Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Journal Article

H. S. Solanki, Babu, N., Jain, A. P., Bhat, M. Younis, Puttamallesh, V. N., Advani, J., Raja, R., Mangalaparthi, K. K., Kumar, M. M., Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Mathur, P. Prakash, Sidransky, D., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A., “Cigarette smoke induces mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in lung cells.”, Mitochondrion, vol. 40, pp. 58-70, 2018.[Abstract]


Cellular transformation owing to cigarette smoking is due to chronic exposure and not acute. However, systematic studies to understand the molecular alterations in lung cells due to cigarette smoke are lacking. To understand these molecular alterations induced by chronic cigarette smoke exposure, we carried out tandem mass tag (TMT) based temporal proteomic profiling of lung cells exposed to cigarette smoke for upto 12months. We identified 2620 proteins in total, of which 671 proteins were differentially expressed (1.5-fold) after 12months of exposure. Prolonged exposure of lung cells to smoke for 12months revealed dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and overexpression of enzymes involved in TCA cycle. In addition, we also observed overexpression of enzymes involved in glutamine metabolism, fatty acid degradation and lactate synthesis. This could possibly explain the availability of alternative source of carbon to TCA cycle apart from glycolytic pyruvate. Our data indicates that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induces mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in cells to support growth and survival.

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2018

Journal Article

C. Porayath, Suresh, M. K., Biswas, R., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Dr. Nandita Mishra, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Autolysin Mediated Adherence of Staphylococcus Aureus with Fibronectin, Gelatin and Heparin”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

Priyanka Somanath, Bush, K. M., and Knoepfler, P. S., “ERBB3-Binding Protein 1 (EBP1) Is a Novel Developmental Pluripotency-Associated-4 (DPPA4) Cofactor in Human Pluripotent Cells”, STEM CELLS, p. n/a–n/a, 2018.[Abstract]


Developmental Pluripotency-Associated-4 (DPPA4) is one of the few core pluripotency genes lacking clearly defined molecular and cellular functions. Here, we used a proteomics screening approach of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) nuclear extract to determine DPPA4 molecular functions through identification of novel cofactors. Unexpectedly, the signaling molecule ERBB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) was the strongest candidate binding partner for DPPA4 in hESC. EBP1 is a growth factor signaling mediator present in two isoforms, p48 and p42. The two isoforms generally have opposing functions, however their roles in pluripotent cells have not been established. We found that DPPA4 preferentially binds p48 in pluripotent and NTERA-2 cells, but this interaction is largely absent in non-pluripotent cells and is reduced with differentiation. The DPPA4–EBP1 interaction is mediated at least in part in DPPA4 by the highly conserved SAF-A/B, Acinus and PIAS (SAP) domain. Functionally, we found that DPPA4 transcriptional repressive function in reporter assays is significantly increased by specific p48 knockdown, an effect that was abolished with an interaction-deficient DPPA4 ΔSAP mutant. Thus, DPPA4 and EBP1 may cooperate in transcriptional functions through their physical association in a pluripotent cell specific context. Our study identifies EBP1 as a novel pluripotency cofactor and provides insight into potential mechanisms used by DPPA4 in regulating pluripotency through its association with EBP1. Stem Cells 2018

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2018

Journal Article

N. Babu, Advani, J., Solanki, H. S., Patel, K., Jain, A. P., Khan, A. Ahmad, Radhakrishnan, A., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Mathur, P. Prakash, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Chang, X., Sidransky, D., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A., “miRNA and proteomic dysregulation in non-small cell lung cancer in response to cigarette smoke.”, Microrna, 2018.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is imperative to study the dysregulation of miRNAs by cigarette smoke which will affect their targets, either leading to the overexpression of oncoproteins or downregulation of tumor suppressor proteins.

OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we carried out miRNA sequencing and SILAC-based proteomic analysis of H358 cells chronically exposed to cigarette smoke condensate. Using bioinformatics analysis, we mapped the dysregulated miRNAs to differentially expressed target proteins identified in our data. Gene ontology-based enrichment and pathway analysis was performed using the deregulated targets to study the role of cigarette smoke-mediated miRNA dysregulation in NSCLC cell line.

RESULTS: miRNA sequencing resulted in the identification of 208 miRNAs, of which 6 miRNAs were found to be significantly dysregulated (2 fold, Log Base 2; p-value ≤ 0.05) in H358-Smoke cells. Proteomic analysis of the smoke exposed cells compared to the untreated parental cells resulted in the quantification of 2,610 proteins, of which 690 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 2). Gene ontology based analysis of target proteins revealed enrichment of proteins driving metabolism and a decrease in expression of proteins associated with immune response in the cells exposed to cigarette smoke. Pathway study using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed activation of NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response and actin-cytoskeleton signaling, and repression of protein kinase A signaling in H358-Smoke cells. We also identified 5 novel miRNAs in H358-Smoke cells using unassigned reads of small RNA-Seq dataset.

CONCLUSION: In summary, this study indicates that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke leads to widespread dysregulation of miRNAs and their targets, resulting in signaling aberrations in NSCLC cell line. The miRNAs and their targets identified in the study need to be further investigated to explore their role as potential therapeutic targets and/or molecular markers in NSCLC especially in smokers.

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2018

Journal Article

D. Nedungadi, Binoy, A., Nanjan Pandurangan, Pal, S., Nair, B. G., and Dr. Nandita Mishra, “6-Shogaol Induces Caspase-independent Paraptosis in Cancer Cells Via Proteasomal Inhibition”, Exp Cell Res, vol. 364, no. 2, pp. 243-251, 2018.[Abstract]


An α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compound of ginger, 6-Shogaol (6S), induced extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death in breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) and non-small lung cancer (A549) cells. In the presence of autophagic inhibitors the cells continued to exhibit cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death clearly distinguishing it from the classic autophagic process. 6S induced death did not exhibit the characteristic apoptotic features like caspase cleavage, phosphatidyl serine exposure and DNA fragmentation. The immunofluorescence with the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) resident protein, calreticulin indicated that the vacuoles were of ER origin, typical of paraptosis. This was supported by the increase in level of microtubule associated protein light chain 3B (LC3 I and LC3 II) and polyubiquitin binding protein, p62. The level of ER stress markers like polyubiquitinated proteins, Bip and CHOP also consistently increased. We have found that 6S inhibits the 26S proteasome. The proteasomal inhibitory activity was elucidated by a) molecular docking of 6S onto the active site of β5 subunit and b) reduced fluorescence by the fluorogenic substrate of the chymotrypsin-like subunit. In conclusion these studies demonstrate for the first time that proteasomal inhibition by 6S induces cell death via paraptosis. So 6-shogaol may act as a template for anti-cancer lead discovery against the apoptosis resistant cancer cells.

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2018

Journal Article

P. Rajagopalan, Nanjappa, V., Patel, K., Jain, A. P., Mangalaparthi, K. K., Patil, A. H., Nair, B., Mathur, P. P., Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Califano, J. A., Sidransky, D., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A., “Role of protein kinase N2 (PKN2) in cigarette smoke-mediated oncogenic transformation of oral cells.”, J Cell Commun Signal, 2018.[Abstract]


Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Though cigarette smoke is an established cause of head and neck cancer (including oral cancer), molecular alterations associated with chronic cigarette smoke exposure are poorly studied. To understand the signaling alterations induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, we developed a cell line model by exposing normal oral keratinocytes to cigarette smoke for a period of 12 months. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke resulted in increased cellular proliferation and invasive ability of oral keratinocytes. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses showed dysregulation of several proteins involved in cellular movement and cytoskeletal reorganization in smoke exposed cells. We observed overexpression and hyperphosphorylation of protein kinase N2 (PKN2) in smoke exposed cells as well as in a panel of head and neck cancer cell lines established from smokers. Silencing of PKN2 resulted in decreased colony formation, invasion and migration in both smoke exposed cells and head and neck cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that PKN2 plays an important role in oncogenic transformation of oral keratinocytes in response to cigarette smoke. The current study provides evidence that PKN2 can act as a potential therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, especially in patients with a history of smoking.

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2018

Journal Article

V. Ozdemir and Springer, S., “What does "Diversity" Mean for Public Engagement in Science? A New Metric for Innovation Ecosystem Diversity.”, OMICS, 2018.[Abstract]


Diversity is increasingly at stake in early 21st century. Diversity is often conceptualized across ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual preference, and professional credentials, among other categories of difference. These are important and relevant considerations and yet, they are incomplete. Diversity also rests in the way we frame questions long before answers are sought. Such diversity in the framing (epistemology) of scientific and societal questions is important for they influence the types of data, results, and impacts produced by research. Errors in the framing of a research question, whether in technical science or social science, are known as type III errors, as opposed to the better known type I (false positives) and type II errors (false negatives). Kimball defined "error of the third kind" as giving the right answer to the wrong problem. Raiffa described the type III error as correctly solving the wrong problem. Type III errors are upstream or design flaws, often driven by unchecked human values and power, and can adversely impact an entire innovation ecosystem, waste money, time, careers, and precious resources by focusing on the wrong or incorrectly framed question and hypothesis. Decades may pass while technology experts, scientists, social scientists, funding agencies and management consultants continue to tackle questions that suffer from type III errors. We propose a new diversity metric based on the hitherto neglected diversities in knowledge framing for robust, responsible, and inclusive design of innovation ecosystems with foresight. The FDI would be positively correlated with epistemological diversity and technological democracy, and inversely correlated with prevalence of type III errors in innovation ecosystems, consortia, and knowledge networks. We suggest that the FDI can usefully measure (and prevent) type III error risks in innovation ecosystems, and help broaden the concepts and practices of diversity and inclusion in science, technology, innovation and society.

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2018

Journal Article

P. Mol, Kannegundla, U., Dey, G., Gopalakrishnan, L., Dammalli, M., Kumar, M., Patil, A. H., Basavaraju, M., Rao, A., Ramesha, K. P., and Prasad, T. Subrahmany, “Bovine Milk Comparative Proteome Analysis from Early, Mid, and Late Lactation in the Cattle Breed, Malnad Gidda (Bos indicus).”, OMICS, 2018.[Abstract]


Bovine milk is important for both veterinary medicine and human nutrition. Understanding the bovine milk proteome at different stages of lactation has therefore broad significance for integrative biology and clinical medicine as well. Indeed, different lactation stages have marked influence on the milk yield, milk constituents, and nourishment of the neonates. We performed a comparative proteome analysis of the bovine milk obtained at different stages of lactation from the Indian indigenous cattle Malnad Gidda (Bos indicus), a widely available breed. The milk differential proteome during the lactation stages in B. indicus has not been investigated to date. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics of the bovine whey proteins at early, mid, and late lactation stages, we identified a total of 564 proteins, out of which 403 proteins were found to be differentially abundant at different lactation stages. As is expected of any body fluid proteome, 51% of the proteins identified in the milk were found to have signal peptides. Gene ontology analyses were carried out to categorize proteins altered across different lactation stages based on biological process and molecular function, which enabled us to correlate their significance in each lactation stage. We also investigated the potential pathways enriched in different lactation stages using bioinformatics pathway analysis tools. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first and largest inventory of milk proteins identified to date for an Indian cattle breed. We believe that the current study broadly informs both veterinary omics research and the emerging field of nutriproteomics during lactation stages.

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2018

Journal Article

P. H, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, G, N., E, D. ’A., and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Understanding Cerebellum Granular Layer Network Computations through Mathematical Reconstructions of Evoked Local Field Potentials”, Annals of Neuroscience, vol. 25, pp. 11-24, 2018.[Abstract]


Background: The cerebellar granular layer input stage of cerebellum receives information from tactile and sensory regions of the body. The somatosensory activity in the cerebellar granular layer corresponds to sensory and tactile input has been observed by recording Local Field Potential (LFP) from the Crus-IIa regions of cerebellum in brain slices and in anesthetized animals. Purpose: In this paper, a detailed biophysical model of Wistar rat cerebellum granular layer network model and LFP modelling schemas were used to simulate circuit’s evoked response. Methods: Point Source Approximation and Line Source Approximation were used to reconstruct the network LFP. The LFP mechanism in in vitro was validated in network model and generated the in vivo LFP using the same mechanism. Results: The network simulations distinctly displayed the Trigeminal and Cortical (TC) wave components generated by 2 independent bursts implicating the generation of TC waves by 2 independent granule neuron populations. Induced plasticity was simulated to estimate granule neuron activation related population responses. As a prediction, cerebellar dysfunction (ataxia) was also studied using the model. Dysfunction at individual neurons in the network was affected by the population response. Conclusion: Our present study utilizes available knowledge on known mechanisms in a single cell and associates network function to population responses.

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2018

Journal Article

Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Medini, K. Chaitanya, Asha Vijayan, and Rajendran, A. G., “Computational Modelling of Cerebellum Granule Neuron Temporal Responses for Auditory and Visual Stimuli”, International Journal of Advanced Intelligence Paradigms, vol. 10, p. 1, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinch Bose, M. Sreejith, Veni C K, Anjana M Amrita, and Anjana R P., “Synthesis, bioactivities and in-silico docking studies of azaleatin-a quercetin partial methyl ether; SAR study.”, vol. 14, 2018.[Abstract]


Azaleatin- a lesser known partially methylated flavonoid, has been synthesized efficiently through MOM protection and deprotections from quercetin. The synthesized compound and closely related partially methylated flavonoids (SAR) were subjected for the investigation of α-amylase and antioxidant activities. Among the compounds tested, azaleatin was found to be best inhibitor for α-amylase with acceptable radical scavenging activity than closely related compounds. Further, in-silico modelling studies indicated that azaleatin forms hydrogen bonds with the key amino acid residues such as Gln63, Arg195 and Asp197 of α-amylase receptor. Acarbose was used as positive control for α-amylase inhibition.

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2018

Journal Article

K. R. Raghi, Sherin, D. R., Saumya, M. J., Arun, P. S., Sobha, V. N., and Manojkumar, T. K., “Computational study of molecular electrostatic potential, docking and dynamics simulations of gallic acid derivatives as ABL inhibitors.”, Comput Biol Chem, vol. 74, pp. 239-246, 2018.[Abstract]


Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a hematological malignancy arises due to the spontaneous fusion of the BCR and ABL gene, resulting in a constitutively active tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL). Pharmacological activity of Gallic acid and 1,3,4-Oxadiazole as potential inhibitors of ABL kinase has already been reported. Objective of this study is to evaluate the ABL kinase inhibitory activity of derivatives of Gallic acid fused with 1,3,4-Oxadiazole moieties. Attempts have been made to identify the key structural features responsible for drug likeness of the Gallic acid and the 1,3,4-Oxadiazole ring using molecular electrostatic potential maps (MESP). To investigate the inhibitory activity of Gallic acid derivatives towards the ABL receptor, we have applied molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approaches. A comparative study was performed using Bosutinib as the standard which is an approved CML drug acting on the same receptor. Furthermore, the novel compounds designed and reported here in were evaluated for ADME properties and the results indicate that they show acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Accordingly these compounds are predicted to be drug like with low toxicity potential.

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2018

Journal Article

P. Rajagopalan, Patel, K., Jain, A. P., Nanjappa, V., Datta, K. K., Subbannayya, T., Mangalaparthi, K. K., Kumari, A., Manoharan, M., Coral, K., Murugan, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Mathur, P. P., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Khanna-Gupta, A., Califano, J., Sidransky, D., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A., “Molecular alterations associated with chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco in normal oral keratinocytes.”, Cancer Biol Ther, pp. 1-13, 2018.[Abstract]


Tobacco usage is a known risk factor associated with development of oral cancer. It is mainly consumed in two different forms (smoking and chewing) that vary in their composition and methods of intake. Despite being the leading cause of oral cancer, molecular alterations induced by tobacco are poorly understood. We therefore sought to investigate the adverse effects of cigarette smoke/chewing tobacco exposure in oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT1). OKF6/TERT1 cells acquired oncogenic phenotype after treating with cigarette smoke/chewing tobacco for a period of 8 months. We employed whole exome sequencing (WES) and quantitative proteomics to investigate the molecular alterations in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to smoke/ chewing tobacco. Exome sequencing revealed distinct mutational spectrum and copy number alterations in smoke/ chewing tobacco treated cells. We also observed differences in proteomic alterations. Proteins downstream of MAPK1 and EGFR were dysregulated in smoke and chewing tobacco exposed cells, respectively. This study can serve as a reference for fundamental damages on oral cells as a consequence of exposure to different forms of tobacco.

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2018

Journal Article

M. Younis Bhat, Advani, J., Rajagopalan, P., Patel, K., Nanjappa, V., Solanki, H. S., Patil, A. H., Bhat, F. A., Mathur, P. P., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Califano, J. A., Sidransky, D., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A., “Cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco alter expression of different sets of miRNAs in oral keratinocytes.”, Sci Rep, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 7040, 2018.[Abstract]


Carcinogenic effect of tobacco in oral cancer is through chewing and/or smoking. Significant differences exist in development of oral cancer between tobacco users and non-users. However, molecular alterations induced by different forms of tobacco are yet to be fully elucidated. We developed cellular models of chronic exposure to chewing tobacco and cigarette smoke using immortalized oral keratinocytes. Chronic exposure to tobacco resulted in increased cell scattering and invasiveness in immortalized oral keratinocytes. miRNA sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2500 resulted in the identification of 10 significantly dysregulated miRNAs (4 fold; p ≤ 0.05) in chewing tobacco treated cells and 6 in cigarette smoke exposed cells. We integrated this data with global proteomic data and identified 36 protein targets that showed inverse expression pattern in chewing tobacco treated cells and 16 protein targets that showed inverse expression in smoke exposed cells. In addition, we identified 6 novel miRNAs in chewing tobacco treated cells and 18 novel miRNAs in smoke exposed cells. Integrative analysis of dysregulated miRNAs and their targets indicates that signaling mechanisms leading to oncogenic transformation are distinct between both forms of tobacco. Our study demonstrates alterations in miRNA expression in oral cells in response to two frequently used forms of tobacco.

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2017

Journal Article

Asha Vijayan, Chaitanya Nutakki, Dhanush Kumar, Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Enabling a freely accessible open source remotely controlled robotic articulator with a neuro-inspired control algorithm”, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 61-75, 2017.[Abstract]


Internet-enabled technologies for robotics education are gaining importance as online platforms facilitating and promoting skill training. Understanding the use and design of robotics is now introduced at university undergraduate levels, but in developing economies establishing usable hardware and software platforms face several challenges like cost, equipment etc. Remote labs help providing alternatives to some of the challenges. We developed an online laboratory for bioinspired robotics using a low-cost 6 degree-of-freedom robotic articulator with a neuro-inspired controller. Cerebellum-inspired neural network algorithm approximates forward and inverse kinematics for movement coordination. With over 210000 registered users, the remote lab has been perceived as an interactive online learning tool and a practice platform. Direct feedback from 60 students and 100 university teachers indicated that the remote laboratory motivated self-organized learning and was useful as teaching material to aid robotics skill education.

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2017

Book Chapter

Dr. Shyam Diwakar, Medini, C., Nair, M., Parasuram, H., Asha Vijayan, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Computational Neuroscience of Timing, Plasticity and Function in Cerebellum Microcircuits”, in Computational Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 6, Springer Series in Bio-/Neuroinformatics, 2017, pp. 343–371.[Abstract]


Cerebellum has been known to show homogeneity in circuit organization and hence the “modules” or various circuits in the cerebellum are attributed to the diversity of functions such as timing, pattern recognition, movement planning and dysfunctions such as ataxia related to the cerebellum. Ataxia-like conditions, induced by intrinsic excitability changes, disable spiking or bursts and thereby limit the quanta of downstream information. Understanding timing, plasticity and functional roles of cerebellum involve large-scale and microcircuit reconstructions validating molecular mechanisms in population activity. Using mathematical modelling, we attempted to reconstruct information transmission at the granular layer of the cerebellum, a circuit whose role in dysfunctions remain yet to be fully explored. We have employed spiking models to reconstruct timing roles and detailed biophysical models for extracellular activity and local field population response. The roles of inhibition, induced plasticity and their implications in information transmission were evaluated. Modulatory roles of Golgi inhibition and pattern abstraction via optimal storage were estimated. An abstraction of the granular and Purkinje layer circuit for neurorobotic roles such as pattern recognition and spike encoding via two new methods was developed. Simulations suggest plasticity at cerebellar relays may be an important element of tremendous storage capacity reliable in the learning of coordination of actions, sensorimotor or cognitive, in which the cerebellum participates. More »»

2017

Journal Article

M. Dammalli, Murthy, K. R., Pinto, S. M., Murthy, K. Babu, Nirujogi, R. Sekhar, Madugundu, A. K., Dey, G., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Gowda, H., and Prasad, T. Subrahmany, “Toward Postgenomics Ophthalmology: A Proteomic Map of the Human Choroid-Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tissue.”, OMICS, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 114-122, 2017.[Abstract]


Ophthalmology and visual health research have received relatively limited attention from the personalized medicine community, but this trend is rapidly changing. Postgenomics technologies such as proteomics are being utilized to establish a baseline biological variation map of the human eye and related tissues. In this context, the choroid is the vascular layer situated between the outer sclera and the inner retina. The choroidal circulation serves the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE is a layer of cuboidal epithelial cells adjacent to the neurosensory retina and maintains the outer limit of the blood-retina barrier. Abnormal changes in choroid-RPE layers have been associated with age-related macular degeneration. We report here the proteome of the healthy human choroid-RPE complex, using reverse phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry-based proteomics. A total of 5309 nonredundant proteins were identified. Functional analysis of the identified proteins further pointed to molecular targets related to protein metabolism, regulation of nucleic acid metabolism, transport, cell growth, and/or maintenance and immune response. The top canonical pathways in which the choroid proteins participated were integrin signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling. This study illustrates the largest number of proteins identified in human choroid-RPE complex to date and might serve as a valuable resource for future investigations and biomarker discovery in support of postgenomics ophthalmology and precision medicine.

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2017

Journal Article

A. Ma HimaVyshnavi, Anand, C. Lb, Deepak, O. Mc, and P. K. Krishnan Namboori, “Evaluation of colorectal cancer (CRC) epidemiology a pharmacogenomic approach”, Journal of Young Pharmacists, vol. 9, pp. 36-39, 2017.[Abstract]


Background: The population-wise variation in proneness of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) has been studied in the manuscript. A population wise analysis of responsiveness towards colorectal cancer is carried out with genetic, epigenetic, metagenomic and environmental factors associated with APC mutation mainly responsible for CRC among eight different populations. Methods and Material: The APC mutation has been obtained using the 'human gene mutation database-HGMD' and the 'international cancer genome consortium-ICGC' Data Portal. The epigenetic factors affecting colon cancer have been identified through EpiGRAPH tool. The 'human oral microbiome database (HOMD) and 'comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD)' are used to find the metagenomic factors affecting CRC. Results: Variants of APC gene from the selected ethnic classes chosen from Argentina, France, Germany, India, Poland, Romania, UK and USA were characterized, where the chromosome positions 112102966-112177228 are found to be affected. It has been found that among epigenetic factors: chromosome organization, population variation, and evolutionary history are highly promising features for the prediction of DNA methylation. It has been found that consumption of linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lauric acid play a major role in preventing CRC. Conclusions:The chromosome positions 112102966-112177228 are found to be the most prone region for APC mutation. Chromosome organization, population variation, and evolutionary history are highly promising epigenetic features for the prediction of DNA methylation and further mutation. The consumption of spices, coconut oil, fish (in coastal areas), dairy products and reduced intake of red meat may be the reasons for less incidence rate of CRC among the Indian population.

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2017

Journal Article

J. Raveendran, P.E., R., Dr. Ramachandran T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Fabrication of a disposable non-enzymatic electrochemical creatinine sensor”, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 243, pp. 589 - 595, 2017.[Abstract]


Abstract A disposable non-enzymatic sensor for creatinine was developed by electrodepositing copper on screen printed carbon electrodes. The sensor was characterized using electrochemical and microscopic techniques. Electrochemical detection of creatinine was carried out in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4. The estimation was based on the formation of soluble copper-creatinine complex. The formation of copper-creatinine complex was established using the pseudoperoxidase activity of copper-creatinine complex. The sensor showed a detection limit of 0.0746 μM with a linear range of 6–378 μΜ. The sensor exhibited a stable response to creatinine and found to be free from interference from molecules like urea, glucose, ascorbic acid and dopamine. Real sample analysis was carried out with blood serum.

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2017

Journal Article

C. R. Reshmi, Menon, T., Binoy, A., Dr. Nandita Mishra, Elyas, K. K., and Sujith, A., “Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/collagen electrospun mat: Potential for wound dressing and controlled drug delivery”, International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, vol. 66, no. 13, pp. 645-657, 2017.[Abstract]


Here we report a novel bioactive electrospun mat based on poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLLC) and collagen for wound dressing and sustained drug delivery of gentamicin. PLLC/collagen electrospun mat loaded with 10% gentamicin showed bioactivity for 15 days against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts confirmed that these electrospun mat provide an increased specific interface area and hydrophilicity to enhance cell attachment, proliferation, and migration. The modified PLLC/collagen mat provided an excellent enhancement in properties of antibacterial wound dressings with a minimum in vitro toxicity and high potency for promoting wound healing stages. © 2017 Taylor & Francis.

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2017

Journal Article

D. Barardo, Thornton, D., Thoppil, H., Walsh, M., Sharifi, S., Ferreira, S., Anžič, A., Fernandes, M., Monteiro, P., Grum, T., Cordeiro, R., De-Souza, E. Araújo, Budovsky, A., Araujo, N., Gruber, J., Petrascheck, M., Fraifeld, V. E., Zhavoronkov, A., Moskalev, A., and de Magalhães, J. Pedro, “The DrugAge Database of Aging-Related Drugs.”, Aging Cell, 2017.[Abstract]


Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug-gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists.

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2017

Journal Article

D. Sunilkumar, Bose, C., Shaji, S. K., Nanjan Pandurangan, Geetha B Kumar, Asoke Banerji, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Coconut Shell Derived Bioactive Compound Oxyresveratrol Mediates Regulation Of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9”, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 202 – 210, 2017.

2017

Patent

E. Schäfer and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Cartridge connection method for precise delivery of liquid”, 2017.

2017

Patent

Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Non- Enzymatic Glucose Sensor. ”, 2017.

2017

Patent

Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Dual Microcontroller-based Liquid Infusion Device”, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

V. Ozdemir, Kickbusch, I., and Coşkun, Y., “Rethinking the right to work for refugee Syrian healthcare professionals: a call for innovation in global governance.”, BMJ, vol. 357, p. j2710, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

N. Velusamy, Binoy, A., Bobba, K. Naidu, Nedungadi, D., Dr. Nandita Mishra, and Bhuniya, S., “A bioorthogonal fluorescent probe for mitochondrial hydrogen sulfide: new strategy for cancer cell labeling”, Chem Commun (Camb)., vol. 53, no. 62, pp. 8802-8805, 2017.[Abstract]


We report the application of a chemodosimeter {'}turn on{'} fluorescent probe for detecting endogenous H2S formation in cancer cells. Mito-HS showed a bathochromic shift in the UV-vis-absorption spectrum from 355 nm to 395 nm in the presence of H2S. Furthermore{,} it showed an [similar]43-fold fluorescence enhancement at [small lambda]em = 450 nm in the presence of H2S (200 [small mu ]M). The cancer cell-specific fluorescence imaging reveals that Mito-HS has the ability to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells based on the level of endogenous H2S formation. In due course{,} Mito-HS would be a powerful cancer biomarker based on its ability to estimate endogenous H2S formation in living cells.

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2017

Journal Article

J. Advani, Subbannayya, Y., Patel, K., Khan, A. Ahmad, Patil, A. H., Jain, A. P., Solanki, H. S., Radhakrishnan, A., Pinto, S. M., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Thomas, J. K., Mathur, P. P., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Chang, X., Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Sidransky, D., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A., “Long-Term Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Changes in MiRNA Expression and Proteome in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer”, OMICS, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 390-403, 2017.[Abstract]


Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke markedly increases the risk for lung cancer. Regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by miRNAs influences a variety of cancer-related interactomes. Yet, relatively little is known on the effects of long-term cigarette smoke exposure on miRNA expression and gene regulation. NCI-H292 (H292) is a cell line sensitive to cigarette smoke with mucoepidermoid characteristics in culture. We report, in this study, original observations on long-term (12 months) cigarette smoke effects in the H292 cell line, using microarray-based miRNA expression profiling, and stable isotopic labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative proteomic analysis. We identified 112 upregulated and 147 downregulated miRNAs (by twofold) in cigarette smoke-treated H292 cells. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified 3,959 proteins, of which, 303 proteins were overexpressed and 112 proteins downregulated (by twofold). We observed 39 miRNA target pairs (proven targets) that were differentially expressed in response to chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Gene ontology analysis of the target proteins revealed enrichment of proteins in biological processes driving metabolism, cell communication, and nucleic acid metabolism. Pathway analysis revealed the enrichment of phagosome maturation, antigen presentation pathway, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in cigarette smoke-exposed cells. In conclusion, this report makes an important contribution to knowledge on molecular changes in a lung cell line in response to long term cigarette smoke exposure. The findings might inform future strategies for drug target, biomarker and diagnostics innovation in lung cancer, and clinical oncology. These observations also call for further research on the extent to which continuing or stopping cigarette smoking in patients diagnosed with lung cancer translates into molecular and clinical outcomes.

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2017

Journal Article

J. Raveendran, Krishnan, R. G., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., “Voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid by using a disposable screen printed electrode modified with Cu(OH)2 nanorods”, Microchimica Acta, pp. 1-7, 2017.[Abstract]


The authors describe a disposable non-enzymatic sensor for ascorbic acid (AA) that was obtained by modifying a screen printed electrode (SPE) with Cu(OH)2 nanorods (NRs). The NRs were synthesized by a wet chemical process which involves sequential addition of NH3 and NaOH to CuSO4 solution. NR formation was confirmed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic, microscopic, and diffraction studies. The Cu(OH)2 NRs were mixed with carbon ink and printed onto an SPE. Electrochemical detection of AA was carried out at pH 7.4, at a typical voltage as low as 0 mV versus saturated calomel electrode with a scan rate of 100 mV/s, and is assumed to involve the chemical reduction of Cu(II) by AA followed by electrochemical oxidation of Cu(I). The sensor has a linear response in the 0.0125 to 10 mΜ AA concentration range. Response to AA is free from interference by urea, glucose, uric acid, dopamine, metal ions such as Fe2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+, NaCl, KCl and ethanol. It was applied to the determination of AA in a vitamin C tablet and in urine. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria

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2017

Journal Article

K. Achuthan, Francis, S. P., and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Augmented reflective learning and knowledge retention perceived among students in classrooms involving virtual laboratories”, Education and Information Technologies, pp. 1-31, 2017.[Abstract]


Learning theories converge on the principles of reflective learning processes and perceive them as fundamental to effective learning. Traditional laboratory education in science and engineering often happens in highly resource-constrained environments that compromise some of the learning objectives. This paper focuses on characterizing three learning attributes associated with reflective learning i.e. metacognition (M), analogical reasoning (A) and transfer of knowledge (T) and assessed college laboratory education blended with ICT-enabled virtual laboratories. Key contributions of this study include: 1) Development of assessment of MAT attributes using a combination of multiple choice questions, True/False statements and descriptive questions 2) assessment of conceptual learning occurring in the laboratory environment and of learning attributes using Virtual Laboratories (VLs) in classroom education. Feedback data indicated using virtual laboratories in classrooms for training students before using physical laboratories demonstrated a significant improvement (>100% change) in learning in comparison to physical laboratories without VLs. We also show using VLs as pre-lab or post-lab exercise augmented reflective learning and information retention among 145 students in this blended learning case study, compared to an independent control group of 45 students who had no virtual laboratory training. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC More »»

2017

Journal Article

H. Sasidharakurup, Melethadathil, N., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “A Systems Model of Parkinson's Disease Using Biochemical Systems Theory”, OMICS, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 454-464, 2017.[Abstract]


Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, affects millions of people and has gained attention because of its clinical roles affecting behaviors related to motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although studies on PD from various aspects are becoming popular, few rely on predictive systems modeling approaches. Using Biochemical Systems Theory (BST), this article attempts to model and characterize dopaminergic cell death and understand pathophysiology of progression of PD. PD pathways were modeled using stochastic differential equations incorporating law of mass action, and initial concentrations for the modeled proteins were obtained from literature. Simulations suggest that dopamine levels were reduced significantly due to an increase in dopaminergic quinones and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) relating to imbalances compared to control during PD progression. Associating to clinically observed PD-related cell death, simulations show abnormal parkin and reactive oxygen species levels with an increase in neurofibrillary tangles. While relating molecular mechanistic roles, the BST modeling helps predicting dopaminergic cell death processes involved in the progression of PD and provides a predictive understanding of neuronal dysfunction for translational neuroscience.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. Indulekha C. L. Pillai, Li, S., Romay, M., Lam, L., Lu, Y., Huang, J., Dillard, N., Zemanova, M., Rubbi, L., Wang, Y., Lee, J., Xia, M., Liang, O., Xie, Y. - H., Pellegrini, M., Lusis, A. J., and Deb, A., “Cardiac Fibroblasts Adopt Osteogenic Fates and Can Be Targeted to Attenuate Pathological Heart Calcification”, Cell Stem Cell, vol. 20, pp. 218 - 232.e5, 2017.[Abstract]


Summary Mammalian tissues calcify with age and injury. Analogous to bone formation, osteogenic cells are thought to be recruited to the affected tissue and induce mineralization. In the heart, calcification of cardiac muscle leads to conduction system disturbances and is one of the most common pathologies underlying heart blocks. However the cell identity and mechanisms contributing to pathological heart muscle calcification remain unknown. Using lineage tracing, murine models of heart calcification and in vivo transplantation assays, we show that cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) adopt an osteoblast cell-like fate and contribute directly to heart muscle calcification. Small-molecule inhibition of ENPP1, an enzyme that is induced upon injury and regulates bone mineralization, significantly attenuated cardiac calcification. Inhibitors of bone mineralization completely prevented ectopic cardiac calcification and improved post injury heart function. Taken together, these findings highlight the plasticity of fibroblasts in contributing to ectopic calcification and identify pharmacological targets for therapeutic development.

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2017

Journal Article

Chandni P, Amrita Salim, Archana P. V., Pradeesh Babu, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Madhavan, A., and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Characterization of the bacteriophages binding to human matrix molecules.”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017.[Abstract]


Recent literature has suggested a novel symbiotic relationship between bacteriophage and metazoan host that provides antimicrobial defense protecting mucosal surface by binding to host matrix mucin glycoproteins. Here, we isolated and studied different bacteriophages that specifically interact with human extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin, gelatin, heparin and demonstrated their potency for protection to host against microbial infections. We showed that subpopulations of bacteriophages that work against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli can bind to pure gelatin, fibronectin and heparin and reduced bacterial load in human colon cell line HT29. The bacteriophages were characterized with respect to their genome sizes, melting curve patterns and host tropism (cross-reactivity with different hosts). Since, the bacteriophages are non-toxic to the host and can effectively reduce bacterial load in HT29 cell line their therapeutic potency against bacterial infection could be explored.

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2017

Journal Article

A. Ahmad Khan, Advani, J., Patel, K., Nanjappa, V., Solanki, H. S., Mathur, P. Prakash, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Chatterjee, A., and Gowda, H., “Chronic exposure of cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco alters expression of microRNAs in esophageal epithelial cells.”, Microrna, 2017.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers with high mortality rate. Cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco are well known risk factors associated with ESCC. However, molecular mechanisms associated with development of ESCC among smokers and chewers are poorly understood. MicroRNAs play an important role in regulating physiological and disease processes including esophageal cancer.

OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we developed an in vitro model by treating non-neoplastic Het-1A esophageal cell line with cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco. We carried out miRNA sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform and compared miRNA expression pattern across cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco treated Het-1A cells with untreated cells.

RESULTS: We identified and quantified 433 miRNAs in both smoke exposed and chewing tobacco treated cells, of which 13 miRNAs showed significantly altered expression in cigarette smoke exposed cells while 25 miRNAs showed significantly altered expression in chewing tobacco treated cells. In addition, we predicted novel miRNAs from these data-sets. We evaluated miRNAs that showed selective or context dependent expression pattern in cigarette smoke exposed or chewing tobacco treated cells.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have comprehensively mapped miRNA expression pattern in response to cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco in Het-1A cells. We identified miRNAs that show altered expression in these cell models.

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2017

Conference Paper

V. Amrutha., Prasad Megha, Lekshmija, A., Anjana, R., Aleena, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Madhavan, A., and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Effect of compost derived lytic agents against enteric bacteria in sewage”, in InnovativeStrategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017), Punjab, India. , 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

Pradeesh Babu, Poornendu, S. J., Amrita Salim, Madhavan, A., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Resazurin based redox dye as an indicator for monitoring wastewater biological activity”, in Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017), Punjab, India, 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

M. Sreejith, Reghu, A. P., Anandakrishnan, K., Gopika, P. J., .Kuriakose, G., Reshma, M. J., Vishnu, K., Madhavan, A., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Screening potential antimicrobial compounds by resazurin dye based viability assay”, in Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017), Punjab, India, 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

V. Prakash, H. Sreetha, Poornima, K. H., Lakshmimol, K. N., Regma, R., Fathima, H., Vishnu, T. V., Venu, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Antagonistic effects of bacteriocins from Lactobacillus spp. against enteric pathogens”, in Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017), Punjab, India ., 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

S. Subhash, Kuruvelil, A. B., Aswathi, P. V., Deepasree, K., Navyamol, C. D., N.P.V., D., Prasad, P., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Screening of nematicidal activities of biocontrol fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium oxalicum using C. elegans as model”, in Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017) , Punjab, India. , 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

D. Tharuvana, A. Sundaresh, Sreelakshmi, V. J., Das, A., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Dr. Sanjay Pal, and Madhavan, A., “Sand and charcoal as matrices for immobilization of phages for wastewater treatment”, in Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017) , Punjab, India. , 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

A. P. Veedu, Reshma, R. N., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Dr. Sanjay Pal, and Madhavan, A., “Activity of probiotic strains against enteric pathogens”, in Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Water Management (ISSWM-2017) , Punjab,India. , 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

A. Madhavan, Prasad Megha, Girish, S., K. Shetty, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Caulobacter crescentus as a novel exoelectricigen in a dual chambered Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC)”, in Technical Program Committee of the “2017 IEEE International( Biennial) Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy”, TAP Energy-2017. , 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

A. Madhavan, K. Shetty, S., Anjana, G., Das, A., Athira, A. S., Hari, H., ,, Babu, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Pneumatophore inspired biomimetic approach to design an energy neutral aerator for application in composting”, in Technical Program Committee of the “2017 IEEE International ( Biennial) Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy”, TAP Energy-2017. , 2017.

2017

Conference Paper

P. Nagarajan, Sruthy, K. S., Lal, V. P., Devan, V. P., Krishna, A., Lakshman, A., Vineetha, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Dr. Sanjay Pal, and Madhavan, A., “Biological treatment of domestic wastewater by selected aquatic plants.”, in IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy (TAP Energy 2017). , 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Priyanka Somanath, Klein, R. Herndon, and Knoepfler, P. S., “CRISPR-mediated HDAC2 disruption identifies two distinct classes of target genes in human cells”, PLOS ONE, vol. 12, pp. 1-21, 2017.[Abstract]


The transcriptional functions of the class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1 and HDAC2 are mainly viewed as both repressive and redundant based on murine knockout studies, but they may have additional independent roles and their physiological functions in human cells are not as clearly defined. To address the individual epigenomic functions of HDAC2, here we utilized CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt HDAC2 in human cells. We find that while HDAC2 null cells exhibited signs of cross-regulation between HDAC1 and HDAC2, specific epigenomic phenotypes were still apparent using RNA-seq and ChIP assays. We identified specific targets of HDAC2 repression, and defined a novel class of genes that are actively expressed in a partially HDAC2-dependent manner. While HDAC2 was required for the recruitment of HDAC1 to repressed HDAC2-gene targets, HDAC2 was dispensable for HDAC1 binding to HDAC2-activated targets, supporting the notion of distinct classes of targets. Both active and repressed classes of gene targets demonstrated enhanced histone acetylation and methylation in HDAC2-null cells. Binding of the HDAC1/2-associated SIN3A corepressor was altered at most HDAC2-targets, but without a clear pattern. Overall, our study defines two classes of HDAC2 targets in human cells, with a dependence of HDAC1 on HDAC2 at one class of targets, and distinguishes unique functions for HDAC2

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2017

Journal Article

Priyanka Somanath, ,, ,, McDonough, A., Ariza, J., ,, ,, Horton, K., and Knoepfler, P. S., “Behavior of Xeno-Transplanted Undifferentiated Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Is Impacted by Microenvironment Without Evidence of Tumors.”, Stem Cells Dev, vol. 26, no. 19, 2017.[Abstract]


Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have great clinical potential through the use of their differentiated progeny, a population in which there is some concern over risks of tumorigenicity or other unwanted cellular behavior due to residual hPSC. Preclinical studies using human stem cells are most often performed within a xenotransplant context. In this study, we sought to measure how undifferentiated hPSC behave following xenotransplant. We directly transplanted undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSC) and human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into the adult mouse brain ventricle and analyzed their fates. No tumors or precancerous lesions were present at more than one year after transplantation. This result differed with the tumorigenic capacity we observed after allotransplantation of mouse ESC into the mouse brain. A substantial population of cellular derivatives of undifferentiated hESC and hIPSC engrafted, survived, and migrated within the mouse brain parenchyma. Within brain structures, transplanted cell distribution followed a very specific pattern, suggesting the existence of distinct microenvironments that offer different degrees of permissibility for engraftment. Most of the transplanted hESC and hIPSC that developed into brain cells were NeuN+ neuronal cells, and no astrocytes were detected. Substantial cell and nuclear fusion occurred between host and transplanted cells, a phenomenon influenced by microenvironment. Overall, hIPSC appear to be largely functionally equivalent to hESC in vivo. Altogether, these data bring new insights into the behavior of stem cells without prior differentiation following xenotransplantation into the adult brain.

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2017

Journal Article

P. Chellaiah, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Achuthan, K., and Diwakar, S., “Using theme-based narrative construct of images as passwords: Implementation and assessment of remembered sequences”, International Journal of Online Engineering, vol. 13, pp. 77-93, 2017.[Abstract]


With many online engineering platforms such as virtual and remote laboratories designed for young or aged users, user authentication and passwords-based methods are being re-evaluated for tracking usage patterns and security. For ICT-enabled online engineering platforms, image-based humancentric approaches are gaining relevance for access frameworks. With the rubber- hose attacks, increased senior users, many existing systems are vulnerable to many attacks. This paper employs human uniqueness of narrative skills on an image-based password system for online platforms with focus on theme in the password generation process. To generate the secret password, a specially designed computer game was used. We used narrative constructs composed of cartoon image sequences to generate user-speci!c secret key. The durability of generated passwords and the authentication process while assessing the reconstruction process by a potential hacker was verified. For validating use of coerced attacks, under imposed psychological duress, users failed retrieving the password sequence suggesting the reliability as an anti-coercive attack cybersecurity tool. A set of experiments were used to analyze user behavior behind the image-based password system. EEG measurements demonstrated increased activity of " rhythms in F3 and FC5 channel bins and augmented levels of α rhythms in F3 and O1 channels, suggesting users added personalization to authentication more than in alpha-numeric password-based logins.

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2017

Journal Article

A. G. Rajendran, Nutakki, C., Sasidharakurup, H., Bodda, S., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Cerebellum in Neurological Disorders: A Review on the Role of Inter-Connected Neural Circuits”, Journal of Neurology and Stroke, vol. 6, pp. 1-4, 2017.[Abstract]


Recent studies have indicated the additional role of cerebellum beyond motor coordination non-motor and socio-cognitive tasks. Exploration of cerebellar roles in timing and plasticity have been attributed specific roles in neurological conditions such as ataxia, severe disorders such as Parkinson's and epilepsy. Cerebellar dysfunctions elaborate the need of research on cerebellar circuitry and physiology to better understand neurological functions and dysfunctions. Structural and functional studies of cerebellum also implicate the connection between cerebellum with interconnected circuits such as thalamo cortical and basal ganglia networks during motor and non-motor functions. In this review, we list some of recently perceived roles of cerebellum in information processing, neurological conditions in disorders.

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2017

Journal Article

R. R, D, K., N, N., Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Implementation of ICT-based Virtual Labs for Sustainable Laboratory Education in Universities”, CSI journal of Computing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 67-75, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Bioinspired Syntheses of Partially Methylated Flavonoids – Untapped Source of Bioactivities”, Journal of Exploratory Research in Pharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16-20, 2017.[Abstract]


Alkylation of hydroxyl groups of flavonoids is known to increase their bioavailability, metabolic stability and also impart new bioactivities. Though partially alkylated flavonoids and related compounds occupy substantial chemical space, there is scant information on their biological activities. They are comparatively less accessible, therefore development of their general syntheses are desirable. Chalcones play key role in the biosynthesis of array of flavonoids. Taking cues from nature, bioinspired, ecofriendly syntheses of polyhydroxy- and partially alkylated flavonoids have been developed. Compared to conventional protection groups, methoxymethylation was found to be more useful for the protection of hydroxyl groups. A library of flavones, flavonols, isoflavones and biflavones has been prepared. A brief account of our ongoing effort towards syntheses of small molecules is summarized here. Biological screening of the synthesized compounds led to recognition of several hitherto unreported inhibitors of biomarkers for MMP’s, NFkB, carbonic anhydrase etc.

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