature of the IoTs emphasizes the need for lightweight security that can tailor to the stringent resource requirements of the sensors. In this work, we propose a lighweight security framework for IoTs using Identity based Cryptography. In particular, we develop a hierarchical security architecture for IoTs and further develop protocols for secure communication in IoTs using identity based cryptography. Our proposed mechanism has been evaluated using simulations conducted using Contiki and RELIC. Evaluation shows that our proposed mechanism is lightweight incurring lesser overhead and thus can be applied in IoTs.

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PDF iconLightweight-Security-Framework-For-IoTs-Using-Identity-Based-Cryptography.pdf

2016

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran, “Modeling the Performance of IoT Networks”, IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS). IEEE, Bangalore, India, 2016.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoTs) is gaining increasing significance due to real-time communication and decision making capabilities of sensors integrated into everyday objects. Predicting performance in IoTs is critical for detecting performance bottlenecks, designing optimal sleep/wake-up schedules and application-aware performance tuning. However, performance prediction becomes a significant challenge in IoTs due to varying needs of applications coupled with the resource constrained nature of sensors. In this work, we analyze the impact of factors affecting performance in IoT networks using simulation based models. Further, an analytical framework is developed to model the impact of individual node behavior on overall performance using Markov chains. In particular, we derive steady state transition probabilities of transmit and receive states using protocol execution traces and further utilize them towards predicting per-flow throughput. Our proposed model is generic in that it can be applied across domains. Accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing the predictions with the actual estimates obtained using simulations.

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PDF iconModeling-the-Performance-of-IoT-Networks.pdf

2015

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran and Sridhar, R., “Modeling and Analysis of Routing for IoT Networks”, International Conference on Computing and Network Communications (CoCoNet). IEEE, Trivandrum, India, 2015.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoTs) is gaining increasing significance due to real-time communication and decision making capabilties of sensors integrated into everyday objects. IoTs are power and bandwidth-constrained with applications in smarthome, healthcare, transportation and industrial domains. Routing bears significant importance in IoTs where sensors acting as hosts deliver data to the gateways which in turn impacts power consumption. Thus there exists a need for modeling and analysis of routing in IoT networks towards predicting power consumption. In this work, we develop an analytical model of a naive flooding based routing protocol using Markov chains. In particular, we derive steady state transition probabilities of transmit and receive states using protocol execution traces and further utilize them towards predicting power consumption. Our approach to modeling is generic in that it can be applied to routing protocols across domains. Evaluation of the model shows that the predicted values for power consumption lie closer to the actual observations obtained using ns-2 simulation thus resulting in minimal mean square errors.

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PDF iconModeling-and-Analysis-of-Routing-in-IoT-Networks.pdf

2014

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Chellaiah, P., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Theme Interception Sequence Learning: Deflecting Rubber-Hose Attacks Using Implicit Learning”, In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) Springer International Publishing. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 495-502, 2014.[Abstract]


Existing cryptographic systems use strong passwords but several techniques are vulnerable to rubber-hose attacks, wherein the user is forced to reveal the secret key. This paper specifies a defence technique against rubber-hose attacks by taking advantage of image sequence-based theme selection, dependent on a user’s personal construct and active implicit learning. In this paper, an attempt to allow the human brain to generate the password via a computer task of arranging themed images through which the user learns a password without any conscious knowledge of the learned pattern. Although used in authentication, users cannot be coerced into revealing the secret key since the user has no direct knowledge on the choice of the learned secret. We also show that theme interception sequence learning tool works significantly well with mixed user age groups and can be used as a secondary layer of security where human user authentication remains a priority.

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PDF icontheme-interception-sequence-learning-deflecting-rubber-hose-attacks-using-implicit-learning.pdf

2014

Conference Proceedings

G. Sarath, Deepu, S., Sundararajan, S., and Achuthan, K., “ESEC: An Ideal Secret Sharing Scheme”, Proceedings of ICCD 2014, 1st International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices. Springer Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 135–143, 2014.[Abstract]


Secret sharing techniques have been used to ensure data confidentiality and enable secure reconstruction of data. In this paper, we propose a novel secret sharing scheme called ESEC based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). The proposed scheme is to distribute a secret to a non-intersecting group of participants with different privilege levels. In our implementation, we have three phases involving share generation, distribution, and secret regeneration. The threshold of different privilege levels is different and for reconstruction of the secret all participants will have to be from the same privilege level. The proposed scheme is a perfect and ideal secret sharing scheme.

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2013

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran and Sridhar, R., “User-Adaptive Energy-aware Security for Mobile Devices”, IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). IEEE, National Harbor, MD, USA, 2013.[Abstract]


Advancements in computing and communication technologies have given rise to low-cost embedded devices with applications in diverse domains such as Smarthome, industrial automation, healthcare, transportation etc. These devices are power-constrained which emphasizes the need for lightweight security solutions. Code obfuscation has been demonstrated to provide time-limited protection of source code from inference or tampering attacks. However, size of the obfuscated code increases with increase in code size which can have a negative impact on energy consumption. In particular, different transformations of the source code result in varying amounts of energy consumption for embedded devices. In this work, we model the impact of algorithms for code obfuscation on energy usage for embedded devices and analyze the energy-security-performance trade-os. The insights from our analysis can be used to develop techniques depending on the needs of the applications thus facilitating efficient energy usage.

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PDF iconUser-Adaptive-Energy-aware-Security-for-Mobile-Devices.pdf

2013

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran and R, S., “Energy Modeling for Mobile Devices Using Performance Counters”, 56th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. IEEE , Columbus, OH; United States, pp. 441-444, 2013.[Abstract]


The increasing complexity of mobile applications coupled with growing user demands lead to rapid battery drain in mobile devices. However, battery technology cannot keep up with these trends thus making power management one of the foremost concerns. While system-level approaches to power management exist, the energy impact of applications on individual system components needs to be better understood for energy efficient system design. In this work, we develop energy models for mobile devices using performance counters and estimate the power consumption of system components for numerous embedded applications. Our models provide enhancements in I/O towards estimating I/O energy and cache to incorporate energy consumed during cache refill and write-back in the energy estimation process. We further compare our power estimates with existing models and demonstrate the uniqueness of our model.

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PDF iconEnergy-Modeling-of-Mobile-Devices-using-Performance-Counters.pdf

2009

Conference Proceedings

S. Sankaran, Husain, M. Iftekhar, and Sridhar, R., “IDKEYMAN: An Identity-Based Key Management Scheme for Wireless Ad Hoc Body Area Networks”, Proceedings of Annual Symposium on Information Assurance (ASIA). 2009.[Abstract]


Wireless Ad hoc Body Area Networks are primarily used in health-care applications for patient monitoring purposes. Publisher-Subscriber driven Body Area Networks enable publishers (medical sensors attached to patients) to disseminate medical data to numerous mobile heterogeneous subscribers (doctors or caregivers) through a subscription mechanism. Such an environment raises serious security concerns due to the privacy critical medical data coupled with the resource constraints of individual body sensors. To address this problem, we present an identity based key management scheme using Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). IBE facilitates faster key set-up in addition to being lightweight and energy-efficient. The proposed scheme uses IBE to set up pair-wise symmetric keys to preserve data confidentiality and integrity. Our prototype and evaluation of the proposed model validate the approach.

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PDF iconIDKEYMAN-An-Identity-Based-Key-Management-Scheme-for-Wireless-Ad-Hoc-Body-Area-Networks.pdf

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Conference Paper

Rahul K Pathinarupothi, Bithin Alangot, and Ekanath Srihari Rangan, “Severity Summarization and Just in Time Alert Computation in mHealth Monitoring”, in EFMI International Conference on Informatics for Health, Manchester, UK , 2017, vol. 235, pp. 48-52.[Abstract]


Mobile health is fast evolving into a practical solution to remotely monitor high-risk patients and deliver timely intervention in case of emergencies. Building upon our previous work on a fast and power efficient summarization framework for remote health monitoring applications, called RASPRO (Rapid Alerts Summarization for Effective Prognosis), we have developed a real-time criticality detection technique, which ensures meeting physician defined interventional time. We also present the results from initial testing of this technique.

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2017

Conference Paper

I. Ray, Alangot, B., Nair, S., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Using Attribute-Based Access Control for Remote Healthcare Monitoring”, in 2017 4th International Conference on Software Defined Systems, SDS 2017, 2017, pp. 137-142.[Abstract]


Remote Healthcare Monitoring (RHM) IoT infrastructure uses sensors and smartphones to collect vital parameters from patients. These parameters pertaining to medical records are shared with healthcare professionals at geographically distant locations to provide timely medical care. RHM applications deployed on IoT infrastructure must address the issues of security and privacy in a constrained environment. We present our H-Plane framework for RHM and propose the use of the NIST Next Generation Access Control (NGAC) framework for specifying and enforcing access control policies. © 2017 IEEE.

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2017

Conference Paper

N. Mannilthodi and Jinesh, M. K., “Secure IoT: An improbable reality”, in IoTBDS 2017 - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Internet of Things, Big Data and Security, 2017, pp. 338-343.[Abstract]


Internet of Things(IoT) has been the buzzword for the past decade. Apart from its hype over opportunities, the security implications of IoT are unsolvable with current technologies. There is a wide range of security challenges in each layer of IoT conceptual model. We discuss the security challenges caused by the complex structures and integration of different techniques from diverse domains. By analysing attacks at the various layers we argue that the current standards are not enough to provide a secure framework for IoT. The economical and practical reasons make it impossible to puzzle out the various security challenges in IoT stack. From this perspective, we should think twice before connecting a device to the network of things. Copyright © 2017 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved.

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2017

Conference Paper

J. P. Guruprasadh, Harshananda, A., Keerthana, I. K., ,, Yadu, K. K., Rangarajan, M., and Sathyadevan, S., “Intelligent soil quality monitoring system for judicious irrigation”, in 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2017, 2017, vol. 2017-January, pp. 443-448.[Abstract]


As the world population increases exponentially, it is mandatory that we adopt modern agricultural practices to meet food safety demands. Intelligent sensor networks acquire data about soil regarding moisture and nutrient deficiency. This data can be employed to automate irrigation and alert farmer about nutrient deficiency. The data obtained from soil is pushed to the cloud. Great processing capabilities makes cloud storage an important solution to store the vast amount of data generated by the wireless sensor network, which can also be viewed by the farmer through a Smartphone application. This paper proposes and evaluates on a real deployment of wireless sensor network based on an Internet of things platform. © 2017 IEEE.

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2016

Conference Paper

Pa Seshagiri, Vazhayil, Ab, and Sriram, Pb, “AMA: Static Code Analysis of Web Page for the Detection of Malicious Scripts”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2016, vol. 93, pp. 768-773.[Abstract]


JavaScript language, through its dynamic feature, provides user interactivity with websites. It also pose serious security threats to both user and website. On top of this, obfuscation is widely used to hide its malicious purpose and to evade the detection of antivirus software. Malware embedded in web pages is regularly used as part of targeted attacks. To hinder detection by antivirus scanners, the malicious code is usually obfuscated, often with encodings like hexadecimal, unicode, base64, escaped characters and rarely with substitution ciphers like Vigenere, Caesar and Atbash. The malicious iframes are injected to the websites using JavaScript and are also made hidden from the users perspective in-order to prevent detection. To defend against obfuscated malicious JavaScript code, we propose a mostly static approach called, AMA, Amrita Malware Analyzer, a framework capable of detecting the presence of malicious code through static code analysis of web page. To this end, the framework performs probable plaintext attack using strings likely contained in malicious web pages. But this approach targets only few among many possible obfuscation strategies. The evaluation based on the links provided in the Malware domain list demonstrates high level accuracy. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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2016

Conference Paper

M. K. Jinesh, Jayaraman, B., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Dynamic Constrained Objects for Vehicular Network Modeling”, in AFMSS 2016, Banglore, 2016, pp. 41–52.

2016

Conference Paper

P. Poornachandran, Ashok, A., AU, P. Shankar, VG, S., Krishnamoorthy, S., Bharataraju, M., Panchagnula, S. K., and Khyati, D., “MobAware’-Employing Context Awareness, Sensors and Cloud for Automatic Emergency Help Requests”, in International Conference on Ambient Assisted Living Technologies based on Internet of Things, 2016.

2015

Conference Paper

M. V. Sukanya, Shiju Sathyadevan, and Sreeveni, U. B. Unmesha, “Benchmarking support vector machines implementation using multiple techniques”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2015, vol. 320, pp. 227-238.[Abstract]


Data management becomes a complex task when hundreds of petabytes of data are being gathered, stored and processed on a day to day basis. Efficient processing of the exponentially growing data is inevitable in this context. This paper discusses about the processing of a huge amount of data through Support Vector machine (SVM) algorithm using different techniques ranging from single node Linier implementation to parallel processing using the distributed processing frameworks like Hadoop. Map-Reduce component of Hadoop performs the parallelization process which is used to feed information to Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a machine learning algorithm applicable to classification and regression analysis. Paper also does a detailed anatomy of SVM algorithm and sets a roadmap for implementing the same in both linear and Map-Reduce fashion. The main objective is explain in detail the steps involved in developing an SVM algorithm from scratch using standard linear and Map-Reduce techniques and also conduct a performance analysis across linear implementation of SVM, SVM implementation in single node Hadoop, SVM implementation in Hadoop cluster and also against a proven tool like R, gauging them with respect to the accuracy achieved, their processing pace against varying data sizes, capability to handle huge data volume without breaking etc

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2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Hariram, Sa, Antony, Ab, and Mahith, V. Pb, “Fast approximate aggregation algorithms for effective browser visualization using similarity heuristics”, in International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2015, vol. 10, pp. 22133-22144.[Abstract]


Real world data is processed in multiple servers which constitutes a huge collection of data that causes the browser to crash at regular interval of time. The Aggregation have been done to those data that are generated from various sources like log files, video, text, image etc.This paper combines the fusion of hierarchical clustering with Map-reduce which indicates the grouping of same type of data and reducing it in to key-value pairs,this classification makes the processing and retrieval of real time data easy. Visualization of these data increases the efficiency for user to analyze it.The research results provide a better way to aggregate huge amount of data with high efficiency. © Research India Publications. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Jaison, P. Jb, and Sankar, Gb, “Proposal of browser by exploiting the proficiency of V8 for large data visualization”, in International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2015, vol. 10, pp. 22939-22946.[Abstract]


Big data is a commonly discussed topic of today. The 4V’s (volume, velocity, variety and veracity) of big data is creating hurdles in many areas which also includes browser. Loading data in dynamic manner is hurdle faced by the browser. The performance falls down as the magnitude of data to be processed escalate. When the data size increases above a certain level it throws error in the java script followed by the crash of the browser. The performance of different browsers varies depending on the techniques they employ. Here we propose a solution based on Google V8 engine for handling big data by testing its efficiency in standalone mode. © Research India Publications. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

R. S. Ramachandruni and Poornachandran, P., “Detecting the network attack vectors on SCADA systems”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 707-712.[Abstract]


Currently critical infrastructures such as SCADA systems are increasingly under threat, they often go unreported. There is a great need in addressing them. Today majority of the industries use these SCADA systems, so it is very critical to protect these systems. Attack on these systems could cause serious damage to the infrastructure and sometimes a threat to human life as well. As per date there are very few solutions to address SCADA security. So, it is important to take countermeasures against the attacks on these systems. In this paper we will analyze the use of honeypot systems in detecting the network attack vectors on SCADA systems. We will start by analyzing and testing various honeypot features which can help in providing additional security for SCADA systems. A Honeypot is built to mimic the services of an ICS; exposing them to the Internet, making them attractive for attackers and monitor the attackers activities. The goal is to model the attacking methodologies and suggest recommendations to make SCADA system secure. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan and Bose, L. Sb, “Concept mapping and assessment of virtual laboratory experimental knowledge”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 887-893.[Abstract]


Quantitative assessment of learning is an important indicator of teaching practices apart from the depth and grasp of content being assessed. Fundamental objective of assessment approaches should help promote learner engagement and is appropriate to the diversity of learners that may be present in any class. Learning from online or virtual classrooms can be more challenging due to lack of direct personal engagement between the teacher and the student. There are various modes of assessment commonly adopted today and students may exhibit different levels of performance based on the assessment method. This paper focuses on cross-comparison of these techniques to learning of laboratory concepts in a virtual environment. Apart from comparison of the commonly used assessment methods such as multiple choice questions, descriptive questions, true/false statements etc., the work explores the best methodology to correlate assessment from a reliability and validity perspective to the learning objectives and measure the progress of individual students. Correlating the innate learning styles of students to assessment approaches is another outcome of this work. In addition, the use of concept maps to assess the relationship between various science based principles is characterized for two different experimental labs with N=147 students. The advantages to using assessment techniques from a 'time-toassess' is also elaborated in this work. © 2015 IEEE.

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PDF iconconcept-mapping-and-assessment-of-virtual-laboratory-experimental-knowledge.pdf

2015

Conference Paper

S. Chandran, Hrudya, P., and Poornachandran, P., “An efficient classification model for detecting advanced persistent threat”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 2001-2009.[Abstract]


Among most of the cyber attacks that occured, the most drastic are advanced persistent threats. APTs are differ from other attacks as they have multiple phases, often silent for long period of time and launched by adamant, well-funded opponents. These targeted attacks mainly concentrated on government agencies and organizations in industries, as are those involved in international trade and having sensitive data. APTs escape from detection by antivirus solutions, intrusion detection and intrusion prevention systems and firewalls. In this paper we proposes a classification model having 99.8% accuracy, for the detection of APT. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

Sa Srinivas and Nair, Ab, “Security maturity in NoSQL databases - Are they secure enough to haul the modern IT applications?”, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, ICACCI 2015, 2015, pp. 739-744.[Abstract]


NoSQL phenomenon has taken the database and IT application world by storm. Growth and penetration of NoSQL applications, driven by Silicon Valley giants like Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo, Google and LinkedIn, has created an unprecedented database revolution, to inspire smaller companies to join the NoSQL bandwagon. While expansion and growth of these databases are adding glory and success to many corporate IT departments, it is very pertinent to explore the security aspects of these new era databases. Confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) are the very foundation of data protection and privacy. In this paper a sincere attempt is made to survey, analyze and assess the maturity of NoSQL databases through the lens of CIA triad. While the concept of CIA has its origins in relational databases, it is very important to understand, survey and delineate the security capabilities of this new generation databases, in terms of CIA fulfillment. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

L. Mohan, Jinesh, M. K., Bipin, K., Harikrishnan, P., and Shiju Sathyadevan, “Implementation of Scatternet in an Intelligent IoT Gateway”, in Emerging ICT for Bridging the Future - Proceedings of the 49th Annual Convention of the Computer Society of India CSI Volume 2, Hyderabad, 2015, vol. 338, pp. 275–287.[Abstract]


Anything and everything will be connected in the world of IoT. This allows a ubiquitous communication around the world. The communication can be a sensed data from the physical world, or control signal for a device or else a usual internet data communication. There can be several ways with which the real world device can communicate to the IoT platform. Bluetooth is one such technology which allows communication between a device in the real world and IoT network. Bluetooth Scatternet concept, gives a bluetooth network the capability to support multiple concurrent bluetooth device communication over a wide area.. This paper discuss about a custom build intra and inter piconet scheduling model and its real-time validation on our own IoT platform which includes the Gateway, AGway (Amrita Gateway) and Middleware, AIoTm (Amrita Internet of Things Middleware). The paper emphasis on scatternet building and scatternet maintenance. The entire implementation is based on the linux bluetooth stack Blue-Z.

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2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Muraleedharan, N., and Rajan, S. P., “Enhancement of data level security in mongoDB”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2015, vol. 321, pp. 199-212.[Abstract]


Recent developments in information and web technologies have resulted in huge data outburst. This has posed challenging demands in efficiently storing and managing large volume of structured and unstructured data. Traditional relational models exposed its weakness so much so that need for new data storage and management techniques became highly desirable. This resulted in the birth of NoSQL databases. Several business houses that churn out large volume of data have been successfully using NoSQL databases to store bulk of their data. Since the prime objective of such DB’s were efficient data storage and retrieval, core security features like data security techniques, proper authentication mechanisms etc. were given least priority. MongoDB is one among the most popular NoSQL databases. It is a document oriented NoSQL database which helps in empowering business to be more agile and scalable. As MongoDB is gaining more popularity in the IT market, more and more sensitive information is being stored in it and so security issues are becoming a major concern. It does not guarantee privacy of information stored in it. This paper is about enabling security features in MongoDB for safe storage of sensitive information through “MongoKAuth” Driver, a new MongoDB client side component developed in order to automate a lot of manual configuration steps. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

Ma Pokkiyarath, Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Jayaraman, Bd, “Preparing global engineers: USA-India academia & industry led approach”, in Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, 2015, vol. 2015-February.[Abstract]


A major challenge in engineering education today in India is preparing students with the skill set needed for a global industry. This paper describes an innovative partnership between two institutions of higher education in India and USA and a multinational corporation to address this challenge. The collaborative manner in which the industry and institutions internationalized the curriculum is a key feature of this program. This unique approach has resulted in the employees of a multinational company in India being able to get two high quality Masters-level degrees in engineering, customized to their current and future requirements at a very affordable price point. This paper looks at cost savings, collaborative course development between industry and international academia, using technology to deliver courses and on-the-job professional development program for employees while keeping the employees motivated. But there are also interesting lessons learnt regarding teaching in English, adjusting to the local cultural context and the overall integration into the Indian academic setting. The process innovation described here would be of great interest to academia, industry and education policy makers and has the potential to be replicated in the entire field of non-engineering and interdisciplinary academic programs. © 2014 IEEE.

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PDF iconpreparing-global-engineers-usa-india-academia-industry-led-approach-1.pdf

2015

Conference Paper

P. Poornachandran, Sreeram, R., Krishnan, M. R., Pal, S., Sankar, A. U. Prem, and Ashok, A., “Internet of Vulnerable Things (IoVT): Detecting Vulnerable SOHO Routers”, in Proceedings - 2015 14th International Conference on Information Technology, ICIT 2015, 2015, pp. 119-123.[Abstract]


There has been a rampant surge in compromise of consumer grade small scale routers in the last couple of years. Attackers are able to manipulate the Domain Name Space (DNS) settings of these devices hence making them capable of initiating different man-in-the-middle attacks. By this study we aim to explore and comprehend the current state of these attacks. Focusing on the Indian Autonomous System Number (ASN) space, we performed scans over 3 months to successfully find vulnerable routers and extracted the DNS information from these vulnerable routers. In this paper we present the methodology followed for scanning, a detailed analysis report of the information we were able to collect and an insight into the current trends in the attack patterns. We conclude by proposing recommendations for mitigating these attacks. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan and Nair, R. R., “Comparative Analysis of Decision Tree Algorithms: ID3, C4.5 and Random Forest”, in International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining(ICCIDM-Dec 20-21 2014), Computational Intelligence in Data Mining , New Delhi, 2015.

2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan and Chaitra, M. A., “Airfoil Self Noise Prediction Using Linear Regression Approach”, in Computational Intelligence in Data Mining Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, New Delhi, 2015, vol. 2.[Abstract]


This project attempts to predict the scaled sound pressure levels in decibels, based on the aerodynamic and acoustic related attributes. Each attribute can be regarded as a potential feature. The problem is how to predict the sound pressure level accurately based on those features. This paper describes the approaches of using linear regression models and other optimization algorithms used for the better predictions. The comparative results and analysis are also provided in experiment and results section. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Kalarickal, B. S., and Jinesh, M. K., “Security, Trust and Implementation Limitations of Prominent IoT Platforms”, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2014: Volume 2, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Cham, 2015, vol. 2, pp. 85–95.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoT) is indeed a novel technology wave that is bound to make its mark, where anything and everything (Physical objects) is able to communicate over an extended network using both wired and wireless protocols. The term “physical objects” means that any hardware device that can sense a real world parameter and can push the output based on that reading. Considering the number of such devices, volume of data they generate and the security concerns, not only from a communication perspective but also from its mere physical presence outside a secure/monitored vault demands innovative architectural approaches, applications and end user systems. A middleware platform/framework for IoT should be able to handle communication between these heterogeneous devices, their discoveries and services it offers in real time. A move from internet of computers to internet of anything and everything is increasing the span of security threats and risks. A comparative study of existing prominent IoT platforms will help in identifying the limitations and gaps thereby acting as the benchmark in building an efficient solution. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Krishnasree Achuthan, and Poroor, J., “Architectural Recommendations in Building a Network Based Secure, Scalable and Interoperable Internet of Things Middleware”, in 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2014, Cham, 2015, vol. 1, pp. 429–439.[Abstract]


With every device capable of emitting data, the need to amass and process them in real time or near real time, along with ever growing user requirement of, information-on-demand, have paved the way for the sudden surge in the development of the theme Internet of Things (IoT). Even though this whole new technology looks fascinating in theory, its practical implementation and ongoing sustenance is something that will need a lot of thought, effort and careful planning. Several cloud based and network based cloud platforms/middleware solutions are available but a lot of them are either extremely complex to set up, or needs standardized solutions to be applied across all participating devices or would leave behind vivid security loopholes that can’t be curbed with ease considering the overall capability of the devices involved. Based on a previous research effort conducted by our team, detailed scrutiny of prominent existing IoT platforms/middleware solutions were performed. This effort has resulted in defining the core problem matrix which if addressed adequately could result in the development of a well balanced IoT middleware solution. This paper uses the problem matrix so identified as the roadmap in defining a Secure, Scalable, Interoperable Internet of Things Middleware. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Prabhakaranl, S., and Bipin, K., “A Survey of Security Protocols in WSN and Overhead Evaluation”, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2014: Volume 2, Cham, 2015, pp. 729–738.[Abstract]


There has been a widespread growth in the area of wireless sensor networks mainly because of the tremendous possibility of using it in a wide spectrum of applications such as home automation, wildlife monitoring, defense applications, medical applications and so on. However, due to the inherent limitations of sensor networks, commonly used security mechanisms are hard to implement in these networks. For this very reason, security becomes a crucial issue and these networks face a wide variety of attacks right from the physical layer to application layer. This paper present a survey that investigates the overhead due to the implementation of some common security mechanisms viz. SPINS, TinySec and MiniSec and also the computational overhead in the implementation of three popular symmetric encryption algorithms namely RC5 AES and Skipjack. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

V. Vejesh, G. Nayar, R., and Shiju Sathyadevan, “Optimization of Hadoop Using Software-Internet Wide Area Remote Direct Memory Access Protocol and Unstructured Data Accelerator”, in Software Engineering in Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 3: Software Engineering in Intelligent Systems, Cham, 2015, pp. 261–270.[Abstract]


Over the last few years, data size grew tremendously in size and thus data analytics is always geared towards low latency processing. Processing of Big Data using traditional methodologies is not cost effective and fast enough to meet the requirements. Existing socket based communication (TCP/IP) used in Hadoop causes performance bottleneck on the significant amount of data transfers through a multi-gigabit network fabric. To fulfill the emerging demands , the underlying design should be modified to make use of data centre’s powerful hardware. The proposed project include integration of Hadoop with remote direct memory access (RDMA).For data-intensive applications, network performance becomes key component as the amount of data being stored and replicated to HDFS increases. RDMA is implemented in a commodity hardware through software ,namely, Soft-iWARP (Software-Internet Wide Area Protocol). Hadoop employs a Java-based network transport stack on top of the JVM . JVM introduces a significant amount of overhead to data processing capability of the native interfaces which constrains use of RDMA. The usage of plug-in library for data shuffling and merging part of Hadoop can take advantage of RDMA . An optimization for Hadoop in data shuffling part can be thus implemented. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

K. V. Swetha, Shiju Sathyadevan, and Bilna, P., “Network Data Analysis Using Spark”, in Software Engineering in Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 3: Software Engineering in Intelligent Systems, Cham, 2015, pp. 253–259.[Abstract]


With the huge increase in the volume of network traffic, there is a need for network monitoring systems that capture network packets and provide packet features in near real time to protect from attacks. As a first step towards developing such a system using distributed computation, new system has been developed in Spark, a cluster computing system, which extracts packet features with less memory consumption and at a faster rate. Traffic analysis and extraction of packet features are carried out using streaming capability inherent in Spark. Analysing the network data features provide a means for detecting attacks. This paper describes a system for the analysis of network data using Spark streaming technology which focuses on real time stream processing, built on top of Spark. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

U. B. Unmesha Sreeveni and Shiju Sathyadevan, “ABDF Integratable Machine Learning Algorithms-MapReduce Implementation”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2015, vol. 58, pp. 297 - 306.[Abstract]


As the amount of data generated on a day to day basis is on the uphill the urgency for efficient frameworks to handle, store and process the same is also increasing. Frameworks like Hadoop have proven its strength to churn huge volume of data to bring out the hidden patterns supporting decision making. Project that is being assigned to us is to develop Mapreduce based Machine Learning Algorithms to run on Hadoop clusters. Algorithms will be assigned on a case to case basis. Algorithms so developed will be integrated with Amrita BigData Framework (ABDF). Among those algorithms an application area or an end to end comparison will be done against different processing modes like linear implementation. Key matrix such as execution speed, usage of resources, accuracy, etc will be measured as applicable to the algorithm. Amrita Bigdata Framework (ABDF) is essentially an all integrated framework for effortless BigData analytics. ABDF is feature rich analytics framework, providing user community with an easy to use GUI for analyzing large data heaps. ABDF is capable of switching its processing modes between, Hadoop, Spark streaming/in-memory, Storm in-memory and Linear execution. Implementing Machine Learning algorithm in a distributed environment is trickier than its sequential implementation. While writing a mapreduce job we need to identify what part of the algorithm can be parallelized and how to parallelize. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

R. Meenakshi, Jayalekshmi, G., Hariram, S., Shiju Sathyadevan, and Thushara, M. G., “Visualization with Charting Library Based on SVG for Amrita Dynamic Dashboard”, in Procedia Computer Science, 2015, vol. 58, pp. 371 - 379.[Abstract]


Data Visualization is the representation of data in a graphical or pictorial format. For the effective communication of data for a user proper visualization is necessary. Visualization is essential in order for the user to understand the data in an easy way. Visualization of data is done through various charts that represent the attributes of the data. For web applications, there are many open source JavaScript libraries that work on HTML5 (using SVG or CANVAS). But the drawback of these libraries is that they don’t provide for much flexibility with respect to configuration. They also don’t provide generalization of charts. Also many data mining algorithms are not supported by these libraries for data visualization. This paper has illustrated in building JavaScript charting libraries that would ensure proper visualization of data which is flexible for user customization. The charting library supports different types of charts varying from scatter chart to line chart to bar chart that are used for various algorithms. The libraries are built based on Object-Oriented JavaScript concept to support web applications that run either on the internet or intranet, so that extending the same in the future is also possible. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

N. Rani N, Shiju Sathyadevan, Renault, E., and Hai, V. Ha, “Comparison of checkpointed aided parallel execution against mapreduce”, 2015.[Abstract]


Researchers have been actively working for the past few decades in parallelizing programs so as to cut through massive data chunks for faster response. Current day processors are faster and have more number of cores. So as to utilize the computational capabilities of the processors to its full extend, processes need to be run in parallel. A task can be performed in lesser time by using parallel programming. But writing a parallel programming manually is a difficult and time consuming task. So we have to use tools to convert a sequential program to a parallel one automatically. Open-MP (Open Multi-Processing) is a set of directives which can be used to generate parallel programs written in c, c++, FORTRAN to efficient parallel programs. A new paradigm called CAPE (Check-pointing Aided Parallel Execution) is introduced that uses check-pointing technique to generate parallel programs from sequential programs provided with Open-MP directives. Map-reduce is a programming model for performing parallel processing. In this paper we have compared the performance and coding complexity of map-reduce against CAPE under different levels of difficulties More »»

2015

Conference Paper

M. Darling, Heileman, G., Gressel, G., Ashok, A., and Poornachandran, P., “A lexical approach for classifying malicious URLs”, in International Conference on High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS), 2015.

2014

Conference Paper

A. K, R, K., ,, and Raghu Raman, “Security Vulnerabilities in Open Source Projects: An India Perspective”, in 2nd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

M. P., Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and Raghu Raman, “Preparing Global Engineers, Academia-Industry led approach: Indian experience”, in 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, 2014.[Abstract]


A major challenge in engineering education today in India is preparing students with the skill set needed for a global industry. This paper describes an innovative partnership between two institutions of higher education in India and USA and a multinational corporation to address this challenge. The collaborative manner in which the industry and institutions internationalized the curriculum is a key feature of this program. This unique approach has resulted in the employees of a multinational company in India being able to get two high quality Masters-level degrees in engineering, customized to their current and future requirements at a very affordable price point. This paper looks at cost savings, collaborative course development between industry and international academia, using technology to deliver courses and on-the-job professional development program for employees while keeping the employees motivated. But there are also interesting lessons learnt regarding teaching in English, adjusting to the local cultural context and the overall integration into the Indian academic setting. The process innovation described here would be of great interest to academia, industry and education policy makers and has the potential to be replicated in the entire field of non-engineering and interdisciplinary academic programs.

More »»
PDF iconpreparing-global-engineers-usa-india-academia-industry-led-approach-1.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Raghu Raman, Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, and P, S., “Internationalizing Engineering Education With Phased Study Programs: India-European Experience”, in 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (IEEE Xplore), 2014.[Abstract]


Most of the critical challenges seen in the past decades have impacted citizens in a global way. Given shrinking resources, educationists find preparing students for the global market place a formidable challenge. Hence exposing students to multi-lateral educational initiatives are critical to their growth, understanding and future contributions. This paper focuses on European Union’s Erasmus Mundus programs, involving academic cooperation amongst international universities in engineering programs. A phased undergraduate engineering program with multiple specializations is analyzed within this context. Based on their performance at the end of first phase, selected students were provided opportunities using scholarship to pursue completion of their degree requirements at various European universities. This paper will elaborate the impact of differing pedagogical interventions, language and cultural differences amongst these countries on students in diverse engineering disciplines. The data presented is based on on the feedback analysis from Eramus Mundus students (N=121) that underwent the mobility programs. The findings have given important insights into the structure of the initiative and implications for academia and education policy makers for internationalizing engineering education. These included considering digital interventions such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and Virtual Laboratory (VL) initiatives for systemic reorganization of engineering education.

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PDF iconInternationalizing-Engineering-Education-With-Phased-Study-Programs-India-European-Experience.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

K. Kandasamy and Koroth, P., “An integrated approach to spam classification on Twitter using URL analysis, natural language processing and machine learning techniques”, in 2014 IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, SCEECS 2014, Bhopal, 2014.[Abstract]


In the present day world, people are so much habituated to Social Networks. Because of this, it is very easy to spread spam contents through them. One can access the details of any person very easily through these sites. No one is safe inside the social media. In this paper we are proposing an application which uses an integrated approach to the spam classification in Twitter. The integrated approach comprises the use of URL analysis, natural language processing and supervised machine learning techniques. In short, this is a three step process. © 2014 IEEE.

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2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, S, A., and Raghunath, A., “Improved Document Classification Through Enhanced Naive Bayes Algorithm”, in ICDSC 2014, 2014, pp. 100-104.[Abstract]


Immense growth in communication has paved way for existence of information across the world in wide separated zones. There exists a need for a mechanism to render apt information to the needy from this enormous source of information. This mechanism is of high demand for educational purposes. Knowledge based cloud (Kloud) proposes a solution to combine together the information in different area, which is managed by several organizations. It then organizes them into different sections and hence providing a platform to furnish relevant information to people in search of it. The paper discusses about a method based on Naive Bayes algorithm to classify documents pushed into "Kloud". A variation to this algorithm has been implemented by calculating term weight using "converged weight" method resulting in better accuracy and speed. A comparative study of proposed variance in classification algorithm against the actual algorithm was performed. Further we also implemented two subclassification algorithms namely hierarchical subclassification and subcategorization using document similarity method.

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2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Akhila, C. A., and Jinesh, M. K., “Customizing EPCglobal to Fit Local ONS Requirements”, in Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices: Proceedings of ICCD 2014, Volume 308 of the series Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing , 2014, vol. 320, pp. 21–30.[Abstract]


Internet of Things (IoT) is the new network of physical object that has the ability to automatically transfer data over a network. This paper proposes an architecture to extend the current object identification scheme in order to custom build the same to uniquely identify each object associated with an RFID tag. The electronic product code (EPC) is a very popularly used identification scheme to identify objects and is stored in the RFID tags. The work described in this paper is based on the EPCglobal framework. Our research study focused primarily on extending the EPCglobal framework, thereby defining a customized identification scheme for each object in an IoT platform. A lookup called object naming service (ONS) is used to locate information about these objects in the EPC network. Object name service makes use of Internet’s existing domain name system (DNS) for looking up information about an EPC.

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2014

Conference Paper

K. Achuthan, Sivan, S., and Raghu Raman, “Teacher receptivity in creative use of virtual laboratories”, in Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), 2014 IEEE Region 10, 2014.[Abstract]


Technology has helped advance science education in its delivery of content to students. These advancements have led to improved conceptual understanding of physical phenomena in students. In most educational systems, teachers play a crucial role in the introduction of innovative pedagogic interventions. In this paper, the perceived impact on use of virtual laboratories and simulations as a teaching aide in science education by teachers is characterized. Significant improvements on teaching time, teaching methodology, and communication of concepts over traditional teaching techniques are reported. The value of virtual laboratories in individualized learning as opposed to group centric learning as in a conventional laboratory is further explored. Key challenges to complete adoption of these technologies include infrastructural lacunae and depth of teacher knowledge. Hence the individual teacher commitment along with the necessary ICT support can impact the knowledge environment. With functionality to simulate real environments, create assessments, monitor individual student performances, added to the scalability of the virtual laboratory platforms to encompass multiple thematic disciplines and cater to millions of users makes it a sustainable and a need-to-have teaching tool.

More »»
PDF iconteacher-receptivity-in-creative-use-of-virtual-laboratories.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

Raghu Raman, Lal, A., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Serious games based approach to cyber security concept learning: Indian context”, in International Conference on Green Computing Communication and Electrical Engineering (ICGCCEE), 2014.[Abstract]


In the world of computer based gaming most of them are purely for entertainment but recently serious games are also emerging. Our research study focused primarily on a type of serious game with multiple scenarios designed specifically to support cyber security concept learning. We studied the impact of game based learning on cyber security graduate engineering students (N=20). Existing game scenarios were enhanced with summative assessments. A control group (EG1=10) was given the summative test without playing the game and a different group (EG2=10) was given the same test after playing the game. Results indicate that EG2 had better learning outcomes though there was learning curve with the game itself.

More »»
PDF iconserious-games-based-approach-to-cyber-security-concept-learning-indian-context.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

Raghu Raman, Sunny, S., Pavithran, V., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Framework for evaluating Capture the Flag (CTF) security competitions”, in International Conference for Convergence of Technology (I2CT), 2014.[Abstract]


A large number of ethical hacking competitions are organized worldwide as Capture The Flag (CTF) events. But there does not exist a framework to evaluate and rank CTFs that will guide participants as to which CTF's to participate. In a CTF event, the participants are required to either solve a set of challenges to gain points or they are required to defend their system by eliminating the vulnerabilities while attacking other's system vulnerabilities. We are proposing a framework that would evaluate and rank CTFs according to factors like similarity of the tasks to the common critical vulnerabilities, solvability of tasks, periodicity, training given prior to CTF, geographical reach, problem solving skills etc. In the next step these factors are systematically assigned weights using Analytic Hierarchy Process. As part of frame work creation and validation, ten CTFs have been analysed. Our analysis indicates that: All CTFs fall in to one of the three categories (jeopardy, attack-defence and mixed); CTFs often adopt popular software vulnerabilities and threats as tasks to be solved; Only few CTFs give formal training prior to the event; Complexity of the tasks to be solved varies from CTF to CTF. Five CTFs were ranked using the newly developed framework.

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PDF iconframework-for-evaluating-capture-the-flag-ctf-security-competitions.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, S., F., Prof. Nedungadi, P., Raghu Raman, l., B., Dr. Sreekala C. O., and Sreelatha, K. S., “Improving Perception of Invisible Phenomena in UG Physics Education Using ICT”, in International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (IEEE Xplore), 2014.[Abstract]


Experimental learning plays paramount role in Physics education. Experimental physics requires phenomenological investigations in several cases and this includes understanding visible and invisible heuristic procedures to discern underlying concepts. This study investigates the invisible yet evident occurrences of physical phenomena that are difficult to grasp from a learner's perspective. In this work the contribution of compounded effects of using computational techniques, multimedia enhanced simulations and interactive animations to draw the learner's attention to those physically undiscernable aspects of physics experiments is presented. The study has investigated three physics experiments by engineering students (N= 42) and the methodology focused on differentiating the learning outcomes between classroom teaching, laboratory experimentation and virtual laboratories. The students were divided into two batches. Visual and conceptual understanding was quantified by assessments that included their visual and conceptual understanding. Our study not only revealed severe limitations in learning invisible phenomena based on traditional classroom methods but also empirically validated the positive impact on learning outcomes when the classroom method is combined with Virtual Labs approach.

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PDF iconimproving-perception-of-invisible-phenomena-in-ug-physics-education-using-ict.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, S, D. M., and S., S. G., “Crime analysis and prediction using data mining”, in Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on, 2014.[Abstract]


Crime analysis and prevention is a systematic approach for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime. Our system can predict regions which have high probability for crime occurrence and can visualize crime prone areas. With the increasing advent of computerized systems, crime data analysts can help the Law enforcement officers to speed up the process of solving crimes. Using the concept of data mining we can extract previously unknown, useful information from an unstructured data. Here we have an approach between computer science and criminal justice to develop a data mining procedure that can help solve crimes faster. Instead of focusing on causes of crime occurrence like criminal background of offender, political enmity etc we are focusing mainly on crime factors of each day. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Balakrishnan, A. K., S, A., and S, A. R., “Identifying moving bodies from CCTV videos using machine learning techniques”, in First International Conference on Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014, 2014.[Abstract]


The idea of auto face detection from surveillance cameras and CCTVs is very relevant today. More and more CCTVs and surveillance cameras are being installed everyday. If there is a database of facial data present then the task of recognition boils down to comparison of each and every face detected from the video with every face saved in the database. Now this process involves capturing the faces before hand. This is actually a very tedious job. So the database of images is created (/updated) as and when new faces come into the camera view. The labeling of the faces can be done at leisure (by a human) or not be done at all. The current system once deployed does not need a database of images to start with. It creates its own collection of images, and then tracks the future occurrences of those images. Eigenface, fisherface, LBP histograms and SURF are different algorithms used for face recognition. We have tried all these algorithms.but among these surf shows better result. So the paper uses SURF for comparing image descriptors. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

R. Krishnan K and Kumar, R., “Securing User Input As a Defense Against MitB”, in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing, New York, NY, USA, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

N. Manmadhan and Achuthan, K., “Behavioural analysis for prevention of intranet information leakage”, in Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI, 2014 International Conference on, 2014.[Abstract]


User authentication in web applications such as emails is many times done at a single point of time such as during login. Information leakage occurs when the user's authentication is compromised. Although authentication systems verify different aspects of the user, a deviation in user behaviour is not captured in such validations. This paper proposes a mechanism to model user behaviour and captures the deviations in the intention of the user that could lead to information leakage. Through design of an application plugin developed for an intranet email application, the proposed model assists with preventing the leakage of classified emails. Password authentication and behavioural analysis based authentication are both used to architect this plugin. The plugin features continuous monitoring and authentication of the user during their time of usage. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, ,, ,, and Jinesh, M. K., “Implementing Scatternet to Enhance Bluetooth Communication Capability”, in CSI Hyderabad, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Nair, R., and Krishnan, A. B., “Comparing ID3, C4.5 and Random Forest ”, in ICCIDM 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Prabhakar, S., and K, B., “Analysis Of Ovehead Due to Security Implementations in WSN”, in FICTA 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Muraleedharan, N., and Rajan, S. P., “Accomplishing Data Level Security in MongoDB”, in ISI 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan and Anoop, S., “Comparison of Traditional Linear SVM Implementation Against MapReduce SVM Implementation”, in ISI 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Gangadharan, S., and M.S, D., “Crime Analytics using News feeds and Social Media through profiling”, in ICNSC 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

P. Poornachandran and Ajayan, A. C., “High Performance Packet Processing on Commodity Hardware Bypassing the Kernel”, in IEEE CAMAD 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

S. Devi, Poornachandran, P., Kumar, T. H., and P, H., “Personal Health Data Exchange Using NFC”, in International Symposium on Women in Computing and Informatics (WCI-2014), 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

P. Poornachandran, N, B., Pal, S., and Nair, A. Ashok, “Demalvertising: A Probabilistic Approach for Detecting Malwares in Advertising Networks”, in International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, 2014.

2013

Conference Paper

J. Freeman, Shankar, B., Elango, M., and Achuthan, K., “Virtual labs battery and ultracapacitor characterization”, in Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS), 2013 IEEE, Trivandrum, 2013, pp. 228-233.[Abstract]


Virtual labs help students and professionals to learn subjects practically. Remote triggered virtual labs, in which real hardware is remotely controlled is especially well suited for students who do not have access to high quality, modern, and often expensive lab equipment. It also allows to students to conduct laboratory experiments on their own time and repeat them as often and when necessary. In this paper, we have implemented Energy Storage studies in (batteries and ultra(super)capacitors at the collegiate level through remote triggered virtual labs. The hardware and software system allows the user to study the charge and discharge characteristics of different types of batteries and ultracapacitors. This will create interest for students and professionals to study more on batteries and ultracapacitors and emerge with new ideas on energy storage. In this work, we compare two hardware setups, one made from scratch with low-cost components and the other created using professional, research grade components. The paper focuses on the design, implementation, control system, measurement, communication protocols and integration with the internet for these two testing setups using Labview.

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2013

Conference Paper

Raghu Raman, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Prof. Nedungadi, P., and Ramesh, M., “Modeling Diffusion of Blended Labs for Science Experiments among Undergraduate Engineering Student”, in AFRICOMM 2013, Springer Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (LNICST), 2013.[Abstract]


While there is large body of work examining efficacy of Virtual Labs in engineering education, studies to date have lacked modeling Blended Labs (BL) – mix of Virtual Labs (VL) and Physical Labs (PL) for science experimentation at the university engineering level. Using Rogers theory of perceived attributes, this paper provides a research framework that identifies the attributes for BL adoption in a social group comprising of (N=246) potential adopter undergraduate engineering students. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the interinfluence of related group of potential adopter faculties who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that acceptance of BL as an innovation and its learning outcomes are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Department and Faculty support. Learning outcomes are very positive under BL when compared to PL, though within BL, ordering of PL and VL was not significant. For certain innovation attributes gender differences were significant. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt BL model for learning than using only PL.

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PDF iconmodeling-diffusion-of-blended-labs-for-science-experiments-among-undergraduate-engineering-student.pdf

2013

Conference Paper

H. Poroli, Poornachandran, P., and G, G. N., “Forepart Based Captcha Segmentation And Recognition Using Dft”, in Fourth International Conference on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing – ITC 2013,, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

H. P, Nair, L. S., S.M, A., Unni, R., H, V. Priya, and Poornachandran, P., “Digital Image Forgery Detection on Artificially Blurred Images”, in International Conference on Emerging Trends in Communication, Control, Signal Processing & Computing Applications (C2SPCA), 2013 , Bangalore, India, 2013.[Abstract]


In this digital era, lot of information are expressed through images. Various social networking websites, such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace etc. provides a platform for the users to post up almost any type of picture or photo. However, with the advancement in image editing technologies, many users have become victims of digital forgery as their uploaded images were forged for malicious activities. We have come up with a system which detects image forgery based on edge width analysis and center of gravity concepts. An algorithm based on edge detection is also used to identify the fuzzy edges in the forged digital image. The forged object in the image is highlighted by applying Flood fill algorithm. Different types of image forgeries like Image splicing, Copy-Move image forgery etc. can be detected. This method also reveals multiple forgeries in the same image. The proposed system is capable of detecting digital image forgeries in various image formats efficiently. The results we obtained after the analysis of different images shows that the proposed system is 95% efficient.

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2012

Conference Paper

Ka Praveen, Poornachandran, Pb, and Remya, A. SaAjai, “Implementation of DES using pipelining concept with skew core key scheduling in secure transmission of images”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Coimbatore, 2012, pp. 637-641.[Abstract]


Digital image processing is a very expanding area with applications reaching out into various fields such as defence, medicine, space exploration, authentication, automated industry inspection and many more areas. Many digital communication systems require reliable security in processing and transmission of digital images. The fast development of internet in the digital world demands more concern in to the security of digital images and have attracted much attention [1]. Encryption of digital images is the preferred way while transmission and can be used to frustrate opponent attacks from unauthorized access. Digital images are exchanged over various types of networks related to a number of purposes. The data to be transmitted may be very confidential in nature. Many encryption methods are now available to encrypt and decrypt confidential data's[2].Here we uses a block cipher, a modified DES algorithm, which is enhanced by implementing pipelining concept and skew core key scheduling to encrypt images which provide faster encryption rates and high throughput. The hardware implementation of the design is also made and compared with various FPGA devices. Copyright © 2012 ACM. More »»

2012

Conference Paper

Ra Padmashani, Shiju Sathyadevan, and Dath, Da, “BSnort IPS: Better snort intrusion detection/prevention system”, in International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, ISDA, Kochi, 2012, pp. 46-51.[Abstract]


With the advent of a range of intrusion detection and prevention systems out in the market and Snort IPS standing out from others, always there have been efforts to improve upon the current scenario. Here, a novel technique that can curb many of the current Denial-of-Service attacks which usually disrupts the network connectivity by consuming a large amount of bandwidth is discussed. The Better Snort Intrusion Detection/Prevention System (BSnort) uses Aho-Corasick automaton for the deep packet inspection and makes use of the modified Snort signatures which utilizes minimum amount of CPU and memory. The BSnort stands out from other Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs) in its integrated use of anomaly detection approach to find out novel attacks using the packet header along with the use of known attack signatures for the payload to pin-point intrusions. © 2012 IEEE.

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2012

Conference Paper

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Foreword”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Kerala, 2012, p. vii.

2012

Conference Paper

K. Kandasamy and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Re-architecture of database software stack with planner module for query optimization in a cloud environment”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Kerala, 2012, pp. 165-171.[Abstract]


Nowadays public clouds offer a scalability that is often beyond what a user would be able to afford otherwise. Cloud bursting allows businesses leverage the cloud without losing the comfort and control of in-house data centre operations. Looking at cost, security and resource utilization angles we need a dynamic infrastructure to decide about the hybrid mix ie, private and public clouds. In this paper, we propose a general paradigm where software stacks need to be rearchitected to dynamically be able to run either in public or private clouds. The queries get executed in private or public clouds based on cost, security and resource utilization models chosen by the clients. Copyright 2012 ACM.

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PDF iconre-architecture-of-database-software-stack-with-planner-module-for-query-optimization-in-a-cloud-environment.pdf

2012

Conference Paper

Jayaraj Poroor and Jayaraman, Bb, “Formal analysis of event-driven cyber physical systems”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Kerala, 2012, pp. 1-8.[Abstract]


We propose a programming language (E#) that facilitates formal verification of security properties of event-driven cy- berphysical systems. We describe the syntax of E# with the help of several illustrative examples. Since the environment plays a crucial role in cyberphysical systems, E# facilitates modeling of the environment processes abstractly using the novel 'causes' clauses. We show that event causality graphs (ECGs) may be constructed from causes clauses and handle specifications. We present how ECGs can be used to detect compute-bound event loops which are undesirable in event- driven systems and also to analyze response-style event live- ness specifications. We show how safety properties can be inductively established by employing either theorem-proving or model checking. This technique facilitates compositional verification, allowing us to establish properties of each component separately. The technique also avoids state explosion that arises due to interleaving of the atomic blocks of concurrent event handlers. An interesting feature of our safety analysis is our use of model checking for safety properties in an inductive setting. We conclude that E# is a viable language for programming safety-critical event-driven cyber- physical systems. Copyright 2012 ACM.

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2012

Conference Paper

Aa George, Poornachandran, Pb, and Dr. Kaimal, M. R., “Adsvm: Pre-processor plug-in using support vector machine algorithm for snort”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Kerala, 2012, pp. 179-184.[Abstract]


Anomaly detection has been considered as a critical problem in any application area. In computer networks, anomaly detection is important as any kind of abnormal behavior in the network data is considered harmful to the end user. Snort is an open source NIDS tool that uses misuse detection method for intrusion detection. There are many pre-processor and detection plug-ins for Snort. Pre-processor plug-ins is meant to process the packet captured but some are meant for detection of anomalies also. Hence we are implementing a preprocessor plug-in for Snort meant for anomaly detection approach using the machine learning algorithm support vector machine and integrating into Snort. The anomalies detected by the plug-in are new compared with the anomalies detected by the available pre-processor plug-ins. Also we created an intrusion detection dataset which is important for any process using the machine learning algorithms. The detection rate of the plug-in is high and the false alarm rate is low which is very important for any anomaly detection system. Hence integrating this plug-in into Snort helps to improve the detection rate of the plugins that can be run in packet sniffer mode. Copyright 2012 ACM.

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2012

Conference Paper

A. S. Ansar, Prabaharan, P., Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, and Rekha, P., “DVM based multipath routing in MANET for different scalable and adaptive environment”, in Data Science & Engineering (ICDSE), 2012 International Conference on, 2012, pp. 187-193.[Abstract]


Mobile ad hoc networks [MANET] are typically characterized by high mobility and frequent link failures that result in low throughput and high end-to-end delay. Present approaches to multipath routing make use of pre-computed routes determined during route discovery. All the paths are maintained by means of periodic update packets uncast along each path. In existing method best path is determined and maintained only with signal strength of disjoint paths. Signal strength between nodes is only the mobility prediction factor, which does not address the durability and stability of paths. Residual energy of nodes determines stability of path contains those nodes. Also does not consider the consistency of node through the previous behaves. This paper provides a design and a simulation frame work for measuring a Decision Value metric for mobility prediction of each alternate paths in MANET. Here a Periodic update packets measure Decision Value metric [DVM] and route maintenance is possible by means of the Signal strength between nodes, Residual energy and Consistency of each hop along the alternate paths, helps protocol to select the best scalable paths.

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2012

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, “Kloud - A virtual elastic knowledge cloud: A centralized directory based approach for education content aggregation”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012, Kerala, 2012.[Abstract]


Rapid global growth has caused information to exist as discrete isolated islands dispersed across the globe. As in the case of educational content, a single hub to tap this immense wealth of information asset is still non-existent. This paper introduces "Kloud" (Knowledge based cloud) - an innovative solution to addressing and integrating information. Kloud is designed to amalgamate disjointed information chains pertaining to diverse domains, owned and managed by multitude of organizations, under a single platform to build a powerful information base that could be accessed by a user anywhere anytime. Such an information base will act as single source information feeder to seekers. The system architected to allow elastic inclusivity includes several key modules such as a) Central Content Directory Management Cloud, b) Central Content Scavenger & Aggregator Platform and c) Content Aggregator & Broadcast Agent that overpowers any geographic limitations in residence of knowledge. In contrast to commonly used methodologies this architecture uses a directory-based approach to maintain a master content directory list that retrieves content from its registered providers. This directory is generated by a content aggregator and broadcast agent (CAB Agent) located at the providers end and broadcasted to the central directory server which then mirrors the same across key access points. © 2012 IEEE.

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2012

Conference Paper

A. Joshi, Ramani, V., Murali, H., Krishnan, R., Mithra, Z., and Pavithran, V., “Student centric design for cyber security knowledge empowerment”, in Proceedings - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, ICTEE 2012, Kerala, 2012.[Abstract]


Basics of computer science and engineering are a part of every major curriculum taught in colleges and universities across India. Numerous Indian websites are compromised frequently mainly due to insecure coding practices and lack of awareness of implications of security vulnerabilities. Yet, Cyber security education is not part of undergraduate curriculum in most educational institutions. This paper addresses the design of cyber security educational exercises that facilitate large scale participation and concentration in specific areas, applying a holistic approach to problem solving and teaching about cyber security. In this paper, we describe InCTF, India's first national level Capture the Flag style ethical hacking contest and how such a model can aid in effective security education, both theoretical and practical. © 2012 IEEE.

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2012

Conference Paper

Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, Prabaharan, P., Shameem, A. A., and Rekha, P., “DVM based Scalable and Adaptive Multipath Routing in MANET For Emergency Rescue Application”, in Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC), 2012 21st Annual, 2012, pp. 123-129.[Abstract]


Mobile ad hoc networks [MANET] are typically characterized by high mobility and frequent link failures that result in low throughput and high end-to-end delay. Present approaches to multipath routing make use of pre-computed routes determined during route discovery. All the paths are maintained by means of periodic update packets unicast along each path. In existing method best path is determined and maintained only with signal strength of disjoint paths. Signal strength between nodes is only the mobility prediction factor, which does not address the durability and stability of paths. Residual energy of nodes determines stability of path contains those nodes. Also does not consider the consistency of node through the previous behaves. This paper provides a design and a simulation frame work for measuring a Decision Value metric for mobility prediction of each alternate paths in MANET. Here a Periodic update packets measure Decision Value metric [DVM] and route maintenance is possible by means of the Signal strength between nodes, Residual energy and Consistency of each hop along the alternate paths, helps protocol to select the best scalable paths.

More »»
PDF iconDVM-based-Scalable-and-Adaptive-Multipath-Routing-in-MANET-For-Emergency-Rescue-Application-.pdf

2011

Conference Paper

Jayaraj Poroor and Jayaraman, Bb, “Formal specification and verification of vehicular handoff using π-calculus”, in ACWR 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Technologies for Humanitarian Relief, Amritapuri, 2011, pp. 165-168.[Abstract]


Vehicular networking is an important emerging area having immense applications, ranging from road-safety to emergency communications in disaster situations. As more applications begin to take advantage of vehicular networks, correctness of the underlying protocols must be subjected to rigorous analysis. The π-calculus is a formal language for specifying mobile systems and has been applied in wide range of settings, from specifying security protocols to modeling biomolecular systems. In this paper, we use π-calculus to construct a formal specification of a cross-layer dual-radio handoff algorithm for vehicular networks. The main challenge in this work was to use the minimal set of highly expressive and powerful constructs of π-calculus to model protocol agents at the right level of abstraction. To give two instances of our approach: (a) the two radios involved in handoff are modelled as concurrent sub-processes of the mobile node process; (b) route to the gateway is modelled as a channel that the access point supplies to both the gateway and the mobile node, both of which are modelled as concurrent processes. We formulate representative properties in a branching-time temporal logic and verify our protocol specification against these properties. Our study shows that π-calculus is a suitable formalism for modeling and verifying vehicular protocols.

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2011

Conference Paper

Shiju Sathyadevan, Kallingalthodi, H., and Hari, N. N., “IRIGNET - Intelligent communication network for power-scarce rural India”, in ACWR 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Technologies for Humanitarian Relief, Amritapuri, 2011, pp. 465-471.[Abstract]


Considering the contribution agriculture has made towards India's rapid raise in economic status, its relevance to the nation's subjects, its depth and far reaching wing span across the length and breadth of the country and foremost to account for the turmoil through which the farming community in India is going through under the current circumstances, it does deserve to be treated with higher reverence and priority. Although agriculture has made enormous contribution towards India's rapid raise in economic status, accounting for nearly 20% of the GDP and the livelihood for 58% of the population, the farmers who are the mainstay of this industry face a lot of problems in raising crops and sustaining production. This paper proposes a system that will automate the irrigation system, especially in rural India, to compensate for the flimsy, inconsistent and unreliable power supply system. Suggested design uses a Central regional scheduler server hosting an intelligent software working alongside with remote microcontroller based sensors to get up to date environmental parameters so as to assist it to work out the best array of water pumps to be turned on at a given instance. Sensor devices are kept at the vicinity of where the water pumps are so that influential decision making parameters can be sensed and fed to the intelligent software stationed at the central server. It uses mobile technology to handshake between the central server and the sensor controllers. Various derivatives of the same are discussed which need to be weighed in terms of their practicality, ease of deployment and of course the cost factor. It also helps the nation to preserve both water and electricity by enforcing controlled but adequate usage of the same. More »»

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Patent

S. Sathyadevan, P Rangan, V., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Security layer and methods for protecting tenant data in a cloud-mediated computing network”, U.S. Patent US 13/606,9792017.[Abstract]


A system for protecting data managed in a cloud-computing network from malicious data operations includes an Internet-connected server and software executing on the server from a non-transitory physical medium, the software providing a first function for generating one or more security tokens that validate one or more computing operations to be performed on the data, a second function for generating a hash for each token generated, the hash detailing, in a secure fashion, the operation type or types permitted by the one or more tokens, a third function for brokering two-party signature of the one or more tokens, and a fourth function for dynamically activating the one or more signed tokens for a specific time window required to perform the operations permitted by the token.

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2016

Patent

S. Sathyadevan, Kunjumon, B., Pillai, H. Padmanabha, and Achuthan, K., “Intelligent 'IoT' Gateway”, U.S. Patent 14/991,2022016.

2014

Patent

S. Sathyadevan, P Rangan, V., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Security Layer and Methods for Protecting Tenant Data in a Cloud-Mediated Computing Network”, U.S. Patent PCT/US2013/0579522014.[Abstract]


A system for protecting data managed in a cloud-computing network from malicious data operations includes an Internet-connected server and software executing on the server from a non-transitory physical medium, the software providing a first function for generating one or more security tokens that validate one or more computing operations to be performed on the data, a second function for generating a hash for each token generated, the hash detailing, in a secure fashion, the operation type or types permitted by the one or more tokens, a third function for brokering two-party signature of the one or more tokens, and a fourth function for dynamically activating the one or more signed tokens for a specific time window required to perform the operations permitted by the token.

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PDF iconsecurity-layer-and-methods-for-protecting-tenant-data-in-a-cloud-mediated-computing-network.pdf

2014

Patent

J. Poroor and Sathyadevan, S., “Systems and Methods for adaptive privacy preserving Internet of Things”, U.S. Patent 14/488,8162014.

2013

Patent

K. Achuthan, Poornachandran, P., Gangadharan, S. Vijaya, and Krishnamoorthy, S., “NETWORKED DEVICES AND METHODS FOR PERSONAL SAFETY AND SECURITY”, U.S. Patent 2664/DEL/2013, PCT/IB2014/0643792013.

2013

Patent

J. Poroor and Sathyadevan, S., “Systems and Methods for adaptive privacy preserving Internet of Things”, U.S. Patent 4166/CHE/20132013.

2012

Patent

S. Sathyadevan, Rangan, V., and Achuthan, K., “Security Enabled Data Objects (SEDO) - A Policy Driven Token Based Public IaaS Cloud Trust Component.”, U.S. Patent 13/606,979 NP, PCT/US13/579522012.

2007

Patent

R. Bojji, “Improved Train Protection Network Device for Intelligent rail guided transport systems.”, U.S. Patent 2766/CHE/20072007.

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Book Chapter

M. K. Jinesh, Jayaraman, B., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Dynamic Constrained Objects for Vehicular Network Modeling”, in Formal Methods for Safety and Security: Case Studies for Aerospace Applications, M. Nanda and Jeppu, Y. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2017, pp. 41–52.[Abstract]


We present a paradigm called dynamic constrained objects for a declarative approach to modeling complex systems. In the basic paradigm of constrained objects, the structure of a complex system is specified through objects (as in object-oriented languages), while the behavior of a complex system is specified declaratively through constraints (as in constraint languages). The emergent behavior of such a complex system is deduced through a process of constraint satisfaction. Our focus in this paper is on systems whose states change with time. Such time-varying behaviors are fundamental in many domains, especially in mission and safety-critical applications. We present an extension of constrained objects with special metric temporal operators over time-series data, and we discuss their properties. We refer to the resulting paradigm as dynamic constrained objects and we illustrate their use for vehicular network modeling. Here, the network of roads and the roadside infrastructure are specified through objects, and the movement of vehicles and associated safety and liveness conditions are specified through time-series variables and metric temporal operators. The paper presents a language called DCOB, for dynamic constrained objectsConstraint object, and examples of its use for vehicular network modeling.

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2016

Book Chapter

R. Krishnan Pathinarupothi, Bithin Alangot, Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, and P. Rangan, V., “H-Plane: Intelligent Data Management for Mobile Healthcare Applications”, in Mobile Web and Intelligent Information Systems: 13th International Conference, MobiWIS 2016, Vienna, Austria, August 22-24, 2016, Proceedings, M. Younas, Awan, I., Kryvinska, N., Strauss, C., and van Thanh, D. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 283–294.[Abstract]


We present an intelligent data management framework that can facilitate development of highly scalable and mobile healthcare applications for remote monitoring of patients. This is achieved through the use of a global log data abstraction that leverages the storage and processing capabilities of the edge devices and the cloud in a seamless manner. In existing log based storage systems, data is read as fixed size chunks from the cloud to enhance performance. However, in healthcare applications, where the data access pattern of the end users differ widely, this approach leads to unnecessary storage and cost overheads. To overcome these, we propose dynamic log chunking. The experimental results, comparing existing fixed chunking against the H-Plane model, show 13 %–19 % savings in network bandwidth as well as cost while fetching the data from the cloud.

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PDF iconh-plane-intelligent-data-management-for-mobile-healthcare-applications.pdf

2016

Book Chapter

M. K. Jinesh, Jayaraman, B., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Sybil Attack Detection in Vehicular Networks”, in Security and Privacy in Internet of Things (IoTs): Models, Algorithms, and Implementations, CRC Press, 2016, pp. 35 -51.[Abstract]


Vehicular communication intends to improve the traffic safety for decreasing number of accidents and manages traffic for saving money and time. In vehicular communication, vehicles communicate wirelessly and so security of this network against attackers should be considered. To become a real technology that has public safety on the roads, vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) needs appropriate security architecture. Secure architecture should protect it from different types of security attacks and preserve privacy for drivers. One of these attacks against ad-hoc networks is Sybil attack that attacker is creating multiple identities that are identities belonging to other vehicles or dummy identities made by the attacker. Attacker is using them to gain a disproportionately large influence in the network leading to accidents or causing delay in some services for the driver using only one physical device. In this paper we present a case study of different selective methods for Sybil attack detection in vehicular networks and discuss about advantages and disadvantages of them for real implementation.

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Binary Data

2014

Book Chapter

N. Manmadhan, Hari, N. N., Poroor, J., and Achuthan, K., “Design for Prevention of Intranet Information Leakage via Emails”, in Security in Computing and Communications: Second International Symposium, SSCC 2014, Delhi, India, September 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, J. Lloret Mauri, Thampi, S. M., Rawat, D. B., and Jin, D. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014, pp. 136–148.[Abstract]


The ubiquitous presences of internet and network technologies have enabled electronic mail systems as the primary medium of communication. Both between and within organizations, sensitive and personal information often transits through the electronic mail systems undetected. Information leakage through this mode of communication has become a daunting problem in today’s world. Often the mail volume within an organization is quite large making manual monitoring impossible. In this paper an integration of secure information flow techniques on intranet electronic mail systems is investigated. Categorization of emails based on the sensitivity is accomplished effectively using machine learning techniques. Analyzing the information flow and simultaneously mapping, categorizing and sorting emails in real time prior to receipt of emails has been characterized in this study.  Defining security policies and application of lattice models for controlled exchange of emails is discussed. The paper proposed a secure architecture for an email web application. Experimental analysis on the accuracy of the application was determined using Enron email dataset. More »»

2011

Book Chapter

S. Sundararajan, Hari, N. N., Pavithran, V., Vorungati, K., and Achuthan, K., “Preventing Insider Attacks in the Cloud”, in Advances in Computing and Communications: First International Conference, ACC 2011, Kochi, India, July 22-24, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, A. Abraham, Mauri, J. Lloret, Buford, J. F., Suzuki, J., and Thampi, S. M. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 488–500.[Abstract]


Cloud computing is becoming popular due to its ability to provide dynamic scalability and elasticity of resources at affordable cost. In spite of these advantages key concerns that prevent large scale adoption of cloud computing today are related to security and privacy of customer’s data in the cloud. The main security concerns of clients are loss of direct control of their data and being forced to trust a third party provider with confidential information. Among security threats in the cloud, insider threats pose a serious risk to clients. This paper presents a new access control mechanism that can mitigate security threats in the cloud including those caused by insiders, such as malicious system administrators. The problem is challenging because the cloud provider’s system administrators have elevated privileges for performing genuine system maintenance and administration tasks. We describe an access control mechanism that generates immutable security policies for a client, propagates and enforces them at the provider’s infrastructure.

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