Research at Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amritapuri Campus
The Department consists of eminent faculty with a healthy mixture of Industrial Experience, Academics, and Research. Several faculty members have received their graduate and post-graduate degrees from institutions of international repute such as University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), University of Texas at Austin, University of California, Irvine, Indian Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Science etc., and/or have been working on research and development projects in firms across the globe. Several faculty members have been exposed to cutting edge research both in India and abroad. In addition, some of the faculty have several years of industrial experience in reputed companies in the US such as Broadcom Corp, Synopsis Inc., Cirrus Logic etc.
The department upholds its research work by maintaining National and International research networks. The department itself has more than 5 funded projects. Various research and projects carried out in the Department in core areas give the students an opportunity to explore engineering on a large scale. The Research area extends over diverse disciplines such as VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Design, Digital and Analog Electronics, Data Communication, Wireless Communication, Signal Processing and Image Processing.
The students and researchers working on various research areas are privileged to receive the mentorship of Dr. Jayachandran Nair, Distinguished Professor who has hands-on experience in various fields such as Computational Seismology, Communication, Biomedical Engineering, Wireless Sensor Networks and Signal Processing. The research areas of PhD scholars focus on areas such as Biomedical Signal Processing , Speech Signal Processing and Brain Computer Interface.
Research in Biomedical Signal Processing involves EEG (Electroencephalograph) signal analysis of patients using modern Signal Processing methods. The work currently in progress is Epileptic EEG analysis for Classification, Modelling and Estimation of Brain states in Ictal, Pre-ictal and Inter-ictal periods.
The research work on Speech Signal Processing is focussed on Speech Recognition, Feature Extraction & Classification of languages particularly- Malayalam phonemes and recognition of Malayalam speech. Even though the primary focus is on Malayalam, the work is intended to be extended to other languages also in future.
The research work on Brain Computer Interface focuses on the study of EEG signals, use of modern Signal Processing techniques and Machine Learning Algorithms for Pre-Processing, Removal of Artifacts, Segmentation, Classification and Characterization. The research will also be dealing with classification of signals generated due to normal, event evoked and pathological conditions. The functional aspects of these classified signals are then studied using various Signal Processing Algorithms and Machine Learning Techniques. The effects of external stimulus on EEG will also be studied under supervised and unsupervised condition.
The research ongoing in this area includes Information and Coding Theory, Nonlinear Dynamics/Chaos Theory and its Applications to Communications, Wavelets, Compressed Sensing, Time Series Analysis and Classification. Dr. Nithin Nagraj, has been carrying out extensive work in this area and holds two patents – one for Graph extraction labelling and visualization and the other for Method and apparatus for segmenting structure in CT angiography.
Currently he is working on "Mathematical modelling of population dynamics of Drosophila Melanogaster", a research project funded by the Department of Bio-technology, Govt. of India., in collaboration with IISER (Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research) Pune.
Other research areas in Data Communication include Automatic Classification of Periodic, Chaotic and Random Time Series Data using Lossless Compression Algorithms, and Chaotic Computing and Logic Design using Nonlinear Maps.
The Department currently executes wide range of research projects under the guidance of Dr. Bibhu Dutta Sahoo, Associate Professor in the dept. of ECE. The research topic "Development of Algorithms and Circuits for High-Speed Serial Links" aims at developing algorithms and circuits to enable 28 Gbps or 40 Gbps serial links. The circuits will be developed using 65-nm CMOS process. Fabrication will be done at UMC followed by testing to show a prototype as a proof-of-concept.
"Development of a non-linearity calibration technique for a VCO-based ADC" involves development of a non-linear calibration technique to realize both higher-order noise shaping as well as high-resolution. This technique will also be demonstrated by fabricating a chip in 65-nm process.
Yet another research topic, "Development of highly linear DACs using Digital Predistortion Techniques" aims at developing a 14-bit 1Gbps linear DAC. Digital Predistortion will be done to realize high linearity. The chip will be fabricated in 65-nm process.
The department also focuses on research areas in VLSI Logic Design and VLSI Signal Processing particularly high speed algorithm for Signal Processing.
EMBEDDED SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY
Most of the research work in this area in spearheaded by Mr. Rajesh Kannan, an Asst. Professor of the Department of ECE. The ongoing research in this area includes Embedded Control and Navigation, Robotics, Health Care, Real Time Systems, Wireless and Embedded Network Sensing Systems which includes various interdisciplinary areas associated with embedded systems.
A dedicated research lab is fully functioning in the department named HuT - ( Humanitarian Technology lab) mainly focusing on Health Care, Robotics, Human Aided Devices, and Embedded Sensor Networks. The focus areas of health care include Remote Patient Monitoring System and Pre-Patal Monitoring (also named PULSS) integrated with Wireless Transmission. Both these projects are funded by IEEE Standards Education Committee, NJ, USA.
An 'Elder-health-care' project named HOPE (Wireless gadget for Home Bound Elders) mainly concentrates on providing assistance to bed-ridden patients. Without annoying the patient, a wireless Gadget is provided to them which simultaneously collect different body parameters like Pulse rate, Oxygen content in the blood, Temperature, Blood pressure and ECG measurement. The gadget also measures 'tilt' (whether the patient is out of his correct position) using Accelerometer. The gadget incorporates a bluetooth enabled module and the data is wirelessly transmitted to a smart phone core having an Android Operating system. The data acquired is transmitted to a remote patient management server where a specialist diagnoses the status of the patient.
Another project is Pre-natal monitoring – an "Assistive Technology for Pregnant Women Health Care: Rural, Mobile Ultrasound Scan System". This system diagnoses the pregnant woman's health status in their home itself by clinicians and community health workers so that the people need not to travel. The device will be conducting Ultra Sound Scanning, collect the health parameters such as Pulse rate, Oxygen content in the blood, Temperature, Blood pressure etc. The gathered information is stored on a portable device and the workers deliver this to the nearby hospital where the specialist doctors can assess the present physical condition of the patient.
The Robotics projects conducted by the department include "Intelligent Home Navigation System (IHNS) for the elderly and the physically challenged" and "Robo-Coconut Climber". Both these projects are again funded by IEEE Foundation Inc., NJ, USA. In IHNS, the wheel Chair mobility will be controlled by the gestures of a person’s palm and finger movement. A sensor unit is fixed on the hand rest of chair. The system uses image processing technology to detect the hand movements and controls the wheel chair accordingly.
Robotic Coconut Tree Climber - In Kerala coconuts are grown in large scale and collecting the coconuts is becoming an increasingly tedious task and the labour cost is high, also the coconut tree climbers are very rare these days. In this scenario, the need is a robot which will do the job. The robot climbs the tree and plucks the coconuts; the robot is under the control of a person who in a convenient place from where he can control the robot action. The system consists of Robotic Arm, Ground station, the Robo climber and a wireless camera unit, the Kinect and the Zigbee wireless Kinect controller. The ground station captures the user's gesture via kinect and controls the Robotic arm to cut the coconuts using Zigbee wireless interface.
HUMANITARIAN AND TECHNOLOGY LABS
The dedicated Research lab, HuT Labs - ( Humanitarian and Technology Labs) mainly focusing on Health Care, Robotics, Human Aided Devices, and Embedded Sensor Networks is headed by Prof. Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, of the department, was established in 2012. Within a year of establishment, HuT Labs carried out significant research works with more than 10 research paper publications and quite national and international recognitions. Hut Labs also acknowledges the contribution of IEEE Foundation and IEEE SEC both in NJ, USA for their support to our research work...Learn More»
BOOK / JOURNAL
Rajeswari P, Devi S, Shekar G, Purushothaman A, “Geometric Programming based Power optimization and Design Automation for a Digitally Controlled Pulse Width Modulator”, Circuits, systems and Signal processing, Springer.
Purushothaman A, Chetan D. Parikh,” A Low Power Low Area Capacitor Array based Digital to Analog Converter Architecture”, Microelectronics Journal, Elsevier, Volume 46, Issue 10, Page No 928–934, October 2015
Purushothaman A, Chetan D. Parikh, “A New Delay Model and Geometric Programming based Design Automation for Latched Comparator”, Circuits, systems and Signal processing, Springer, Volume 34, Issue 9, Page No. 2749-276, September 2015.
Karthi Balasubramanian, Silpa S Nair, Nithin Nagaraj “Classification of periodic, chaotic and random sequences using approximate entropy and Lempel-Ziv complexity measures”, Pramana - Journal of Physics, Indian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 84, Issue 3, Page No.365–372, Feb. 2015.
Wei, P.Zhang, Bibhudatta Sahoo and B. Razavi, “An 8-Bit 4-GS/s 120-mW CMOS ADC” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits , Issue No. 99, Page No. 1-11, Impact Factor : 3.063 August 2014.
Sivaramakrishnan Ramesh, Shibesh Dutta, Balakrishnan Shankar & Sundar Gopalan, “Identification of current transport mechanism in Al2O3 thin films for memory applications”, Applied Nanoscience (2014), Page No.1-9, 1st March 2014.
V.Sarma and Bibhudatta Sahoo, “Error feedback based noise shaping in a double sampled ADC” Springer Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, Volume No. 78, Issue No. 2 Page No. 421-430, Feb 2014.
Nithin Nagaraj, Karthi Balasubramanian, Sutirth Dey, “A new complexity measure for time series analysis and classification”, European Physics Journal – Special Topics, 222, Page No.847-860, 2013.
- Nithin Nagaraj., When Information Meets Chaos:Applications of Symbolic Dynamics at Mini-Symposia on Time Series Analysis and Fractals, National Conference on Nonlinear Systems and Dynamics (NCNSD 2012), organized by IISER Pune, 14 July, 2012.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Mithun Muralidharan Nair, Rahul Srikumar, Venkat Krishnan Balasubramanian, Vineeth Sarma Venugopala Sarma, Chapter titled Novel Variance based Spatial Domain Watermarking and its Comparison with DIMA and DCT based Watermarking Counterparts, in the book, Applications of MATLAB in Science and Engineering, ISBN 978-953-307-708-6, Intech Open Access Publisher.
- Sahasranand K. R., Nithin Nagaraj.,Rajan S., How Not to Share a Set of Secrets, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), Vol. 8, No.1, Page No. pp. 234‐237, April 2010.
- Nithin Nagaraj., Prabhakar G Vaidya., Sajini Anand P. S. A Nonlinear Generalization of Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application to Mathematical Modeling and Chaotic Cryptanalysis, 2010 Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, Volume No. 112(2), Page No.205‐221, January 2010.
- Shibesh Dutta., Sivaramakrishnan R., Sundar Gopalan. and Balakrishnan Shankar. Electrical Characterization and Reliability Analysis of HfO2‐TiO2‐Al MOSCAPs’, WASET, Volume 58, ISSN 2070‐3724, Article 19, pg 92‐94, Venice, October 2009.
- Nithin Nagaraj, Prabhakar G. Vaidya, Multiplexing of Discrete Chaotic Signals in Presence of Noise, Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science 19, July 2009;
pp. 033102-1 -- 033102-9.
- Nithin Nagaraj, A Dynamical Systems Proof of Kraft-McMillan Inequality and its Converse for Prefix-Free Codes, Virtual Journal of Quantum Information, April 2009, 9 (4).
- Rajesh Kannan M., Arjun Ashok, Nived Krishnan, Venkat Krishnan B., Single Electronics, Single Electron Transistors and Digital Logic, International Journal of Scientific Computing, 2009, pp. 151-154.
- Nithin Nagaraj., A Dynamical Systems Proof of Kraft‐McMillan Inequality and its Converse for Prefix‐free Codes, An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, March 2009.
- Nithin Nagaraj., Prabhakar G Vaidya., Kishor G Bhat., Arithmetic coding as a non‐linear dynamical system, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 1013 ‐ 1020, April 2009.
- Diego James, Abhishek K., Purushothaman A., Bibhudatta Sahoo, “Mitigating Aperture Error in Pipelined ADCs Without a Front-end Sample-and-Hold Ampliﬁer”, 31st International conference on VLSI Design, 2018 (Best paper runner-up).
- Purushothaman A., “Analysis of Regeneration Time Constant of Dynamic Latch using Adomian Decomposition Method”, 20th International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test (VDAT), IIT Guwahati, India, May 24-27, 2016.
- A. Purushothaman, “MINLP Based Power Optimization for Pipelined ADC”, IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI(ISVLSI), Pittsburgh, USA, pp 508-511, July 2016.
- Neema C Babu; Sreedevi K Menon, “Design of a Open loop resonator based filter Antenn a for WiFi applications” 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), pp. 236 – 239, 2016.
- Jayakrishnan K C; Bhuvana Nair S; Sreedevi K. Menon, “Analysis of Metamaterial based band pass filter” 3rdInternational Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), pp. 232 – 235, 2016.
- Deepthy M Vijayan; Akhil M; Sreedevi K Menon, “Patch loaded CPW fed monopole antenna” 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), pp. 246– 249, 2016.
- Sheema Joseph; Rahul Lal P; Sreedevi K Menon, “Substrate integrated waveguide based antenna with bidirectional radiation for radar applications”, International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET), pp. 95 – 98, 2016.
- Jayakrishnan V M; Sreedevi K Menon, “Circular patch antenna based planar crossover” 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), pp. 250– 254, 2016.
- Jayakrishnan V M and Sreedevi K Menon, “ Realization of Butlermatrix for Beamforming in Phased Array System” IEEE International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications 2016 (ICACC-2016), Cochin, 6 - 8, September 2016.
- Shruthi A; Bhuvana Nair S; Sreedevi K. Menon “ACPW fed onchip band stop filter for filtenna applications” 2015 IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference (AEMC), pp. 1 – 2, 2015.
- Karthi Balasubramanian, Nithin Nagaraj “Automatic identification of devanagari script texts using complexity based measures”, Conference on Nonlinear Systems and Dynamics (CNSD), IISER Mohali, March 13th-15th, 2015.
- B. Sahoo, “Overview of Digital Calibration Techniques for Pipelined ADCs”, IEEE 57th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), Texas, USA”, 3rd – 6th Aug 2014.
- B. Sahoo, N. A. Jacob, V. Choudhury, ”A Multi-pole Single-tap IIR Based DFE Equalizer Topology”, IEEE 12th NEWCAS, Quebec, Canada, 22nd – 25th June 2014
- B.Sahoo, C. Ravi, R. Thottathil,” Histogram Based Deterministic Digital Background Calibration for Pipelined ADCs”, Proceedings 2014 13th International Conference on Embedded Systems, 2014, Page(s):569 – 574.
- Karthi Balasubramanian, Nithin Nagaraj, “Comparative Analysis of Lempel-Ziv and ETC Complexity Measures” , International Conference on Perspectives in Non-Linear Dynamics (PNLD 2013), Univ.of Hyderabad, July 15th-18th, 2013.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Ashish Pavan, Tom Charly, Harikrishna Menon, Anandkumar and Venu Madhav, Kinect Based Wireless Robotic Coconut Tree Climber, 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Electronics and Power Engineering (ICAEPE'2013),organized by PSRC (Planeteray scientific research centre) at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012), Jan 8 – 9,2013.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Athul Asokan Thulasi, Rithun Raj, Manoj Katta Venkata, Uday Dutt and Ajithesh Gupta, Thought Controlled Wheelchair using EEG Acquisition Device, 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Electronics and Power Engineering (ICAEPE'2013), organized by PSRC (Planeteray scientific research centre) at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Jan 8 – 9, 2013.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Goutham Pocklassery, Vivek Jayakrishnan, Rocky Katoch, Pranav Sridhara Veliyara and Raghavendra, Measurement of Elder Health Parameters and the Gadget Designs for Continuous Monitoring, 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Electronics and Power Engineering(ICAEPE'2013) Organized by IEEE kochi subsection ,IEEE kerala section & IEEE india council at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Jan 8 – 9, 2013.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam and Ananthakrishnan Rajendran., Undergraduate Research: A Case Study at ECE Department of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, INDICON 2012,organized by IEEE kochi subsection ,IEEE kerala section & IEEE india council at Kochi, Kerala, India, Dec 7 – 9, 2012.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Vineeth Radhakrishnan, Deepak M U, Denny C Jacob, HOPE: An electronic gadget for Home-bound Patients and Elders, INDICON 2012,organized by IEEE kochi subsection ,IEEE kerala section & IEEE india council at Kochi, Kerala, India, Dec 7 – 9, 2012.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Ananthakrishnan Rajendran., Dileep, D., LARN: Implementation of Automatic Navigation in Indoor Navigation for Physically Challenged, INDICON 2012, organized by IEEE kochi subsection, IEEE kerala section & IEEE india council, at Kochi, Kerala, India, Dec 7 – 9, 2012.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Goutham Pocklassery, Vivek Jayakrishnan, Galla Mourya, Elder Health Care: Blood Pressure Measurement, INDICON 2012,organized by IEEE kochi subsection ,IEEE kerala section & IEEE india council,at Kochi, Kerala, India, Dec 7 – 9, 2012.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Ramesh Nammily Nair, Sai Manoj Prakhya,, Mithun Mohan, Gest-BOT' - A Highly Convenient Locomotive Solution for the Elderly and Physically Challenged, Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC) at Seattle, Washington, USA Proceedings Published By: IEEE Xplorer, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/GHTC.2012.83, Publication Year: 2012, 21-24 October, 2012.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Lekshmi M Nair, Meera Viswanath, Shreeja Sugathan, Pedalite: Lighting up Lives in Unelectrified Villages, Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), at Seattle, Washington, USA Page No: 12 – 17 Published By: IEEE Xplorer, Digital object Identifier:10.1109/GHTC.2012.61 Publication Year: 2012, 21-24 October, 2012.
- Abishek Thekkeyil Kunnath AND Prasanth.M. Warrier, Channel Modelling for Ad-Hoc Communication in an Underground Sensor Network, ICCCNT 2012, organized by SNS college of enginnering Proceedings Published By:IEEE, JULY 26 - 28, 2012.
- Karthi Balasubramanian, Gayathri R.Prabhu, Lakshmipriya V.K., Maneesha Krishnan, Praveena R. and Nithin Nagaraj, Classification of Periodic, Chaotic and Random Sequences using NSRPS Complexity Measure, National Conference on Nonlinear Systems and Dynamics (NCNSD 2012), 12 - 15 July, 2012.
- Purushothaman A, Chetan D. Parikh, “Automating the design of Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converters”, Symposium on VLSI Design and Test, Chandigarh ,India, July 2011.
- Purushothaman A, Chetan D. Parikh, “Design of static latch based comparator using power constrained optimization”, Symposium on VLSI Design and Test, Pune,India, July 2010.
- Megalingam, R.K.; Sarma V, V.; Krishnan B, V.; Mithun, M.; Srikumar, R. “Novel Low Power, High Speed Hardware Implementation of 1D DCT/IDCT Using Xilinx FPGA.” International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, November 13‐15, 2009.
- Megalingam, R.K.; Krishnan B, V.; Mithun, M.; Srikumar, R.; Sarma V, V. “Gating and Serializing theData Path of CPU for Low Power Consumption.” ICPPW '09. International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops, Vienna, Austria, September 22-25, 2009.
- M. S. Sinith, V. Aiswarya,J. Devisree, Bincy Mathew, Neetika Singh, "Sign Language Recognition Tool Using Support Vector Machine", Proceedings of International Conference on Signal and Image Processing(ICSIP '09), Mysore, India, August 2009, pp. 345-348.
- Arbind B. S, Vineeth Menon, Vishnu Mohan Menon C., Ramesh Bhakthavatchalu, "Modified Density Weighted Contrast Enhancement Filter For Emphasizing Breast Masses in Digital Mammograms", International Conference on Signal and Image Processing 2009 (ICSIP2009), Mysore, India, August 8 10, 2009.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Shekhil Hassan T., Vivek P., Ashwin Mohan, Tanmay Rao M., "Power Consumption Reduction in CPU Data Path Using a Novel Clocking Scheme", ICCSIT 09, Beijing, China, August 8 11, 2009, Vol.2, pp. 524-528, IEEE Catalog Number : CFP0957E-PRT.
- Rajesh Kannan M., Nived Krishnan, Arjun Ashok V., Arunkumar M., "Highly Power Efficient, Uncompromised Performance Cache Design Using Dual-Edged Clock", ICCSIT 09, Beijing, China, August 8 11, 2009, Vol.2, pp. 533 537, IEEE Catalog Number : CFP0957E-PRT.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Deepu K. B., Iype P. Joseph, Vandana Vikram, "Phased Set Associative Cache Design For Reduced Power Consumption", ICCSIT 09, Beijing, China, August 8 11, 2009, Vol.2, pp. 546 550, IEEE Catalog Number : CFP0957E-PRT.
- Aswathy Prasad, Kamya Krishnan, Karthika, Parvathy, Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, "Low Power Lossless Compression Of Real Time MPEG-4 Video Encoding And Decoding Using VHDL And MATLAB", ICCSIT 09, Beijing, China, August 8-11, 2009, Vol.4, pp. 408 -411, IEEE Catalog Number : CFP0957E-PRT.
- Balasubramanian, Karthi, Arunkumar R., Jayachandran J., Jayapal, V., Chundatt, B. A., Freeman, J. D., "Object Recognition and Obstacle Avoidance Robot", Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC'09), Guilin, China , June 17-19 2009, pp. 3002 3006.
- Ramesh Bhakthavatchalu, Archana K. R., Aswathy Viswambharan, Deepthi K. K., Brinda B. S., "Design of Programmable Logic-BIST Structures Using Verilog for Digital VLSI Circuits", National Conference on Recent Trends in Communication and Signal Processing, (RTCSP'09), 2009.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Sandeep Radhakrishnan, Vevek Seetharaman, Nithin Sudhakaran, "A Dynamic Real Time Crypto Engine Implementation for Secure Channel Communication", Conference Proceedings of SIM 09, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India, May 11-12 , 2009, pp. 95- 98.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Venkat Krishnan B., Rahul Srikumar, Vineeth Sarma, Mithun M., "Power Saving Implementation of Data Path with Serialized Input", SCDC 09, RMK Engineering College, Chennai, India, April 5-6, 2009.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Vivek P., Shekhil Hassan T., Ashwin Mohan, Tanmay Rao M., "Performance Enhancement in Instruction Level Parallelism", SCDC 09, RMK Engineering College, Chennai, India, April 5-6, 2009.
- Rajesh Kannan Megalingam , Aswathy Prasad, Karthika, Kamya Krishnan, Parvathy, "Simple Implementation Technique for Highly Complex Real Time MPEG-4 Video Encoding and Decoding Using VHDL and MATLAB", SCDC 09, RMK Engineering College, Chennai, India, April 5-6, 2009.